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Index Administrators, 4, 40, 70, 74, 75, 83, 85 Advanced-placement biology, 83-87, 101 Agriculture, 80 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 101 American College Testing Program (ACT), 46, 79 American Institute of Biological Sciences, 94 American Society of Zoologists, 101 Assessment Performance Unit in the United Kingdom, 46 "Back to basics," 25, 26 Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, 91 Beginning Educator Support and Training, 68 Biochemistry, 58, 108 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), 31, 33, 36, 70, 94-95, 101 Biotechnology, 80, 88 Board (Commission) on Science Education, 103 Bronx High School of Science, 91 Brooklyn Technical High School, 91 California Assessment Program (CAP), 16 California State Department of Education, 16 "Capstone" course, 88-90 Career decisions, 7 147 Carnegie Corporation, 62, 137-138 Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 9, 17, 57 Carnegie-Stanford human life science curriculum, 19 Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, 56, 57, 76 Cell and molecular biology, 10, 21, 22-23, 29, 30, 31, 58, 87, 108 Cell in Development and Inheritance, 31 Centers for science and technology, 93 Certification of Teachers, 16, 18, 53, 54, 56, 59-63, 83, 87, 109 Chemistry, 2, 81, 82, 87, 88 Chromosomes, 22, 23 Classes and classrooms, 37, 38, 49 departmentalized, 15 field training, 54 laboratory facilities, 40 open, 25 self-contained, 15 societal problems in, 50 Classification, 10, 24 College Entrance Examination Board, 83-84 Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, 94 Committee on Policy for Racial Justice, 78 Community colleges, 80

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148 Comparative anatomy, 10 Computers, see under Educational materials Conceptual processes, 16, 28, 41, 82, 105 Congressional Research Service, 65 Connecticut Continuum, 62, 63 Conspiracy of Good Intentions, A, 30 Continuing education units, 64 Creationism, 11 Credit renewal units, 64 Criterion-referenced tests, 42, 43, 44 Curricula, 1, 2, 73, 76, 97, 108 advanced-placement, 83-87, 101 attitudes of students toward, 10-11 barriers to change, 20 "capstone," 88-90 Carnegie-Stanford human life-science, 19 cell and molecular biology, 22-23 college-preparatory, 90 course structure, 19-20 development and reproduction, 21-22 diversity, 91-92 ecology, 24-25 energy and metabolism, 22 examples of, 21-25 evaluation of, 3, 48, 107 evolution, 23-24 field studies, 37 fundamental concepts in, 10-11, 25-26 functional perspective, 23 for gifted students, 112 goals for, 3, 8, 9, 13-26 guides, 42 impediments to change, 27-52, 53-71 integration of biology and other sciences, 81-83 laboratory exercises, 30, 38 life-science, 7, 8, 9, 18, 19, 20 materials, 14 models, 19, 20, 89-90, 101 multidisciplinary approach, 81-83, 101 natural history, 14-15 for non-science students, 3 - reform, 16, 93, 94-95, 103, 104, 105, 114 residential schools, 92-93 scope of change, 25-26 standards for, 100 teacher training, 53-59, 65 "teach to the test," 15-16 tests and testing, 44, 94 INDEX see also Elementary school; Middle school; Students; Teachers and teaching; Tests and testing Cytogenetics, 28 Data analysis, 87, 89 Demography, see Minority groups; Population factors and studies; Sex Issues Department of Education Title II award, 69 Desegregation, see Minority groups Developmental biology, 58 Development and reproduction, 21-22 DNA, 28, 29 Ecology, 5, 21, 24-25, 29, 58, 80, 87, 88, 108 Economic factors, 4, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 66, 90, 94-95, 96-98, 106, 110 advanced-placement courses, 83, 87 "capstone" courses, 89 cost-effectiveness, 49 federal funding, 96-97, 98 fellowships, 76, 77, 111-12 foundations, 78, 90, 97, 112 grants, 69, 73 magnet schools, 92 and the NRC, 99, 100 reform, 51, 114 salaries, 50, 52, 64, 65, 67, 70, 76, 79 sponsorship, 71 in tests and testing, 47 Ecosystems, see Ecology Educational Development Center, Newton, Massachusetts, 14 Educational disciplines, see Multidisciplinary approach Educational leadership, 95, 102-103, 110, 113-114 Educational materials, 37, 93, 98, 101 animals, 14 booklets, 34, 47 for"capstone" courses, 89 computers and software, 34, 40, 47, 89 evaluation of, 99 laboratory, 35, 38, 39, 40, 48, 75 modular, 8, 14 video tapes, 34, 39, 47 for women and minority groups, 79-80 Educational objectives, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13-14, 38

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INDEX academic excellence, 50 biology as experimental subject, 30 "capstone" courses, 88-90 curricula reform, 94-95 development and research, 39 development of positive attitudes, 6, 7 elementary school, 13-17 exploration and observation, 13-14, 15, 16 general goals, 72-73 integration of science and society, 88-89 magnet schools, 91-92, 93 quality of tests and testing, 45 recruitment of teachers, 72-80 residential schools, 92-93 role of the scientific community, 98-101 role of universities and university scientists, 73-76 tests and testing, 45, 46, 47, 48, 107 for women and minority groups, 79-80 Educational Testing Service, 46, 60, 61 Education Commission of the States, 41 Education Development Center, 101 Electron micrographs, 32 Elementary school, biology education in, 5-7, 13-18 Energy and metabolism, 22 Engineers, 77 Environmental issues, 5, 88, 104; see also Ecology Enzymes, 22 Evolution, 21, 23-24, 28, 29, 58, 87, 108 Examinations, see Tests and testing Experimental biology, 29 Faculties, science in colleges and universities, 12, 73-76, 97, 99 teacher training, 58 Families Study Center, 19 Fellowships, 76, 77, 111-112 Field studies, 14-15, 18, 24, Finance, see Economic factors Ford Foundation, 139 Fossil fuels, 88 Foundations, 78, 90, 97 General Accounting Office, 65 Genetics, 10, 27, 28, 29, 58, 108 Goals, see Educational objectives Grade-point average, 61 Grants, 69, 73, 90 149 Guidance counselors, 80 Holmes Group, 55, 56, 57, 67, 76 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 138-139 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, 92 Illustrations, 28-29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 106 Inservice education, see under Teachers and teaching Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, 39 Instructional materials, see Educational materials Instructional procedures in advanced-placement courses, 83-87 laboratory, 38 Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), 40 Krebs cycle, 22 Laboratories, classroom, 73, 74, 95, 104 for advanced placement courses, 83, 84, 85 effect on achievement, 44 45 facilities, 49 failures of instruction in, 36-37 field studies, 14, 18, 35, 40, 85, 95, 106 importance of, 34-36, 38-40 materials, 35, 38, 48 tests and testing, 44, 45, 46 use of animals, 14, 39 Laboratories, research, 90 Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif., 14 Leadership, see Educational leadership Learning processes, 6, 7 Litigation, 40 Longitudinal Study of American Youth, 10-11 Magnet schools, 91-93, 113 Mathematics, 14, 87, 90, 108 Meiosis, 22, 29 Mentors, 63~4, 66, 67-69, 71, 109, 142-143 Middle school, biology education, 3, 7-9, 18-20

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150 Minority groups, 3, 8, 56, 59, 76, 77, 78-80, 91, 92, 137-139 as science teachers, 59, 112, 114 Mitochondria, 22 Mitosis, 23 Models, 4, 39, 70, 75 advanced-placement courses, 85, 87 classroom, 15 continuing education of teachers, 67, 89-90, 100, 110 curricula, 19, 20, 101 instructional, 38 laboratory, 106-107 multidisciplinary approach, 101, 113 tests and testing, 46 Modules, 90 Molecular Biology of the Gene, 31 Morphological terms, 23 Multidisciplinary approach, 18, 81-83, 88, 89, 109, 114 elementary school, 13, 17 integrated science curricula, 101 Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books, The, 13 Nation at Risk, A, 94 National Academy of Sciences, 41 achieving national goals, 98-99, 103 and leadership, 113 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 10, 40-41, 77-78 National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 65 National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) 38, 44, 47, 54, 60, 75 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 56, 57, 62, 67, 68 National Center for Research on Teacher Education (NCRTE), 53, 56 National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1, 91 National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics, Science and Technology, 92 National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), 60 National Governors' Association, 59, 97 National Institutes of Health, 73 National Research Council (NRC), 1, 43, 44 achieving national goals, 98-101, 103 and leadership, 113 INDEX National Science Foundation (NSF), 8, 9, 64, 65, 69, 70, 73, 94, 95, 96, 139 Curriculum Improvement Program, 9 Directorate for Science and Engineering Education, 66, 139 National Sciences Resource Center (NSRC), 14, 38 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 19, 38, 47, 54, 60, 62, 68, 101 Scope, Sequence and Coordination project, 82-83 National Teacher Examination, 60, 61, 63, 76 Nation at Risk, A, 1, 91, 94 Nature of the Chemical Bond, The, 31 New Jersey State Department of Education, 61-62 Norm-referenced tests, 42, 44, 48 North Carolina School for Science and Mathematics, 92-93 Nuclear energy, 88 Numeracy, 5 Parents, 49, 80, 85, 91, 96, 97, 101, 112, 114 Pedagogy, 3, 11, 51, 54, 56, 57, 58, 61, 65, 69, 100, 114 new techniques in, 108 processes, 78 skills, 71 techniques, 70 Philadelphia Central High School, 91 Photosynthesis, 22, 37 Physicians, recruitment of, 72-80, 111-112 Physics, 2, 81, 82, 87, 88 Physiology, 87 Piaget, 35 Pilot programs, 90, 100 Pollution, 88, 104; see also Ecology Preservice education, see under Teachers and teaching Principals, 38, 56 Provisional Teacher Program, 61, 62, 63 Publishers, 4, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 47, 94, 95, 100, 106 Reform, educational, 3, 6, 16, 25, 93, 94-101, 103, 104, 105, 114 administrative practices, 51 advanced-placement biology, 86-87 attracting women and minorities, 78-80

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INDEX conceptual changes, 37 continuing education and certification of teachers, 83, 110, 111-112 curricula, 16, 19, 20, 81-83, 93, 114 inservice programs, 66-67 laboratory activity, 37 obstacles to, 95, 102, 107-108 teacher training, 31, 55-59, 64-66, 70 tests and testing, 32, 43-49, 107 textbook writing, 31, 95, 106 Religious influences on teacher training, 59 on textbooks, 27 Research, 73, 75, 80, 87 Residential schools, 90-91 Respiration, 37 RNA synthesis, 23 Sabbaticals, 77 Salaries, see under Economic factors School districts, 38, 39, 40, 45, 50, 71 School reorganization, 7 Schools, specialized, 90-93 Science as a Way of Knowing, 101 Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 16 Science for Children, 14 Science Framework and Addendum, 16 Science schools and centers, 90-93, 113 Science-Technology-Society (STS), 19, 54, 88 Scientific American, 31 Scientific literacy, 2, 5, 6, 82 Scientific reasoning, 10, 87 Scientists, recruitment of, 72-80, 111-112 Scope, Sequence and Coordination project, 19, 101 Segregation, see Minority groups Sex issues, 28, 78-80 Social factors, 8, 27, 88, 101, 104 Standardized tests, see Tests and testing Stanford's Program in Human Biology, 19 Stanford University, 19, 62, 63, 101 State-level actions, 17-18, 32, 48 Students, 26 academic achievement, 29, 45, 51, 65 advanced-placement courses, 83-87 attitudes, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10-11, 12, 16, 17, 27-28, 41, 45, 46, 72, 73, 77 behavior, 37 "capstone" courses, 89 151 college bound, 95 diversity among, 3, 91-92, 114 ecological perspective, 24-25 and evolution theory, 23, 24 field and laboratory activities, 14, 15, 24-25, 34 40 gifted, 76, 90, 91, 112 incentives, 84 intellectual development, 35 magnet schools, 113 and mentors, 93 minority groups, 78-80, 101, 111 motivation, 18 need to explore, 15 performance, 40-41, 48, 107 perspectives on life-science courses, 9 population studies, 77, 78 science careers, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 social and psychological pressures, 8 study habits, 44 see also Curricula; Elementary school; Middle school; Teachers and teaching; Tests and testing Stuyvesant High School, 91 Syllabi, 20, 89; see also Curricula Systematics, 24, 29 Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, 78 Teacher Assessment Project, 62, 63 Teacher Education Council of State Colleges and Universities, 56 Teachers and teaching, 1, 4, 7, 26, 34 advanced-placement courses, 83, 84 assessment of, 61, 107 attitudes, 9, 11-12, 19 "capstone" courses, 88, 89 CEUs and CRUs, 64 continuing education and training, 3, 11, 12, 16-17, 18, 20, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 45, 48, 53-71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79-80, 83, 87, 89-90, 93, 95-101, 103, 106, 107, 108-109, 110-111, 114 criterion-referenced, 42-43, 44 fellowships and grants, 69, 76-77, 143 fundamental concepts, 10-11, 25 inservice education, 18, 6~71, 141-142 laboratory activities, 36-40 licensing and certification, 15, 18, 53, 54, 56, 59-64, 83, 87, 109

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152 mentors, 63~4, 66, 67-69, 71, 109, 142-143 minority groups, 56, 78-80, 111, 137-139 NABT, 38, 44, 47, S4, 60, 75 NCATE, 60 nonprofessional burdens, 49, 50 norm-referenced, 42-43, 44 NSTA, 19, 47, 54, 60, 62, 68, 101 pedagogical techniques, 56, 67 perspectives on life-science courses, 9 preservice education, 18, 53-59 recruitment, 3, 72-80, 104, 111-112 research opportunities, 75 salaries, 50, 52, 64, 65, 67, 70, 76, 79 as science specialists, 16-17 Scope, Sequence and Coordination project, 19 sex issues, 77 shortages, 60 stipends, 65 student evaluation, 45 student teaching, 55, 59 textbook evaluation, 11-12, 31, 32, 33, 95, 106 ACT, 46, 79 advanced-placement, 83-87, 101 criterion-referenced, 42, 43, 44 development and field-testing of, 45-46, 47 educational impact of, 43~5 educational materials, 20, 47 evaluation of, 45, 47, 114 grade-level readability, 31, 32, 33 grade-point average, 61, 76 LEA, 40 for laboratory and field work, 38-39, 106 multiple choice, 41, 43, 44, 45 NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination, 47 NAEP, 10, 40~1, 77-78 national and state, 101 National Teacher Examination, 63, 76 norm-referenced, 42, 44, 48 reform, 32, 43~9, 107 Scholastic Aptitude Test, 79 INDEX standardized, 3, 41-43, 44, 45, 103, 104 student performance and, 40-41 teachers and, 43, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 114 textbooks and, 33, 97 Textbooks, 3, 4, 19, 26, 101 for advanced-placement, 83, 85 biological concepts and principles in, 33 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 31, 94-95 evaluation of, 27, 28, 29, 33, 99, 106 evolved by teachers, 58 factors affecting the development of, 30-34 future of, 32 generation of, 30, 31, 32, 33, 58 illustrations, 28-29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 106 influence on tests, 97 investigative, 36 for life-science courses, 9 present status of, 11-12, 27-30 reform, 31, 95, 106 review by scientists, 33, 106 social and religious values in, 30 standards for, 100, 114 surveys, 31 unions, 64 Textbooks, specific university, 26 Cell in Development and Inheritance, 31 see also Curricula; Students; Tests and Molecular Biology of the Gene, 31 testing Nature of the Chemical Bond, 31 Technicians, recruitment of, 72-80, 111-112 Transportation, 14 Tests and testing, 1, 4, 19-20, 26, 30, 40-48 achievement, 15-16, 18, 29, 65, 105 Unions, 64, 97, 98 Universities, 12, 73-76, 97, 99 Wildlife management, 80 Women, 77, 78-80, 112, 114, 137-139