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WORK AND FAMILY Policies for a Changing Work Force Edited by Marianne A. Ferber and Brigid O 'Farrell with La Rue Allen Pane! on Employer Policies and Working Families Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social issues Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1 991

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Work and family: policies for a changing work force / edited by Marianne A. Ferber and Brigid O'Farrell with La Rue Allen; Panel on Employer Policies and Working Families, Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04277-1 1. Dual-career families United States. 2. Work and family United States. I. Ferber, Marianne A., 1923- . II. O'Farrell, Brigid. III. Allen, La Rue, 1950- . IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues. Panel on Employer Policies and Working Families. HQ536.W62 1991 306.3'6 dc20 Copyright ~ 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences 9 1 -25484 CIP No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic proce- dure, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purpose of official use by the United States government. Printed in the United States of America

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PANEL ON EMPLOYER POLICIES AND WORKING FAMILIES MARIANNE A. FERBER (Chair), Department of Economics, University of Illinois LA RUE ALLEN, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland MAXINE BACA-ZINN, Department of Sociology, University of Michigan LOTTE BAILYN, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUSAN BIANCHI-SAND, Association of Flight Attendants, AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C. JUNE H. BROWN, Associate Dean's Office, University of Southern California RICHARD V. BURKHAUSER, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University THOMAS G. CODY, Jannotta, Bray and Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. PAULA S. ENGLAND, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson JAMES N. MORGAN, Department of Economics, University of Michigan PAUL M. ROMAN, Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia WENDY W. WILLIAMS, Dean's Office, Georgetown University School of Law BRIGID O' FARRELL, Study Director LUCILE DIGIROLAMO, Staff Associate COMMITTEE ON WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT AND RELATED SOCIAL ISSUES JOAN A. HUBER, Dean, College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Ohio State University HELEN S. ASTIN, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Los Angeles MAXINE BACA-ZINN, Department of Sociology, University of Michigan WILLIAM H. CHAFE, Department of History, Duke University DIANNE PINDERHUGHES, Department of Political Science, University of Illinois EUGENE SMOLENSKY, Graduate School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT K. YIN, COSMOS Corporation, Washington, D.C.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating soci- ety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedi- cated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scien- tific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engi- neering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and re- search, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. IV

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Preface The increase in dual-earner and female-headed families has led to sig- nificant research and policy interest in the relationship between employer policies and families. In February 1987 the National Research Council's Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues convened a planning meeting, which included experts in the area of work and family, as well as representatives of private industry, federal agencies, and founda- tions, to explore the feasibility of conducting a study that would explore these issues further. Following that meeting, the committee established the Panel on Employer Policies and Working Families to synthesize and assess the research on employer policies and working families, to evaluate policy alternatives, and to assess the need for further research. Although the re- search on many of the relevant topics is limited, analysis of the available data and discussions with experts enabled the panel to assess the major areas of conflict between work and family responsibilities. A panel of 12 experts conducted the study. Members included scholars with expertise in the disciplines of economics, demography, sociology, de- velopmental psychology, social psychology, organizational behavior, and employment and family law, as well as experts in employment policy (pub- lic and private) and public policy related to social welfare. Within these categories, the panel included both researchers and practitioners from man- agement and labor. To enhance its understanding of these issues, the panel commissioned background materials and heard presentations by and held discussions with a wide range of experts from management, labor, and gov- ernment, as well as scholars specializing in related areas of research. A list of the background materials, their authors, and the experts who were con- sulted appears in Appendix A. v

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Vl PREFACE In the course of conducting this study, each of the panel members took an active role in reading drafts, writing individual sections, providing data, working with paper authors, leading discussions, and participating in the meetings. La Rue Allen bore primary responsibility for Chapter 3. Marianne Ferber not only chaired the panel and guided the writing throughout the report, but also took primary responsibility for the analysis of work and family issues in Europe. The panel's study director, Brigid O'Farrell, also played an important role in the project: her expertise in family and work interaction was a valuable resource, and her part in the drafting and editing of the report reflects a thorough understanding of complex issues. The commission deeply appreciates all of these contributions. Lucile DiGirolamo, the panel's staff associate, was indispensable in or- ganizing the various activities of the panel as well as providing critical research support, especially for Chapter 7. Excellent administrative support was provided by several very patient support staff during this lengthy pro- cess. We would like to thank Michelle Daniels, Carey Gellman, Lisa Sementelli- Dann, Kasey VanNett, and Sheryle Decareau from Wheaton College. This report has benefited from extensive review by a large number of people. Members of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE) and of the National Academy of Sciences' Report Review Committee carefully reviewed several drafts. Joan Huber, chair, and Gene Smolensky and Dianne Pinderhughes, members of the panel's parent committee, provided detailed comments on successive drafts of the report. Emily Andrews and Martha Zaslow made presentations at the panel's meetings and reviewed specific chapters of the report. Eugenia Grohman, assistant director for reports, and Christine McShane, commission editor, greatly improved the clarity of this report. Susanne Stoiber, director of the Division of Social and Economic Studies, provided extensive comments and support. Sincere thanks to all of these readers and reviewers for their time and effort on so important a topic. The project would not have been possible without the generous financial support received from the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of La- bor, the Ford Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the German Marshall Fund, Aetna Life and Casualty, IBM Corporation, and the National Re- search Council Fund, and we gratefully acknowledge them. Special ac- knowledgment and thanks for their support and patience go to June Zeitlin at Ford and Collis Phillips and Harriet Harper at the Department of Labor. This study has required a great deal of hard work, mutual commitment to the task, and respect for differing points of view. The commission is grate- ful to the panel members for their prodigious efforts, especially those of Chair Marianne Ferber, and trust that it has been both personally and pro- fessionally gratifying to work together on a topic that is so vitally impor- tant. Our hope is that the findings, conclusions, and supporting data found

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PREFACE . . V11 in this volume will make an important contribution to helping families and employers adjust to the ongoing changes in our society. SUZANNE H. WOOLSEY, Executive Director Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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Contents Summary Introduction The Family and the Workplace Linkages Between Work and Family 4 How Adults Cope: Dependent Care 5 Standard Employee Benefits 6 New Family-Related Benefits 7 Family-Oriented Programs in Other Countries 8 Findings and Conclusions References APPENDIXES A Background Materials B Data Needs and Research Agenda C Biographical Sketches Index IX 1 7 18 42 64 87 114 155 179 202 233 237 243 247

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WORK AND FAMILY

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