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Index A Aerial surveys, 3, 29, 52, 54-57, 111, 183, 199-201 Alabama, 58, 224, 225, 227, 233, 235-236, 239-242 Ascension Island, 33, 113 Atlantic Ocean, 6, 17, 54, 56, 90, 103-106, 120 Kemp's ridleys, 24 loggerheads, 30-31 shrimp fishing, 53, 55, 82~4, 85, 87 strandings, 52, 87-89, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100-101, 103-106, 126 see also specific Atlantic Coast states Automobiles, see Motor vehicles B Bacteria, 64-65 Bahamas, 125 Beaches, 122 armoring, 77-78, 121 lighting, artificial, 33, 79, 121-122, 153 nourishment, 78, 121 predators, 62-64, 67 strandings, 105 253 vegetation, 65, 81-82 see also Nesting and nesting habitat Biological processes, 19, 21-41, 150 diseases and disorders, 64-67, 151 green turtles, 32-35 hawksbills, 35-39 imprinting, 10, 42, 124 Kemp's ridleys, 23-28, 180-185 leatherbacks, 3~41 life cycles, 2-3, 4-5, 61-73 loggerheads, 4-5, 28-32 mortality and, 62-65, 61-73, 118 olive ridleys, 41 research, 19 thermal, 38, 66-67, 135 toxic substances, 6, 77, 113-114, 138-139 vegetation, 65, 81-82 see also Breeding; Developmental bio- logy; Feeding and food; Population factors; Reproductive processes Boats, see Ships and boats; Shrimp trawling Brazil, 33 Breeding captive, general, 10, 124, 130, 152-153 headstrong, ~10, 14, 19, 122-124, 130, 186

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254 Decline of the Sea Turtles Bycatch, 10-12 see also Turtle excluder devices; Tow time, trawling CCanada, 40 Caribbean Sea, 36, 125-126 Chesapeake Bay, 104-105, 109 Kemp's ridleys, 24-25, 105 Conservation measures, 5, 9-15, 51, 118-143, 146-149, 151-153, 185-186 Endangered Species Act, 1, 10, 16, 17, 19-20, 119, 126, 136, 146, 175-178, 179 headstarting, 9-10, 14, 19, 122-124, 130, 186 international activities, 17, 19-20, 123-124, 125-126, 142-143, 182, 185 Kemp's ridleys, 63, 123-124, 146, 185-186 loggerheads, 61-62 Mexico, 19-20, 24, 123-124, 125, 142, 182, 185-186 nesting, 9, 120-121, 149-150, 185-186 predation and, 63 reproduction processes, 149-150 see also Regulations; Turtle excluder devices Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 125, 143 Costa Rica, 65 Court cases, see Litigation Cutaneous fibropapillomatosis, 64 D Data bases, Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network, 52, 57-58, 60, 92, 95, 109 Debris, see Plastics and debris Demography, see Geographic distribution; Population factors Department of Commerce, 17 see also National Marine Fisheries Service Department of the Interior, 17, 149 Depth factors, water Kemp's ridleys, 24, 60 loggerheads/leatherbacks, 58, 60 shrimping effort, 99 Developmental biology, 2, 310-312 green turtles, 34-35 hawksbills, 38-39 Kemp's ridleys, 26-28, 181-182 loggerheads, 30-32 mortality and critical life stages, 4-5, 61-73, 118 see also Reproductive processes Diseases and disorders, 64-65, 151 hypothermia, 66-67 see also Mortality; Toxic substances Dredging, 6, 8, 12, 76, 107-109, 135-137, 14~149 Dunes, 81-82 Economic factors funding, 140-141, 142, 224-237, 239-247 land acquisition, 149-150 turtle excluder devices, 18, 128-130, 140-141 Edison Electric Institute, 113 Education, 13, 17, 140, 141-142, 218-223, 224-237, 238-247 Eggs and hatchlings, 2 conservation measures, 9, 120, 121-122 green turtles, 34 hawksbills, 36, 38 headstarting, 9-10, 14, 19, 122-124, 130, 186 imprinting, 10, 42, 124 Kemp's ridleys, 24, 25, 27, 63 legal protection, 125 lighting, beaches, 33, 79, 121-122, 153 loggerheads, 31, 61, 71-72 mortality, 4-5, 61, 62-63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71-72, 74, 77~2 see also Nesting and nesting habitat Endangered Species Act, 1, 10, 16, 17, 19-20, 119, 126, 136, 146, 175-178, 179 Equipment, see Dredging; Fishing and fishing equipment; Oil platforms; Power plants; Turtle excluder devices Entrainment, power plant intakes, 6, 12, 75, 112-113, 116-117, 138 Erosion, 4, 66, 120-121 Explosives, 110-112, 149, 151 F Feeding and food, 2-3 green turtles, 33, 34 hawksbills, 35-36, 37 Kemp's ridleys, 23-26

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255 Decline of the Sea Turtles leatherbacks, 40 loggerheads, 24, 30 research, 151 see also Plastics and debris; Toxic substances Females Kemp's ridleys, 27-28 loggerheads, 29-30, 31-32 sex ratios, 27-28, 38, 68, 123, 150 see also Nesting and nesting habitat; Reproductive processes Fish, as predators, 63 Fishing and fishing equipment bycatch, 10-12 entanglement in discarded, 101-107 non-shrimping, and turtle mortality, 6, 7 - , 76, 101-107, 135, 146, 148, 152 poaching, turtles, 10, 17, 113, 125-126, 149, 185 shrimping, and turtle mortality, see Hawaii, 64 Shrimp trawling Hawksbills see also Turtle excluder devices Fish and Wildlife Service, 149 Florida, 3, 4, 33, 37, 47-48, 56, 62-63, 64, 83, 84, 87, 89, 106, 108, 109, 112, 113, 120, 128, 136, 137, 144-145, 149, 226, 239 Food, see Feeding and food Funding, 140-141, 142, 224-237, 239-247 Fungi, 64-65 G Geographic distribution, 3, 19, 51-60, 151 aerial surveys, 3, 29, 52, 54-57, 111, 183, 199-201 green turtles, 32-34 hawksbills, 35-37 Kemp's ridleys, 23-26, 181 leatherbacks, 39-40, 56 loggerheads, 3, 2~29, 54-57, 60 Georgia, 4, 5, 7, 13, 47-48, 83, 87, 89, 96, 144, 146, 225, 226, 229-230, 233-235, 244-245 Green turtles biological processes, 32-35 feeding, 33, 34 legal status, 16, 119 mortality, 35, 58, 110 nesting, 4, 33-34, 48, 50, 60, 144-145 population factors, 32-34, 48, 50, 145 reproductive processes, general, 34-35 Gulf of Mexico, 4, 17, 109 hawksbills, 36 Kemp's ridleys, 23-24, 25, 26, 60 leatherbacks, 57 loggerheads, 30, 32, 55, 56, 60 oil platform removal, 110-112 shrimp fishing, 53, 55, 82~4, 85, 86~7 strandings, 52, 60, 87~9, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, 99-100, 106-107, 126 see also specific Gulf Coast states H Habitats dunes, 8102 reefs, 35-36 see also Beaches; Feeding and food; Geographic distribution; Nesting and nesting habitat biological processes, 35-39 feeding, 35-36, 37 legal status, 119 mortality, 39, 58 nesting, 36-37, 38, 4~49, 50, 145 population factors, 35-37, 4~49, 50, 145 reproductive processes, general, 3039 Headstarting, 9-10, 14, 19, 122-124, 130, 186 Human factors, 5-9, 10-14, 16-17, 21, 23, 51, 74-117, 145, 14~149 boat collisions with turtles, 8, 12, 76, 109-110, 137-138 dredging, 6, 8, 12, 76, 107-109, 135-137, 14~149 education, 13, 17, 140, 141-142, 21~223, 224-237, 23~247 motor vehicles, 81, 122 oil platforms, 8, 12, 17, 76, 110-112, 138, 149, 151 poaching, 10, 17, 76, 113, 125-126, 149, 185 power plants, turtle entrainment, 6, 12, 75, 76, 112-113, 138 recreation, 80-81, 101, 108, 122 see also Conservation measures; Eco nomic factors; Fishing and fishing equipment; Laws; Lighting; Plastics and debris; Shrimp trawling Hypothermia, 66-67

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256 Decline of the Sea Turtles Imprinting, 10, 42, 124 International activities, 17, 19-20, 116, 123-124, 125-126, 142-143, 149, 182, 185 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 116, 149 International Union for the Conservation of Nature Marine Turtle Specialist Group, 143 K Kemp's ridleys, 179-187 biological processes, 23-28, 180-185 conservation measures, 63, 123-124, 146, 185-186 eggs and hatchlings, 24, 25, 27, 63 feeding, 23-26 geographical distribution, 23-26, 181 legal status, 16, 119 Mexican waters, 24, 25, 26, 90, 144, 182, 185-186 mortality, 5, 7, 28, 58, 74, 75, 76, 90, 113, 116, 117, 138, 183-185 nesting, 3-4, 13, 25, 26-27, 43, 47, 144, 181-183, 185-186 population factors, 23-25, 26, 27-28, 43, 47, 49, 60, 145, 181-183 reproductive processes, general, 26-28, 149 strandings, 58, 145 Laws Endangered Species Act, 1, 10, 16, 17, 19-20, 119, 126, 136, 146, 175-178, 179 international, 116, 125-126, 142-143, 149, 185 Mexican, 19-20, 125, 142, 185-186 poaching, 10, 17, 76, 113, 125-126, 149, 185 see also Litigation; Regulations Land acquisition, 149-150 Land use planning, 120 Leatherbacks biological processes, 39-41 feeding, 40 geographical distribution, 39-40, 56 legal status, 16, 119 mortality, 41, 58, 102-103 nesting, 40, 49, 50, 145 population factors, 39-40, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57, 145 reproductive processes, general, 41 Lighting, beaches, 33, 79, 121-122, 153 Litigation, turtle excluder devices, 18-19 Lobsters, 103 Loggerheads, 146 biological processes, 4-5, 2~32 conservation measures, 61-62 eggs and hatchlings, 31, 61, 71-72 feeding, 24, 30 geographical distribution, 3, 28-29, 54-57, 60 legal status, 16, 119 mortality, 5, 7, 32, 57-58, 61-63, 71-72, 74, 75, 76, 95-100, 108, 110, 117, 138, 145, 188 nesting, 7, 13, 29-32, 47-48, 50, 55, 61, 119, 144, 145 population factors, 4, 28-30, 47-48, 50, 61, 69, 96-97,145 repellents, 137 reproductive processes, 30-31, 61-62, 69-72, 149 strandings, 57-58, 145 Louisiana, 227, 235, 243-244 M Management practices, see Conservation measures Macrochelid mites, 64 Mating Kemp's ridleys, 26 loggerheads, 30 Mexico, 4, 13, 19-20, 123-124, 125 Kemp's ridleys, 24, 25, 26, 90, 144, 182, 185-186 Microbial pathogens, 65 Minerals Management Service, 110, 111, 149 Mississippi, 58, 227, 230-231, 235-236, 241-243 Models mortality, 87, 89, 90-91, 95-96, 131 population factors, 27, 29, 61, 6~69, 71-72, 87, 89, 150-151 trawl tow time, 9~91, 131, 151 Monofilament line, 102 Mortality adult and subadult, general, 5, 71, 72, 75, 125-139, 147, 149

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257 Decline of the Sea Turtles boat collisions, 8, 12, 76, 109-110, 137-138 critical life stages and, 4-5, 61-73, 118 diseases and disorders, 64-67, 151 dredging and, 6, 8, 12, 76, 107-109, 135-137, 140149 eggs and hatchlings, 4-5, 61, 62-63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71-72, 74, 77~2 fishing, non-shrimp, 6, 7-8, 76, 101-107, 135, 146, 148, 152 green turtles, 35, 58, 110 hawksbills, 39, 58 headstarting, 9-10, 14, 19, 122-124, 130, 186 human factors, general, 5-9, 10-14, 16-17, 21, 23, 51, 74-117, 145, 14~149 Kemp's ridleys, 5, 7, 28, 58, ,4, 75, 76, 90, 113, 116, 117, 138, 183-185 leatherbacks, 41, 58, 102-103 loggerheads, 5, 7, 32, 57-58, 61-63, 71-72, 74, 75, 76, 95-100, 108, 110, 117, 138, 145, 188 models, 87, 89, 90-91, 95-96, 131 motor vehicles, 81, 122 oil platforms and, 8, 12, 17, 76, 110-112, 138, 149, 151 plastics, debris and, 6, - 9, 12-13, 17, 77, 101-107, 114-116, 138-139, 146, 149 poaching, 10, 17, 113, 76, 125-126, 149, 185 power plants, entrainment, 6, 12, 75, 76, 112-113, 138 predation, non-human, 62-64, 67 research, 19, 67-72 strandings, 3, 6, 7, 52, 57-58, 59, 60, 87-90, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, 99-101, 103-107, 126, 145, 202-213 trawling and, general, 1, 13-14, 117, 145-146, 147-148 trawl tow time, 6, 11-12, 14, 90-92, 127, 131-135, 145, 147-148, 151, 152 Motor vehicles, 81, 122 N National Marine Fisheries Service educational efforts, 21~223, 246 fishing, non-shrimp, 101, 107, 109 headstarting, 123 observer program, 60, 84, 85 oil platforms, 110 plastics studies, 116 pollution reduction, 149 recovery plan, 119-120 trawl tow time studies, 90, 91-92, 132 turtle excluder devices, 17-19, 127-129, 140-141, 147-148 Nesting and nesting habitat, 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 17, 42-50, 51-52, 54, 63-64, 65, 66, 77-82, 153 conservation measures, 9, 120-121, 149-150, 185-186 geographic distribution, 51-52, 54 green turtles, 4, 33-34, 48, 50, 60, 144-145 hawksbills, 36-37, 38, 48-49, 50, 145 imprinting, 10, 42, 124 Kemp's ridleys, 3-4, 13, 25, 26-27, 43, 47, 144, 181-183, 185-186 leatherbacks, 40, 49, 50, 145 lighting, beach, 33, 79, 121-122, 153 loggerheads, 7, 13, 29-32, 47-48, 50, 55, 61, 119, 144, 145 predators, 62-64, 67 vegetation and, 65, 81-82 see also Beaches; Dunes; Eggs and hatch- lings New England, 40, 57, 60, 102-103 New Jersey, 112 New York Bight, 103, 115 North Carolina, 7, 55, 57, 84, 100-101, 117, 225, 227-229, 231-232, 236, 23~239 o Oil platforms, 8, 12, 17, 76, 110-112, 138, 149, 151 Olfactory processes, see Imprinting Olive ridleys, 23, 41, 65 Okeanos Ocean Research Foundation, 103 p Parasites, 64-65 Physiological processes, 151 thermal, 38, 66-67, 135 Plastics and debris, 6, 09, 12-13, 17, 77, 101-107, 114-116, 13~139, 146, 149 Poaching, turtles, 10, 17, 76, 113, 125-126, 149, 185 Pollution, see plastics and debris; Toxic sub- stances

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258 Decline of the Sea Turtles Population factors, 3~, 42-50, 51-60, 144-146 green turtles, 32-34, 48, 50, 145 hawksbills, 35-37, 48-49, 50, 145 Kemp's ridleys, 23-25, 26, 27-28, 43, 47, 49, 60, 145, 181-183 leatherbacks, 39~0, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57, 145 loggerheads, 4, 28-30, 47-48, 50, 61, 69, 96-97, 145 models, 27, 29, 61, 6~69, 71-72, 87, 89, 150-151 see also Geographic distribution; Mortali ty; Nesting and nesting habitat; Reproductive processes; Surveys Power plants, turtle entrainment, 6, 12, 75, 76, 112-113, 11~117, 138 Precipitation (meteorology), see Rain Predation non-human, 62-64, 67 poaching, 10, 17, 113, 76, 125-126, 149, 185 Puerto Rico, 49, 50 R Radio tracking, 24, 25, 137 Rain, 66 Recreation, 80-81, 101, 109, 122 Reefs, 35-36 Regulations fishing equipment, 1, 12~127, 131, 134, 148, 151 intentional harvest, 10 land use planning, 120 non-shrimp fishing activities, 135 plastics and debris, 139 poaching, 10, 17, 113, 76, 125-126, 149, 185 turtle excluder devices, 1~19, 131, 147-148, 151-152 Remote sensing aerial, 3, 29, 52, 54-57, 111, 183, 19~201 radio tracking, 24, 25, 137 satellite, 24, 25 Repellants, 137 Reproductive processes, 4-5, 67-68, 149-150 green turtles, 34-35 hawkshills, 3039 Kemp's ridleys, 2~28, 149 leatherbacks, 41 loggerheads, 3~31, 61-62, 69-72, 149 mating, 26, 30 sex ratios, 27-28, 38, 68, 123, 150 see also Breeding; Eggs and hatchlings; Nesting and nesting habitat Research, 13, 14-15, 17, 19-20, 150-153 aerial surveys, 3, 29, 52, 54-57, 111, 183, 199-201 breeding, captive, 150, 152 dredge equipment, 136-137, 14~149 feeding, 151 mortality, 19, 67-72 radio tracking, 24, 25, 137 study methodology, 1-2 trawl tow time, 91-92, 151, 152 see also Headstarting S Satellites, 24, 25 Seasonal factors, 87-90, 92-96 dredging, 137 hypothermia, 66-67 loggerhead/leatherback distribution, 54-57, 60 shrimp fishery, 85-90, 92-93, 110, 145 strandings, 58, 60, 87-90, 92-93, 104 tow times, trawling, 11-12, 14, 127, 132-134, 135, 151 see also Nesting and nesting habitat Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network, 52, 57-58, 60, 92, 95, 109 Sex ratios, 68, 150 hawksbills, 38 Kemp's ridleys, 27-28, 123 Sharks, 63 Ships and boats collisions with turtles, 8, 12, 76, 109-110, 137-138 see also Dredging; Shrimp trawling Shrimp trawling, 5, 6-7, 17, 75, 76, 82-101, 116, 117, 126-135, 145-146, 147-148 bycatch, 10-12 fishery description, 82-90, 215-217 gear regulations, general, 1 Gulf of Mexico, 53, 55, 82-84, 85, 86-87 research, 2 tow time, trawls, 6, 11-12, 14, 90-92, 127, 131-135, 145, 147-148, 151, 152 zones, Atlantic and Gulf, 53, 55, 82-84, 85, 87 see also Turtle excluder devices

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259 Decline of the Sea Turtles South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 247 South Carolina, 4, 6, 7, 13, 29, 47, 83, 87, 89, 94, 95, 96, 106, 117, 144, 146, 152, 229, 232, 245 Spirorchidiasis, 64 State-level actions, 224247 see also specific states Statutes, see Laws Strandings, 3, 6, 7, 52, 57-58, 59, 60, 87-90, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, 99-101, 103-107, 126, 145, 202-213 Atlantic Coast, 52, 87-89, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100-101, 103-106, 126 Gulf of Mexico, 52, 60, 87-89, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, 99-100, 106-107, 126 Surinam, 49, 66 Surveys aerial, 3, 29, 52, 54-57, 111, 183, 199-201 nesting, 43 radio tracking, 24, 25, 137 satellite, 24, 25 Sea Turtle Stranding and Salvage Network, 52, 57-58, 60, 92, 95, 109 tagging, research, 150 T Technology aerial surveys, 3, 29, 52, 5457, 111, 183, 199-201 radio tracking, 24, 25, 137 satellite tracking, 24, 25 transfer, 140-142 see also Research; Turtle excluder devices Texas, 6, 58, 89, 93, 94, 95-96, 107, 115, 117, 152, 224, 225, 226, 229, 232-233, 236-237, 245-247 Thermal factors, 66-67, 135 hawksbills, 38 Kemp's ridleys, 2425 see also Seasonal factors Tides, 66 Tow time, trawling, 6, 11-12, 14, 90-92, 127, 131-135, 145, 147-148 models, 90-91, 131, 151 research, 91-92, 151, 152 seasonal factors, 11-12, 14, 127, 132-134, 135, 151 Toxic substances, 6, 77, 113-114, 13~139 Trawling, shrimp, see Shrimp trawling Turtle excluder devices, 2, 11, 14, 15, 97-99, 127-131, 134, 142, 147-148, 151-152, 185, 186 educational efforts, 210223, 224237 history, 17-19 illustrations of, 193-198 technology transfer, 140-142 U University of Georgia, 18, 142 V Vegetation, 65, 81-82 Virginia, 104 Virgin Islands, 37, 49, 50 Visual perception, light, 33, 79, 121-122 W World Herpetological Congress, 143

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