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Appendix I Newsleffers anc/ Notices Pertaining to TEDs North Carolina Sea Grant 1981 Coastwatch (1989 circulation 22,000, general audience, ten times a year) 1988 Coastwatch 1989 Coastwatch May: describes NMFS emergency 240-day regulations for reviving comatose turtles (resuscitation) February: notice of certification of Parrish TED, including description and cost; notice of availability of DMF money for the TED purchase plan to be presented at 6 public meetings; infor- mation presented on different kinds of TEDs; summarizes perfor- mances; outlines how to apply for money to buy certified TED (North Carolina Department of Commerce's Energy Division) March: article describes designing, testing, and certification of Parrish soft TED; proposes future modifications; notes that most NC shrimpers have not bought a TED, hoping TED regulations will be abolished Compiled by Nancy Balcom and William DuPaul, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Col- lege of William and Mary. 238

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239 Decline of the Sea Turtles Marine Advisory News (1989 circulation 2200, quarterly) January/February: published instructions for applying for reim- bursement for purchase of TEDs up to $500, must meet certain conditions Legal Tides (1989 circulation 630, quarterly) Articles discuss history of TEDs issue regarding legality, overview of pending lawsuits North Carolina Tar Heel Coast May: describes final TED regulations effective May 1-August 31, stating that if there is not 80% compliance with the regulations in 1989, regulations will be effective April-September in 1990; pro- vides overview history of TED development, describes types available, and reiterates the regulations; gives penalties for non- compliance with regulations and violation of Endangered Species Act; notes warnings will be given until July 1 on a case-by-case basis Florida Sea Grant 1987 October: list of TED manufacturers 1989 The Marine Times (1989 circulation 545, every 2 months, general pub lic and commercial fishermen) May-June: notes regulations scheduled to go back into effect May 1, 1989 requiring shrimp trawlers to use TEDs and 90- minute tows in offshore waters (regulations apply to all U.S. off- shore waters from North Carolina to Texas; describes regulations in detail; covers emergency regulations in effect in Florida; and describes 6 certified TEDs Alabama Sea Grant 1983 Sea Harvest News (1989 circulation 1700 to Alabama, 200 to Mississip pi; monthly; commercially oriented)

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240 Decline of the Sea Turtles November: reports on development of devices to reduce inci- dental catches of turtles caught in shrimp trawls, reduce bycatch of finfish; describes cruise on R/V Oregon (many fishermen on east coast and in Los Angeles are using TEDs with good success); notice of upcoming lanuary/February workshops 1985 Sea Harvest News 1986 1987 February: announces and describes NMFS TED and its benefits in reducing bycatch Sea Harvest News January: lists intentions of new proposed regulations (Phases I and II, net exemptions) March: notice to shrimpers on request from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and conservation groups to Gulf of Mexico Fish- eries Management Council to implement mandatory TED regula- tions; lists availability of brochure ("Construction and Installation Instructions for the Trawling Efficiency Device") November: describes proposed mandatory TED regulations, tests on the NMFS TED, the mediation process Sea Harvest News January: notes approach of January 1987 deadline for using TEDs in southern Florida area; describes 5 approved TED designs; lists availability of drawings and installation instructions; updates regulations for southern Florida (136) April: update on mediation talks June: updates forthcoming July 15) regulations; reports findings of commercial shrimp boat working Tampa to Key West, testing both NMFS TED and Georgia Jumper July: provides information on regulations for Canaveral area (emergency regulations effective October 11; updates rest of upcoming TED regulations (1988) September: updated Morrison soft TED certification October: introduces availability of Morrison soft TED; covers shrimp catch tests on Georgia Bulldog (14% loss brown shrimp, 5%

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241 Appendix I loss white shrimp); describes boardings conducted by NMFS agents in 2 Florida ports after emergency regulations went into effect) 1988 Sea Harvest News January: presents TED regulations in full March: TED questions and answers taken from questions that have come up at TED meetings in Alabama, Mississippi, and . ~ . . . Louisiana June: notice to fishermen of TED appeal from Concerned Shrimpers of Los Angeles; notes injunction against enforcing TEDs remains in effect 1989 Februar~r-April-progress report: continue to maintain low pro- file in dissemination program, with activities primarily confined to providing responses to questions from the industry relating to the resumption of TED regulations (most Alabama shrimpers do not believe regulations will be reinstated); update and revise printed material prepared for use by Alabama shrimpers, including the most current information on times and areas requiring the use of TEDs, a description of the Parrish TED, and an updated listing of manufacturers of TEDS approved by NMFS; remain ready to respond to requests from shrimping industry for information on both TED regulations and construction (although availability of information has been announced, there has been an extremely limited number of requests for it); have arranged for an updated Vietnamese translation of the most current TED information on times and areas, etc., as above (publication distributed to NMFS, Regional Office, Vietnamese shrimpers in Alabama, and Sea Grant programs in the other gulf states) Sea Harvest News August: notice to fishermen that TED regulations for offshore waters will go into effect May 1, 1989 and for inshore waters May 1, 1990 Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium 1987 Force Five (1989 circulation 1200; quarterly; educators, general public, marine resource managers, university faculty, some commercial fishermen)

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242 - Decline of the Sea Turtles Winter: announcement of publication "Turtles, Trawlers, and TEDS: what happens when the Endangered Species Act conflicts with fishermen's interests," an in-depth look at the TEDS contro- versy printed in Water Log (Sea Grant's legal reporter); issues also contains replies by Mike Weber and TV. Mialjevich 1988 Booklet describes TED regulations, certified TEDs with diagrams, loca- tions of where 90-minute tows and TEDs are required, including excerpts from the Federal Register, booklet also translated into Viet namese Mississippi Sea Grant 1987 Gulf Coast Fisherman (1989 circulation 1500, monthly, commercially oriented) January: TED regulations update; proposed regulations with 1- i/2-year phase-in period, with different seasons and different geographical coverage, depending on shrimp statistical zone; provides source for detailed explanation and summary of pro- posed regulation July: summary of final regulations regarding TEDS as published in detail in the June 29 Federal Register November: notice of certification of Morrison soft TED effective October 1; explains redefined inshore and offshore waters corre- sponding to the 1972 International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (72COLREGS) demarcation line; provides source for details on TED and the regulations; reports on NMFS dock- side boardings in Cape Canaveral area, with at-sea boardings to begin in November 1988 Gulf Coast Fisherman May: notice of enjoinment of NMFS from enforcing TED regula- tions pending appeal August: notes TED regulations back in effect September 1; describes TED regulations in full; describes possibility of Heflin amendment October: reports TED regulations back in effect September 1,

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243 Appendix I warnings issued until November 1, Congress acting on Heflin amendment; lists sources of information on where to obtain TEDs and proper installation techniques November: reports bill signed reauthorizing the Endangered Species Act to 1992, along with Heflin amendment delaying implementation of TED regulations until May 1, 1989; reviews regulations 1989 Gu/Coast Fisherman January: reports record number of ridleys washed up on the Georgia/Florida coast during fall 1988; Florida Marine Fisheries Commission enacting emergency year-around regulations for northeast Florida requiring the use of TEDs; notes information available from Sea Grant (call or write) "Mississippi Hybrid TED" (advertising brochure) provides pic- ture, description, and availability January-March~uarterly progress report: reports that a list of potential outlets for TEDs has been developed and forwarded to manufacturers of two types of TEDs (information available to any manufacturer) Louisiana Sea Grant 1987 Report summarizes rules and regulations designed to protect sea turtles as listed in the Federal Register (19871; describes regulations, certified TED types and their installation, results of tests on various TEDs St. Bernard Fisherman (Cooperative Extension) Spring newsletter: Q&A format concerning the sea turtle situa- tion, the Endangered Species Act, TEDs, and enforcement; reports proposed regulations; urges awareness of shrimpers to the situation ("won't just go away") 1989 January-June interim progress report: due to delay in implementation of regulations, there has been little or no progress on work scheduled; most shrimpers view the suspension as a victory, therefore little educa

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244 Decline of the Sea Turtles lion impact has been possible, other than keeping shrimpers and local legislators informed of the status of TED regulations; publish regular newsletter, schedule meetings, and visit with individual shrimpers Cajun Courier (Cooperative Extension) June: reported regulations concerning TEDS scheduled for full enforcement July 1, 1989 (TED law officially in effect May 11: brief overview of regulations; warnings issued through end of July, except in cases of repeated or flagrant violations; list of com- monly asked TED questions and answers Louisiana Shrimp Association The Net Log Discussion of meeting held in Washington, D.C., in August 1986, between shrimp industry, environmental groups, and NMFS/NOAA; proposal on regulations effective May 1987, showed NMFS data on tur- tle incidental catches by shrimpers Georgia Sea Grant 1987 fuly-September~uarterly report: upon submission of Morrison soft TED for certification, subjected it to shrimp and biomass retention tests; arranged for testing of downward-shooting TED in October 1988 Georgia jumper Installation Instructions-diagrams and instructions Morrison Soft TED Installation Instructions-diagrams and instructions Parrish Soft TED Installation Instructions-diagrams and instructions We Salty Dog November: lists availability of publications giving installation instructions for Georgia Jumper and Morrison soft TED

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245 Appendix I 1989 floe Salty Dog (1989 circulation 1300, quarterly, commercially oriented) February: lists availability of installation instructions for Georgia Jumper and Morrison soft TED May: notice about availability of installation instructions for Georgia Jumper and Morrison soft TED Sea Turtles in Georgia (brochure in Coastcards series): reports that the Office of Energy Resource of the Department of Natural Resources pur- chased and distributed more than 800 TEDs to Georgia shrimpers South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources 1986 December news release: describes tests of NMFS TED and Georgia Jumper; compares shrimp retention/loss and retention/reduction of fin- fish, blue crab, and horseshoe crab by catch between standard nets and nets with TEDs installed; purpose of tests is to give shrimpers choice of TEDs should their use become mandatory 1989 June: personal letter describing department news releases, newspaper articles, editorials, and letters to the editor; summarizes 1988 (notes that hardly a day went by during the summer without some coverage of TEDs or turtles in the news, including television and radio coverage) Texas Sea Grant 1988 February: provides information sheet giving answers to commonly-asked questions about TEDs, regulations, enforcement, building and installation, shrimp retention, distances offshore, net sizes, and incidental turtle catch- es; gives list of contacts for information and technical assistance Center for Marine Conservation 1982 February-report: preliminary estimate of the payoff to investing in a turtle excluder device for shrimp trawls

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246 Decline of the Sea Turtles 1989 May report for the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission: telephone survey of TED manufacturers determined that many were available for purchase, however few sold. Fishermen waiting to see if fines issued; enforcement agencies and shrimpers indicated that TED availability is limited (contradicted survey of TED manufacturers); enforcement of regulations spotty, but picking up as a result of public and conserva- tion pressures; additional enforcement problems typically center around various ways to appear to be pulling TEDs, while actually not having functioning TEDs National Marine Fisheries Service 1984 NMFS Newsbreaker No date special edition on sea turtles: describes the 8 species of turtles and the management and research program ongoing for turtles, including TED technology transfer, TED development and testing, different sources of mortality, etc. 1985 June: NMFS booklet describes how to build, install, and handle NMFS TED; describes benefit to using device 1988 November: summary of tow-time and TEDs regulations by area, giving starting date, season, and vessel requirements 1989 March: news release covering TED regulations going into effect May 1; lists regulations, emergency regulations already in effect, the names of the 6 certified TEDs, where to send for copies of the regulations, and a list of TED manufacturers May: list of TED manufacturers Date unknown Describes turtle resuscitation procedures for shrimpers; discusses pre- serving a livelihood, use of TEDs, and NMFS funding of TEDs; pro- motes voluntary use

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247 Appendix I "Enforcement of Turtle Excluder Device:" list of 9 commonly-asked questions and answers regarding TED enforcement Washington, D.C. 1989 Marine Fish Management March: notice published about TED and tow-time regulations about to go into effect May 1, 1989: lists where copies of regulations available; covers emergency regulations in effect in northern Florida and south- ern Georgia South Atlantic Fishery Management Council 1989 May: describes TED and tow-time regulations in effect and emergency regulations in effect in southern Georgia and northern Florida; lists 6 certified TEDs; gives address and number to obtain TED regulations, list of TED manufacturers

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