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Bibliography Amencan Cancer Society. 1989. Cancer statistics, 1989. Cancer 39:3-20. Amencan College of Physicians. 1989. Personal communication win Linda Johnson White, March 1989. Amencan College of Radiology. 1989. Personal communications win Mike Many and Pam Cassing, October 19 and October 25, 1989. Amencan Council on Transplantation. 1989. U.S. Transplant Statistics Sheet. Alexandria, Virginia: Amencan Council on Transplantation. Amencan HeaIthcare Radiology A~ninistrators. 1987. Statistical survey. Sudbury, Massachusetts: American Heal~care Radiology A~nin~s~a- tore. Amencan Heart Association. 1989. 1989 Heart Facts. Dallas, Texas: American Heart Association. American Hospital Association. 1989. Meditrends. Chicago, Illinois: Amencan Hospital Association. American Medical Association. 1987. Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology, Fours Edition (CPT4~. Chicago, Illinois: Amencan Medi- cal Association. American Medical Association. 1988-1989. Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment (DATI A) program. Index of DA11A Evaluations 1988-1989. Chicago, Illinois: Amencan Medical Association. Andersson, I., K. Aspergren, L. Janzon, T. Landberg, K. Lindholm, F. Linell, O. L~jungberg, I. Ranstam, and B. Sigfusson. 1988. Mammogra- phic screening and mortality from breast cancer: The Malmo mammogra- phic screening trial. British Medical Joumal 297:943-948. 89

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go NATIONALASSESSME~ PRlORrTlES Amo, P. S., D. Shenson, N. F. Siegel, P. Franks, and P. R. Lee. 1989. Economic and policy implications of early intervention in HIV disease. loumal of He American Medical Association 262:1493-1498. Arthritis Foundation. 1989. Impact of Arteries Statistics Sheet. Atlanta, Georgia: Arthritis Foundation. Banta, H. D., C. I. Behney and I. Sisk. 1981. Toward a Rational Technol- ogy in Medicine: Considerations for Health Policy. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Baum, Stanley. 1989. Personal communication, November 8, 1989. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. 1989a. Personal communication with Lawrence C. Moms, March 27, 1989. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. 1989b. Personal communication with Lawrence C. Moms, Apn] 13, 1989. Brown, S. S., ed. 1988. Prenatal Care: Reaching Mowers, Reaching Infants. Brmitute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. HIV/AIDS Su~veiBance Report. December. Chass~n, M. R., R. H. Brook, R. E. Park, I. Keesy, A. Fink, I. Kosecoff, K. Kahn, N. Memck, and D. H. Solomon. 1986. Vanations in He use of medical and surgical services by He Medicare population. New England Journal of Medicine 314~5~:285-290. C3inton, I. I. 1989. The Department of Health and Human Services' Medical Treatment Effectiveness Program. Presentation at the AMUSE Research Symposium of He American Medical Review Research Center, Adanta, Georgia, November I, 1989. Cummings, S. R., I. Lo. Kelsey, M. C. Nevia, and K. I. O'Dowd. 1985. Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiologic Reviews 7:178-208.

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BIBldOGRAPHY 91 Dutton, J. A., and L. Crowe. 1988. SeDing pnondes among scientific initiatives. American Scientist 76:599-603. ECRI.1988. New equipment for 1989 capital budgets. Health Technology Trends 2(4): 130- 139. ECRI. 1989a. Diagnostic imaging equipment tops hospital spending pri- onties. Health Technology Trends 1(4): 1, 6. ECRI. 1989b. Anemia drug curbs transfusions. Heady Technology Trends 1~5):3. ECRI. 1989c. Implant recaU~do hospitals notify recipients? Health Technology Trends 1~5):7. ECRI. 1989d. Top ten surgical procedures in 1987. Heals Technology Trends 1(7):3. ECRI. 1989e. Technology opporamities for the l990s: A checklist for hospital strategic technology planning. HeaId, Technology Trends Sup- plement:l-11. Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania: ECRI. Eddy, D. M. 1989. Screening for breast cancer. Annals of Intemal Medi- cine 3:389-399. Eddy, D. M. In press. TAPSS: A technology assessment pnority-setting system. Intemational Joumal for Health Care Technology Assessment. Egdah1, R. H., and C. H., Taft 1986. Financial data incentives to physi- cians. New England Journal of Medicine 315:59-61. Eisenberg, I. M. and S. V. Williams. 1981. Cost containment and chang- ing physicians' practice behavior Can Me fox learn to guard Me chicken coop? Journal of the American Medical Association 246:2195-2201. Ellwood, P. M. 1988. Shattuck Lecture: Outcomes management, a tech- nology of patient expenence. New England Joumal of Medicine 318~23~:1549-1556.

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92 NATIONALASSESSMENT PRIORTTIES Eschbach, J. W., J. C. Egrie, ~ R. Downing, J. K Browne, and J. W. Adamson. 1987. Correction of Me anemia of end-stage renal disease with recombinant human e~poietin. New England Journal of Medicine 316(2):73-78. Eschbach, J. W., M. R. Kelly, N. R. Haley, R. I. Abels, and I. W. Adamson. 1989. Treannent of the anemia of progressive renal failure with recombinant human e~h~poietin. New England loumal of Medicine 321(3):158-163. Federal Register. January 23, 1989. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Federal Register. September 8, 1989. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govem- ment Printing Office. Fisher, B., C. Re~nond, N. V. Dimitrov, D. Bowman, S. Legault-Poisson, D. L. Wickerh~n, N. Wohnark, E. R. Fisher, R. Margolese, C. Su~er- land, A. Glass, R. Foster, R. Caplan, and others. 1989. A randomized clinical tnal evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estro- gen-receptor-negative tumors. New England journal of Medicine 320(~:473484. Fowler, F. I., I. E. Wennberg, R P. Timothy, M. I. Batty, A. G. MuBey, and D. H. Hanley. 1988. Symptom status and quality of life following prostatectomy. Journal of the American Medical Association 259~20~:301 8-3022. Frymoyer, J. W. 1988. Back pain and sciatica New England Journal of Medicine 318~5~:291-300. Gelijns, A. C. 1989. Technological Innovation: Comparing Development of Dmgs, Devices, and Procedures in Medicine. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Gilliland, B.C. 1987. Degenerative joint disease. Pp. 1456-1458 in Ha~ison's Principles of Internal Medicine (llth edition), E. Braunwald, K. I. Isselbacher, R. G. Pete~orf, I. D. Wilson, I. B. Martin, and A. S. Fauci, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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BIBUOGRAPHY 93 Goodman, C. S., ed. 1988. Medical Technology Assessment Directory. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Gould, J. B., B. Davey, and R. S. Stafford. 1989. Socioeconomic differ- ences in rates of cesarean section. New England Journal of Medicine 321(4):233-239. Goyert G. L., S. F. Bottoms, M. C. Treadweh, and P. C. Nehra. 1989. The physician factor in cesarean bird rates. New England Joumal of Medicine 320~] D:706-709. Grady, D. 1988. Going overboard on medical tests. Time April 25: 80-~. Hardey, R. M., M. A. Markowitz, and A. L. Komaroff. 1989. The expense of testing in a teaching hospital: The predominant role of high-cost tests. American Journal of Public Health 79~10~:1389-1391. Hanvood, H., D. M. Napolitano, P. L. Kristiansen, and I. I. Collins. 1984. Economic costs to society of alcohol and drug abuse and mental illness: 1980. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Research Tnangle Insd- tute. Heady Care Financing Administration. 1989a. Unpublished background information provided to He Institute of Medicine committee for the HCFA Effectiveness Initiative Clinical Workshop. Baltimore, Maryland: Health Care Financing Administration. Health Care Financing A~ninist~tion. 1989b. Data Compendium on Physicians and Other Non-hnstitutional Suppliers. Division of Infom~a- tion Analysis, Office of Statistics and Data Management, Bureau of Data Management and Strategy. Baltimore, Mar~rIand: Health Care Financing Administration (unpublished intemal document). Health Insurance Association of America. 1989. The cost of maternity care and childbirth in the U.S. Washington, D.C.: Health Insurance Asso- ciation of America. Helbing, C., and R. Keene. 1989a. Use and cost of physician and supplier services under Medicare, 1986. Health Care Financing Review 10~3~:109- 122.

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94 NATIONALASSESSME~ PRIORITIES Helbing, C. and R. Keene. 1989b. Use and cost of short-stay hospital inpatient services ureter Medicare, 1986. Health Care Financing Review 10(3~:93-109. HeUinger, F. I. 1988. National forecasts of the medical care costs of AIDS: 1988-1992. Inquiry 25:469484. Hewleu-Packard Company. 1989. Personal communication with Ben L. Holmes, Apn! 1, 1989. Hilfiker, D. 1989. Are we comfortable with homelessness? lownal of the American Medical Association 262~10~:1375-1376. Hughes, G. M. K., and R. Bans. 1987. Personal communication, March 18, 1987. Hyman, D. A., and J. V. Williamson. 1989. Fraud and abuse: Setting the limits on physicians' entrepreneurship. New England Joumal of Medicine 320(19): 1275- 1278. Institute for Health Care Policy Analysis, Georgetown University. 1989. Personal communication with Seymour Perry, March 28, 1989. Institute of Medicine. 1984. Research on Mental Illness and Addictive Disorders: Progress and Prospects. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1985a. Assessing Medical Technologies. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1985b. New Vaccine Development: Establishing Prionties. Diseases of Importance in Me United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1985c. Preventing Low Bir~weighr Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1987a. Council on Health Care Technology, 1986 and 1987. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 Institute of Medicine. 1987b. Pain and Disability. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1988. Homelessness, Health, and Human Needs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine. 1989. Effectiveness Initiative: Setting Priorities for Clinical Conditions. Report of a Study by a Committee of the Institute of Medicine to He AN strator of the Health Care Financing Administra- tion. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Jensen, G. F., C. Christiansen, I. Boesen, V. Hegedus, and I. Transb01. 1982. Epidemiology of posunenopausal spinal and long bone fractures: A unifying approach to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 166:75-81. Kamerow, D. B., H. A. Pincus, and D. I. Macdonald. 1986. Alcohol abuse, other drug abuse, and mental disorders in medical practice: Preva- lence, costs, recognition and treatment. Joumal of the American Medical Association 255~15~:2054-2057. Kaplan, E. B., B. Lewis, L. B. Sheiner, A. J. Bo~eckmann, M. J. Roizen, S. C. Beal, S. N. Cohen, and C. D. NicoU. 1985. The usefulness of preopera- tive laboratory screening. Journal of the American Medical Association 253:3567-35X1. Kelsey, I. L., A. A. White, and L. Pastides. 1979. The impact of muscu- loskeletal disorders on the population of He United States. Journal of Bone and Joint Surged 61:959-64. Knaus, W., E. Draper, and D. Wagner. 1989. Introduction. Pp. 5176 In Apache Ill study design: Analytic plan for evaluation of seventy and outcome. I. Zimmerman, ed. Critical Care Medicine 17 (2~. Part 2 supple- ment. Lara, M. E. 1989. Pnori~des for the assessment of clinical conditions and medical technologies. Paper presented (in Spanish) at He Fiat Meeting On Technology Assessment in Health Care of the Spanish Ministry of Heady and Consumer Affaim, Madnd, November 24, 1989.

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96 NATIONALASSESSAfENT PRlORlTIES Lara, M. E., and C. S. Goodman. 1989. Review of methods for sewing priorities for health care technology assessment. Paper presented at me Fifth Annual Meeting of the Intemational Society of Technology Assess- ment in Health Care, London, June 6, 1989. Beaming, D. V. 1988. Practice styles and preferences of ASCRS mem- ber~l987 survey. Journal of Cataract Refractory Surgery 14:552-559. Lockwood, C. I., and S. Weiner. 1986. Assessment of fetal growth. Clinics in Per~natology 13~1~:3-35. Lohr, K. N. 1988. Outcome measurement: concepts and questions. In- quiry 25:37-50. Lohr, K. N., and G. A. Mock, eds. 1989. Advances in the Assessment of Health Status: Overview and Report of a Conference. Institute of Medi- cine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Bohr, K. N., and R. A. Refflg, eds. 1987. Quality of Care and Technology Assessment: Report of a Forum of the Council on Health Care Technol- ogy. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Lundberg, G. D. 1983. Perseveration of laboratory test ordenng: A syn- drome affecting clinicians. oumal of He American Medical Association 249(5):639. Mansour, E. G., R. Gray, A. H. Shatila, C. K. Osbome, D. C. Tonney, K. W. Gilchrist, M. R. Cooper, and G. Fatkson. 1989. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk node-negative breast cancer. New England loumal of Medicine 320~:485490. Manano' L. A. 1989. Growth of the Medicare population. Health Care Financing Review 10~3~:123-124. Marx, I. L. 1989. Wider use of AIDS drugs advocated. Science 245~4920~:811. McGuigan, I. 1987. Peptic ulcer disease. Pp. 1239-1253 in Harrison's Principles of Intemal Medicine (1 Ith edition), E. Braunwaid, K. I. Issel- bacher, R. G. Petersdorf, . D. Wilson, I. B. Martin, and A. S. Fauci, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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BIBUOGRAPHY 97 McGuire, W. L. 1989. Adjuvant therapy of node-negative breast cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 320~:525-527. McMahon, L. F., R. A. Wolfe, and P. I. Tedeschi. 1989. Vanation in hospital admissions among small areas: A comparison of Maine and Michigan. Medical Care 27~6~:623-631. McPhee, M. S., and N. J. Greenberger. 1987. Diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts. Pp. 1358-1368 in Harnson's Principles of Intemal Medi- cine fifth edition), E. Braunwald, K. I. Isselbacher, R. G. Petersdorf, I. D. Wilson, I. B. Martin, and A. S. Fauci, eds. New Yori`: McGraw-Hill. McSherry, C. K. 1981. The national cooperative gallstone study report: A surgeon's perspective. Annals of Intemal Medicine 95:379-380. Metropolitan Life Insurance Program. 1989. Personal communication with Paul S. Enunacher, March 31, 1989. Mitchell, I., G. Wedig, and I. Cromwell. 1989. The Medicare physician fee freeze: What really happened? Health Affairs (Spring):21-33. MosteDer, F., and I. Falotico-Taylor, eds. 1989. Quality of Life and Technology Assessment: Monograph of the Council on Health Care Tech- nology. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Myers, I. K., M. M. Weissman, G. L. Tischier, C. E. Ho~zer III, Pe ]e Leaf, H. Orvaschel, I. C. Anthony, I. H. Boyd, I. D. Burke, M. Kramer, and R. Stoltzman. 1984. Six-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Tree communities: 1980-1982. Archives of General Psychiatry 41:959-967. Myers, M. H. and L. A. GIoeckler-Ries. 1989. Cancer patient survival rates: SEER program results for 10 years of follow-up. Cancer 39:21-33. National Advisor Eye Council. 1987. Pp. 202-203 in Vision Research: A National Plan. DHHS Pub. No. NIH 87-2755. Bethesda, Maryland: Na- tional Institutes of Health. National Association of Addiction Treaunent P~viders. 1987. Analysis of Treatment for Alcoholism and Drug Dependency. Irvine, California: National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers.

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98 NATIONALASSESSM~ PRIORIES National Center for Heady Services Research. 1988. Patient Outcome Assessment Research Program Extramural Assessment Teams. Program note. RockviBe, Maryland: National Center for Health Services Research. National Center for Heady Services Research. 1989. Office of Health Technology Assessment. Personal communication with Cheryl Austein, March 27, 1989. National Center for Health Statistics, I. G. Columns. 1988. Prevalance of selected chronic conditions, United States, 1983-85. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 155. DHHS Pub. No. PHS 88-1250. HyattsviBe, Maryland: Public Health Service. National Center for Health Statistics. 19X9a. Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces, and beams, United States' 1988. Monthly Vital Sta- tistics Report 37~13~:2. DHHS Publication No. PHS 89-1120. HyattsviBe, Maryland: Public Health Service. National Center for Health Statistics. 1989b. Health, United States, 1988. DHHS Pub. No. PHS 89-1232. HyattsviDe, Maryland: Public Heady Service. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 1989. Results of controlled clinical Dials of zidovudine In early HIV infection. AIDS Clinical Tnals Alert, August 24, 1989. National Institute of Mental Health. 1985. Depression: What we know. DHHS Pub. No. ADM 85-1318. Washington, D.C.: Deparunent of Heath and Human Services. National Statutes of Heath. 1984. Osteoporosis. Consensus develop- ment conference statement 5~3~. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institutes of Heals. National Osteoporosis Foundation 1989. Osteoporosis Fact Sheet. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Osteporosis Foundation. Office of Medical Applications of Research. 1988. Guidelines for He Selection and Management of Consensus Development Conferences. Washington, D.C.: National Institutes of Heady.

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BIBHOG~ 99 Office of Medical Applications of Research. 1989. Personal commun~ca- tion with I. H. Ferguson, March 27, 1989. Office of Technology Assessment. 1978. Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies. Washington, D.C.: Office of Technol- ogy Assessment. Office of Technology Assessment. 1980. The Implications of Cost-Effec- tiveness Analysis of Medical Technology. Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment. Office of Technology Assessment. 1984. Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Clinical Outcomes, Costs, and Decisionmaking. Washington, D.C.: Of- fice of Technology Assessment. Office of Technology Assessment. 1989. Personal communication win Roger Herdman, April 1989. Office of Technology Assessment. 1990. The effectiveness and cost of colorectal cancer screening in the elderly. Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment. Peterson, W. I. 1988. Gastrointestinalhemorrhage. Pp. 796-800 in Cecil's Textbook of Medicine (~ edition). I. Wyngaarden and L.H. Smith, eds. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Pfizer, Inc. 1989. Personal communication with G. M. K. Hughes, Apn] 17, 1989. Phelps, C. E., and S. T. Parente. 1989. Prionty setting in medical technol- ogy and medical practice assessment. Public Policy Analysis Program Working Paper No. 8806. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester. Project HOPE. 1988. Estimating He Impact of Scientific and Technolog~- cal Advances on Increases in Medicare Costs per Case for FY 1989: Implications for Discretionary Adjustment Factor for FY 1989. Final report prepamd for the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission. Chevy Chase, Maryland: Project HOPE.

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100 NAT70NALASSESSMENT PRlORlTIES Public Health Service. 1988. Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and Control Conference. Report of the Workshop on Epidemiology and Surveillance. Public Health Reports 103(SI):10-18. Regier, D. A., J. H. Boyd, I. D. Burke, D. S. Rae, I. K. Myers, M. Kramer, L. N. Robins, L. K. George, M. Kamo, and B. Z. Locke. 1988. One-mon~ prevalence of mental disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:977-986. Relman, A. S. 1980. Intensive care units. Who needs them? New England loumal of Medicine 302~17~:965. Relman, A. S. 1985. Dealing with conflicts of interest. New England loumal of Medicine 3 13 :749-75 ~ . Relunan, A. S. 1988. Assessment and accountability: The third revolution in medical care. New England Journal of Medicine 319~18~:1220-1222. Reirnan, A. S. 1989. Adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. New England loumal of Medicine 320~:525. Roizen, M. I. 1989. Personal communication, November 17, 1989. Roos, N. P., I. E. Wennberg, and K. McPherson. 1988. Using diagnosis- related groups for studying var~abons in hospice admissions. Heals Care Financing Review 9~4~:53-61. Roos, N. P., I. E. Wennberg, D. I. Malenka, E. S. Fisher, K. McPherson, T. F. Andersen, M. M. Cohen, and E. Ramsey. 1989. Mortality and reoperation after open and transurethral resection of He prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia. New England Journal of Medicine 320(17):1120-1124. Roper, W. L., W. Winkenwerder, G. M. Hackbar~, and H. Krakauer. 1988. Effectiveness in health care: An initiative to evaluate and improve medical practice. New England Joumal of Medicine 319~18~: 1197-1202. Ruder, M., and C. BlacL 1987. Medicare use of short stay hospital service by enrollees with cataracts, 1984. Heath Care Financing Review 9:91-99.

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BIBLlOGRAPlIY 101 Rutkow, I. M. 1986. Obstetric and gynecolog~c operations in He United States, 1979 to 1984. Obstetrics and Gynecology 67~61:755-759. Sagalowsky, A. I., and I. D. Wilson. 1987. Hype~plasia atop carcinoma of the prostate. Pp. 1582-1585 in Harrison's Principles of Intemal Medicine (llth edidon), E. Braunwald, K. I. Isselbacher, R. G. Petersdorf, J. D. Wilson, I. B. Martin, and A. S. Fauci, eds. New Yoric: McGraw-HiU. Scitovsky, A. A. 1989. Personal communication, August 1989. Scitovsky, A. A., and D. P. Rice. 1987. Estimates of the direct and indirect costs of acquired ~mmunodeficiency syndrome in the United States. Public Health Reports 102~:5-17. Shapiro, S., M. C. McCormick, B. H. Starfield, I. P. Krischer, and D. Bross. 1980. Relevance of correlator of infant deaths for significant morbidity at one year of age. American Joumal of Obstetrics and Gyne- cology 136:363-373. Sisk, J. E. 1987. The costs of AIDS: A review of the estimates. Health Affairs 6~21:5-21. Snook, S. H. and R. C. Jensen. 1984. Cost. Pp. 115-121 in Occupational Low Back Pain, M. H. Pope, I. W. Frymoyer, and G. Andersson, eds. New York: Praeger. Sox, H., S. Stem, D. Owens, and H. L. Abrams. 1989. Assessment of Diagnostic Technology in Health Care: Rationale, Me~ods, Problems, and Directions. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- emy Press. Squire, R. A. 1981. Ranking animal carcinogens: A proposed regulatory approach. Science 214:877-880. Stark, W. I., M. C. Leske, D. M. Worsen, and G. C. Murray. 1983. Trends in cataract surgery and intraocular lenses In He U.S. Amencan Joumal of Ophthalmology 96~3~:304-310. Staric, W. I., A. Sommer, and R. E. Smith. 1989. Changing trends in in~aoculariens implantation. Archives of Ophthalmology 107:1441-1444.

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102 NATIONAL ASSESSMENT PRIORITIES Svensson, H. O., and G. B. Andersson. 1982. Low back pain in 40 to 47 year old men: I. Frequency of occurrence and impact on medical services. Scandinavian Joumal of Rehabilitation Medicine 14:47-53. Travers, E. 1989. Personal communication, August 1989. United Network for Organ Sharing. 1988. In Amencan Council on Trans- plantation U.S. Transplant Statistics Sheet. Alexandria, Virginia: Amen- can Council on Transplantation. United Network for Organ Sharing. 1989. In Amencan Council on Trans- plantation U.S. Transplant Statistics Sheet. Alexandria, Virginia: Amen- can Council on Transplantation. U.S. Congress, House. 1989. Tide OX Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. H9360-9366. November 2l, 1989. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 1989. Guide ~ clinical preventive services: An assessment of He effectiveness of 169 interventions. Bald- more, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins. Weinstein, M. C., and W. B. Statson. 1977. Foundations for cost-effec- dveness analysis for heady and medical practices. New England loumal of Medicine 296:716-721. Wennberg, I. E. 1984. Dealing wad medical practice var~abons: A pro- posal for action. Heath Affairs 3:6-32. Wennberg, I. E. 1986. Which rate is right? New England Joumal of Medicine 314(5):31~311. Weinberg, I. E. l9g0. What is outcomes research? In Modern Methods of Clinical Investigation, Volume I, A. C. Gelijns, ed. Senes: Medical Inno- vation at He Crossroads. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy Press. Wennberg, I. E., A. G. Mulley, D. Hanley, R. P. Timothy, F. I. Fowler, N. Roos, M. I. Barry, K. McPherson, E. R. Greenberg, D. Soule, T. Bubolz, E. Fisher, and D. Maler~ca. 1988. An assessment of prostatectomy for benign unnails tract obstnlction: Geographic variations and He evaluation

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 103 of medical care outcomes. loumal of the American Medical Association 259:3027-3030. Wennberg, I. E., I. L. Freeman, R. M. Shelton, and T. A. Bubonic. 1989. Hospital use and morality among Medicare beneficiaries in Boston and New Haven. New England Joumal of Medicine 321:1168-1173. West, L. I., D. S. Maxwell, E. P. Noble, and D. H. Solomon. 1984. Alcoholism. Annals of Internal Medicine 100~3~:405-416. Winkenwerder, W., A. R. Kessler, and R. M. Stolec. 1989. Federal spend- ing for illness caused by the human ~mmunodeficiency virus. New Eng- land loumal of Medicine 320~24~:1598-1603. Young, F. E. 1989. Press conference statement, June I. Washington, D.C.: Food and Drug Administration.

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