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Appendix H Annotated Chronological List of Educational Efforts on TEDs for Fishermen by Sea Grant 1981 Texas Sea Grant Looking to improve TEDs aluminum, fiberglass, collapsible review methods to improve finfish separation (Martin, 1986) 1982 1984 Texas Shrimp Association (USDOC/NMFS, 1983) Supported construction and distribution of 200 TEDs Coordinated demonstration of prototype NMFS TED. Alabama Sea Grant January Bayou La Batre TED workshop (Wallace and Hosking, 1984) Summerdale- TED workshop NMFS underwater file of TED in action, slide presentation of exclusion of finfish, 2 TEDs on display (Wallace and Hosking, 1984) Compiled by Nancy Balcom and William DuPaul, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, and College of William and Mary. 224

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225 Appends H North Carolina Sea Grant Stepped up efforts to educate fishermen (daily news item, conducted workshops at ports and shrimp houses (about 8) (pers. comm., Bahen, 1989) 1985 Alabama Sea Grant July 6 August Texas Sea Grant Two TEDs to fishermen in Lafitte, LA, who had two more built (Wallace and Hosking, 1985a) Four TEDs placed on Alabama shrimp boats heading for IX to test reduction of by-catch (Wallace and Hosking, 1985a) Six TEDs being constructed and available for local fisher- men (Wallace and Hosking, 1985b) Looking for fishermen to test TEDs sized for 25 inch trawl against standard nets with NMFS and SO observers (Wallace and Hosking, 1985b) Demonstrated NMFS TEDs on four Texas vessels 1986 Alabama Sea Grant Georgia Sea Grant August Reported on Georgia Bulldog cruise to test four TED types (Georgia, Matagorda, Cameron, NMFS) (Wallace and Hosking, 1986) Conducted comparative tests on 4 TEDs in Cape Canaveral Channel, Florida-NMFS, Georgia, Cameron, Texas TEDs (Christian, 1986; Georgia Bulldog, 1986) Georgia Department of Natural Resources received $80,000 from Office of Energy Resources to purchase 221 TEDs to equip 110 shrimp boats with a pair each-87 pairs picked up by randomly selected boats (Anon., 1988a)

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226 Decline of the Sea Turtles Texas Sea Grant Summer Testing 20 TED designs inshore and 10 gulf boats will test another 20 offshore (Martin, 1986) 1987 Florida Sea Grant Holding meetings and workshops for fishermen, travailed to all major Florida port areas on Atlantic and in Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate types of TEDs, explain regulations, and advise fishermen on devices they cur- rently use aboard their trawlers (Marine Log, 1988) Georgia Sea Grant March Department of Natural Resources' second contract with Office of Energy Resources yielded $155,000, enough to provide remainder of Georgia's shrimp fleet with excep tion of violators (Anon., 19871. Of 248/270 boats who responded, 92% chose Georgia lumper, 8% chose Morri son Soft TED, <1% chose Matagorda (Anon., 1988a) October Tested and submitted Parish TED for certification; Lettich TED failed; a Georgia and a Texas fisherman invited along on cruise (Anon., 1987; Christian and Harrington, 1987) Brunswick-CES Fish and Wildlife Training Session (13 attended) (Anon., 1987) ASMFC TED Seminar (professional meeting) ii5 attend ed (Anon., 1987) Workshops covering the installation and operation of the Morrison Soft TED were presented in 6 Florida ports by Marine Extension staff (Anon., 19871. November Key West soft TED workshop (14 attended) Through February 1988-remaining 23 pairs of TEDs dis- tributed on first-come, first-served basis (Anon., 1988a) December Ft. Myers soft TED workshop (8 attended) St. Petersburg-soft TED workshop (11 attended) Apalachicola-soft TED workshop (13 attended) New Smyrna soft TED workshop (13 attended) Fernandina Beach soft TED workshop (23 attended)

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227 Appendix H Louisiana Sea Grant Center for Wetland Resources (Condrey and Day, 1987) January Through October-contracted services for three fisher- men to conduct surveys of soft TEDs (had difficulty in locating individuals knowledgeable about TEDs, willing to come to Louisiana and share technology, considerable difficulty in locating and purchasing TED models from manufacturers) Wanted to introduce TEDs to leading fishermen using individuals with first-hand knowledge; used series of contracts with fishermen to assist in general evaluation of the shrimp and bycatch retention patterns of various TEDs, and participate in series of workshops; enlisted SG Legal Program to address legal issues of NMFS mandate with fishermen Four-state area SG- Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama involved in recruiting fishermen, conducting workshops on Morrison soft TED (reviewed legal issues, Endangered Species Act, NMFS congressional mandate), and demonstrating Georgia jumper; SG workshops held on sewing in new Morrison soft TED Most significant problem: limited expertise in gulf on TED technology, making technology transfer difficult (relied upon private sector for assis- tance) Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium TED workshops for net shops, fleet owners, and supply house opera- tors floor samples of all certified TEDs; two TED designers available for questions; captains available who had used TEDs for shrimping; NMFS personnel to explain regulations sponsored by SG Extension Service and Southeastern Fisheries Association (Force Five, 1987; Wallace and Hosking, 1988) February Gulfport, Mississippi Biloxi, Mississippi NMFS Pascagoula Lab Bayou La Batre, Alabama (Wallace and Hosking, 1988) Bon Secour, Alabama (Wallace and Hosking, 1988) North Carolina Sea Grant March Sneads Ferry Net and supply shop workshop (Bahen,

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228 Decline of the Sea Turtles 1987a); discussed TED regulations and history of TEDs; covered Georgia Jumper, Hybrid, Stan-Mar, and NMFS TEDs construction and installation TEDs Fisherman's Forum (Bahen, 1987b) Morehead City-NMFS public hearing (100 attended) (Bahen, 1987b) Series of four workshops (travelling TED shows) held (Bahen, pers. comm., 1989; Bahen, 1987) April May July August Beaufort, Bayboro, Wanchese, Varnamtown Delivered TEDs to two fishermen (Bahen, 1987b) Slide show on TEDs to Lion's Club (Bahen, 1987b) Delivered one TED to fisherman (Bahen, 1987b) TED program New Hanover County museum (Bahen, 1987b) Met with NC SO communicators to outline plans for resuscitation poster to be published (Bahen, 1987b) Coordinated TED work at a Southeast Marine Advisory Network meeting (Bahen, 1987b) Delivered two TEDs to fishermen (Bahen, 1987b) Delivered TEDs to fishermen (Bahen, 1987b) Participated in George's TED evaluation and testing of the soft TED (Bahen, 1987b) Delivered 12 TEDs to fishermen (Bahen, 1987b) Began testing Morrison Soft TED and the Parrish Shooter Soft TED (Bahen, 1987b) Visited various fish houses to assess shrimp situations and give interested fishermen update on TED regula- tions; tried to demonstrate TED/discuss TED, try to get fishermen to try them (both accepted and asked to leave docks); selling point was elimination of small fish, crabs, jellyballs (Hart, 1987; Bahen, 1987b) Working with net makers S. Parrish to redesign TED as a soft TED (Hart, 1987)

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229 Appends H Slide presentation to New Hanover County's Sierra Club (Bahen, 1987b) 1-day trip to run final test on Parrish TED before Cape Canaveral trip (Bahen, 1987b) Demonstration on TED devices during SG site review (Bahen, 1987b) Delivered Parrish TED to fishermen involved in finfish reduction project in Pamlico Sound (Bahen, 1987b) November Began planning for 1988 TED Purchase Project with DMF staff (Bahen, 1987b) South Carolina Sea Grant Texas Sea Grant 1988 Florida Sea Grant Summer Georgia Sea Grant Displays on TEDs and sea turtles exhibited at Southeast- ern Wildlife Exposition (40,000 attendees nationwide) (Murphy, 1989) Continued demonstrating TEDs; ran evaluations on Mor- rison soft TED (three boats) and Georgia jumper (nine boats); hired gear consultant to assist with tuning and TED installation Workshops conducted in conjunction with other marine agents TEDs, covered NE Florida (Halusky, pers. comm., 1989) February McClellanville, SC TEDs workshop (20 attended) (Anon., 1988b) Kure Beach, NC turtle workshop (24 attended) Augusta, Georgia-Georgia Fisheries Workers Association (27 attended)

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230 Decline of the Sea Turtles Richmond Hill, Georgia~eorgia Fisherman's Associa- tion (55 attended) Beaufort, South Carolina South Carolina Shrimpers Association (90 attended) Brunswick, Georgia Georgia Fishermen's Association (35 attended) March Baton Rouge workboat seminar (429 attended) Charleston, South Carolina South Carolina/Georgia Shrimpers Association, joint meeting (60 attended) TED presentation to Rotary Club (27 attended) July Eulonia, Georgia Coastal Fisheries Advisory Meeting (47 attended) (Anon., 1988a,c) August Panama City, Florida TED research (16 attended) September Tampa-Fish and Wildlife/CEE meeting (60 attended) October Atlanta- SESGMAS Regional TED meeting Galveston NMFS meeting (7 attended) (Anon., 1988a) Eulonia, Georgia Coastal Fisheries Advisory Meeting (135 attended) December Richmond Hill~eorgia Shrimpers Association meeting (46 attended) Mississippi Sea Grant January Through March tested MS Hybrid TED, transferred results to designer and SG agents (Anon., 1989c) February Conducted three TED technology transfer workshops with TED designers participating; fisherman hired as gear specialist- a 17-minute videotape created for Viet namese (who produce 40% of the shrimp in Mississippi), describing TED regulations and TED types; copies left with two fleet owners employing majority of Vietnamese and at Catholic Social Services Bilingual Vietnamese conducted on-board demonstra tions for Vietnamese and American fishermen

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231 Appendix H TEDs installed in 10 vessels (3 more also during yearWreports of rigging and use experience will be dis- tributed to other fishermen and SG agents Fishermen concerned that Coast Guard may overlook Vietnamese when enforcing TEDs correctly April Through.June Fisherman resigned as gear specialist (Anon., 1989c) Two 30-minute television programs covering the impact of TEDs on fishermen and the Mississippi seafood indus try July Through September Tests conducted with NMFS to measure escapement rate of Kemp's ridleys from six cer tified TED designs, videos made (Anon., 1989c) October Through December Meetings with representatives from SG and NMFS in Atlanta-plans to intensify educational efforts, although little can be accomplished until TED regs straightened out (Anon., 1989c) Dockside visits, news releases explaining regulations North Carolina Sea Grant Because of uncertainty about implementation of TED regulations in 1988, the general consensus among Sea Grant directors was to "back off" during 1988, and North Carolina followed suit. The Sea Grant pro- gram had been under a lot of heat and there was a great deal of ani- mosity towards them because of TED issue, and they were afraid of losing credibility. Bahen decided not to be as visible, but kept up with the TED regulation changes behind the scenes. Worked closely with the North Carolina Fisheries Association, dealt with television and newspapers frequently. Put in proposal and received an S-K grant to modify existing TED (Parrish and Parrish Grid) to reduce shrimp loss. Took improvements to MD and tested in flume, made full-scale TED and tested on Georgia Bulldog under shrimping conditions purchased underwater camera, filmed capture and release of 100+ lb. turtle from TED and reduced shrimp loss to 6-10%, or less. (Modified TED has not been tested for certification review panel not formed, no turtles at Canaveral; not sure but thinks it must be recertified; allowed North

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232 Decline of the Sea Turtles Carolina fishermen to try it, no complaints (Bahen, pers. comm., September, 1989) South Carolina Sea Grant February Through March-Charleston, Port Royal, McClel lanville three public hearings on the state TED regula tions (Kohlsaat, 1988) (25 attended at Charleston, 21 at Port Royal, 5 at McClellanville (Murphy, 1989; Kohlsaat, 1988) Personnel with Marine Resources Department held several workshops to demonstrate the various TEDs, but they were poorly attended by the industry (Murphy, 1989; Kohlsaat, 1988) Texas Sea Grant August Through October TED video completed: selecting TED types, tuning TEDs, advantages and disadvantages of var- ious devices; ready for distribution (Graham, 1988) NMFS TED Observer Progra~provided Galveston Lab with needed gear expertise, TED tuning, educational opportunity to train captain and crew in TED handling and adjustments; TED installation techniques also demonstrated-one volunteer found Continued working with fisherman hired as gear special- ist/consultant Attended regional Sea Grant directors meeting to discuss TED education activities Participated in Brownsville/Port Isabel Shrimp Producers Association meeting information regarding TED tech- nology (few fishermen actually rigged for TEDs but inter- est in current technology exists) Training session conducted for Texas County Marine Extension agents relative to TEDs, correcting areas where mistakes being made Special education program for Gulf King Shrimp Co. in Aransas Pass, technology update Fishermen rigging TEDs to exclude cannonball jellyfish;

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233 Appendix H assisted 25 inshore and nearshore fishermen with TED technology Some offshore fishermen wanted to examine TED types without participating in NMFS Observer Program, after height of shrimp season Provided advice and information to potential TED manu- facturers Assisted several inshore fishermen with installation of accelerator funnels (five demonstrations) Met with Texas Shrimp Association, Austin November Through December More fishermen using TEDs to exclude large jellyfish (Graham, 1989a) Problems with homemade TEDs-did comparison tows, demonstrated proper devices and installation Demand for assistance with soft TEDs continued Evaluated problems with improperly modified Y-bridled lazylines with quad rings; evaluated differences between regular bridle array and that of extended bridles on stan- dard rigs Vastly improved performance of Georgia jumper by lazy- line modification looking to see if improvements possi- ble on standard trawls NMFS Observer Program continued with one participant 1989 Alabama &a Grant February Through April Arranged for updated Vietnamese trans lation of most current TED information times, areas, description of Parrish TED; updated lists of NMFS approved TED manufacturers distributed to NMFS Regional Office, Vietnamese fishermen in Alabama and SG programs in five other states (Anon., 1989d) Georgia Sea Grant TED workshops and meetings (Anon., 1989a)

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234 Decline of the Sea Turtles January Tallahassee Marine Fisheries Commission meeting (100 attended) New Orleans-NMFS TED meeting (34 attended) Tallahassee Florida governor and cabinet turtle regulato- ry meeting (80 attended) Ft. Meyers- TED workshop (13 attended) Jekyll Island-Georgia Fisheries Workers meeting (38 attended) February , , ed) IeLvil T~l~nr1 Turtle (~on.~ervation Workshop (400 attend Charleston South Carolina Shrimpers Association meet- ing (85 attended) St Peter.shur~ NMFS TED Workshop (12 attended) ~. ~O March April Cape Canaveral- TED certification voyages on R/V Geor- gia Bulldog (20 attended, including several commercial fishermen from Georgia and other industry observers); looking for ways to reduce shrimp loss from Morrison soft TED; cruise to test Andrew TED; certified Morrison TED with Taylor-designed flap, Golden TED and Free- man TED, modified Morrison TED (cruise had one Geor- gia and one Mississippi commercial fisherman along) (Christian and Harrington, 1989; Anon., 1989a; Anon., 1989b) Morehead City- North Carolina Watermens Association meeting (45 attended) San Antonio Texas Shrimp Association meeting (80 attended) Through June TED experience panel formed; made up of TED experienced commercial fisherman, NMFS and UGA MAREX specialists to pass on experience and tech- nology to industry (Amos, 1989a) TED review panel formed of NMFS, commercial fisher- men and UGA MAREX specialistic to review new indus- try-created TED designs and determine whether should be passed on to certification stage TED certification panel formed of NMFS and UGA

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235 Appendix H MAREX specialists, determine what methods can be used to get new TED design certified quickly Tested Golden and Andrew TEDs in project in Panama City, Florida, in May; Morrison TED with exit hold flap was tested further In conjunction with North Carolina Sea Grant, published installation instructions for Parrish TED In contract report to GSAFDF 96 hours total towing time of control trawls and TEDs with performance and shrimp data collected for each tow (Amos, 1989b) Two TV shows discussing TED effectiveness in saving turtles Louisiana Sea Grant June Through September- VHS footage of TEDs in action above and below surface made available to SG agents and fishermen (Anon., 1989e) Work done with individual fishermen regarding legality of their proposed design Marine agents and specialists will coordinate info exchange among industry innovators, industry associa- tions, net shops, federal labs, and other MAS programs in an effort to develop and improve TED Technology Trans- fer Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium January Through March-engaged respected shrimp fisherman as gear specialist to assist with TED technology transfer in MS: sit on industry review panel, daily hands-on opera- tion of TED technology transfer on several vessels along northern Gulf Coast, assist Marine Resource Specialists in helping area fishermen to adapt more easily to regula- tions, assist fishermen in choosing and installing properly the device best suited for their operation (Veal, 1989) Developed list of potential TED sale outlets and distribut- ed them to TED manufacturers (Anon., 1989c)

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236 Decline of the Sea Turtles March May Participated in Georgia Bulldog cruise in Cape Canaveral shipping channel soft TED certification proceedings (aborted due to scarcity of turtles) (Veal, 1989) Attended meeting of Concerned Shrimpers of America, Biloxi (Veal, 1989) (Anon., 1989c) Gear specialist (fisherman) resigned Through July Further attempts made to involve Viet- namese in at least recognizing that TED regulations do exist (Anon., 1989c) North Carolina Sea Grant Submitted proposal to SAFDF to help industry with on-board tuning of TEDs to make their use as efficient as possible. Contacted a fisherman to work with them who was familiar with TEDs, helped fishermen sew in TEDs, tune the nets, etc. The changes with the TED regulations implementation and enforcement in 1989 meant the fishermen removed the TEDs from nets. Spent a lot of time with media. In September, fishermen called to complain that Coast Guard was checking for TEDs; evidently, the old regulations were back in complete effect (however, the season for North Carolina ends August 31 for TED use); had to update and inform Coast Guard about regulations. Informed North Carolina fishermen that as they follow shrimp south to Florida, must be aware and comply with Florida TED regulations (year-round require- ment for TEDs); believes that there's almost 100% compliance with TED regulations in Florida and Texas; Louisiana is the problem state at this time (pers. comm., Bahen, September, 1989) Texas Sea Grant February Through April-two evaluations conducted with modified Georgia jumper (Graham, 1989) Advised company developing fiberglass jumpers (proper installation techniques demonstrated, net person trained, offshore performance evaluation (Graham, 1989) Several demonstrations conducted for net makers regard ing construction of Morrison soft TEDs on-board demonstrations given for seafood companies and small groups of fishermen (cautioned against their use due to

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237 Appends H shrimp losses, but still preferred by fishermen for safety and cost factors) (Graham, 1989) Directed efforts to continue assisting fishermen in proper installation and construction of TEDs; problems with faulty homemade jumpers (Graham, 1989) No cooperators found for this quarter for NMFS TED observer program, several companies interested for later in year (Graham, 1989) Rigged boat with two Sanders Grid TEDs and two Boone jumpers-problems with shrimp loss corrected by fisher- man/gear specialist (Graham, 1989b) TEDs adapted to exclude large jellyfish Updated TEDs fact sheet