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Index A Absenteeism from work causes, 58-59, 62 child care and, 58, 59, 62, 74, 133, 145 effects of families on, 3, 10, 54, 62 flexible schedules and, 127 Adoption benefits, 115, 119 Adult day care, 69 Age, and employment, 39 Aid to Families With Dependent Children, 56, 84, 145, 147, 150 Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, 131, 141 Amalgamated Transit Workers, 142 American Express Company, 87 American Federation of Government Employees, 141 American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, 130, 141 American Society of Personnel Administra- tors survey, 136 Antinepotism rules, 136 Association of Flight Attendants, 142 AT&T child care program, 134, 135 parental leave policy, 144 B Baby boomers, 23 Bank of America, child care initiative, 134 247 Belgium child care programs, 168 economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 165 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 Benefits (nonwage), 9 evolution, 23, 40 government role in shaping, 12 levels of compensation, 23 payment, 13-14 providers, 12-13 union role in obtaining, 11 - 12 see also Family-related benefits; Standard employee benefits; Voluntary benefits and programs Blacks disabled, 84-85 educational attainment, 40 family structure, 49 family-work conflicts, 50 health insurance status, 109 income, 28, 33-34 labor force participation, 24, 25 life satisfaction, 50 poverty rates, 30, 65-66, 76 single-adult households, 28, 30 unemployment, 40 in unions, 36

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248 C Cafeteria plans, see Flexible benefit programs California Child Care Initiative, 134 disability laws, 93, 148 Canada child allowance programs, 147, 151 economic performance, 171, 173 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 164, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare programs, 156, 157, 159 Caregivers depression, 46 for disabled adults, 85 earnings, 79 for elderly people, 73-74 family day care providers, 129 Center care, 22, 79-80 Chicago Five Hospital Home-Bound Elderly Program, 71 Child care and absenteeism, 58, 59, 62, 74 availability and need, 3, 56, 59, 64, 81 by babysitters (in-house), 77, 79 benefits to employers, 74-75, 145 in Canada and Western Europe, 168-170 center-based, 77, 78, 79-80, 86 and child development, 47, 62, 83 costs of, 56, 64, 81-82, 83 development block grant program, 152 and elder care by women, 73-74 employee participation, 102, 134 employers' concerns about education and, 77 employer-sponsored, 2, 4, 22, 84, 115, 119, 128, 132, 145 family day care, 77, 79, 86 finding, 59 firm size and, 102, 137-138 government programs, 81-82, 84, 146, 147, 151-152 health and safety concerns, 48 insurance liability issues, 134 legislative initiatives, 146-147, 152 by nannies, 77, 78-79 occupational status and, 61-62 by parents, 43, 52, 77-78, 80 patterns and trends, 75-76 problems of parents, 16, 56 and productivity at work, 60 quality, 47-48, 59, 64, 83-84 INDEX regulation, 79, 80, 83 by relatives, 56, 77, 78-79 resource and referral services, 134-135, 146, 153 for school-age children, 59, 133 school-based, 77, 78, 79-80 self-care, 78 for sick children, 133 in single-parent families' 76 summer camp programs, 133 types, 77-80, 115 union negotiations for, 131, 141-142 vouchers, discounts, 115, 133, 146 and work schedule, 56, 77, 86, 128, 133 work-site centers, 131-133, 147 Child development child care and, 47, 62, 83 mother's work status and, 46, 127 in single-parent families, 3 work and, 3, 47-48 Child labor laws, 131 Childbearing costs in wages lasts, 123 women's employment and, 24, 56 Children demands on parents. 31 effects of job-related travels on, 52 gender stereotypes, 47 health insurance coverage, 110, 112, 148 homeless, 76 latchkey, 78, 81 in poverty, 28, 76 responsibilities A in families, 20 well-being, 62 Children's age and care arrangements, 79-80 and changes in work locations, 61 and child care availability, 47, 59 and labor force participation by mothers, 26-27, 57, 75 and parental absenteeism from work, 58 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 88, 118 Civil Service Employee Association, 141 Civil Service Retirement System, 98 Collective bargaining, 11-12 family care initiatives, 140-145 goals, 20, 22, 36, 41 in Western Europe, 161 Communication Workers of America, 141, 144 Community care, 69-72 Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconcilia- tion Act of 1985, 99

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INDEX Counseling, 115-116, 128, 135 Cross-national comparisons alternative schedules and locations, 166- 168 evolution of social welfare provisions, 155-156 government-supported child care programs, 168-170 holidays and vacations, 160-161 maternity and family leaves, 161-164 part-time work, 164-166 quality of life, 170-177 social welfare expenditures, 157-160 see also individual countries Cuban Americans, 49 Current Population Survey, 35, 57, 84, 101, 105, 109, 128 D Data collection, 197-198 constraints, 9-10 establishment-level, 239-240 on individuals and families, 237-239 needs, 5, 237-240 Day care centers, employer-supported, 11 Death benefits, 88, 116 Demonstration projects, 5, 71 Denmark child care programs, 168, 169 economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160, 161 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 161, 162 part-time work, 165 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 Department of Veterans Affairs, 70, 71 Dependent care, 4 approaches, 16 availability, 3 costs, 86 counseling programs, 135 for disabled adults, 84-85 employer-supported, 2, 85-86, 131-134 firm size and, 138 flextime and, 127-128 government-supported, 16 and health of caregiver, 46, 49, 54 and labor force participation, 57 life cycle and responsibilities, 86 regulation, 86 by relatives, 19, 57 tax credits, 12, 16, 72, 82, 146, 147 249 work schedule and, 52 see also Child care; Elder care; Quality of dependent care Dependent Care Assistance Plans, 115, 137, 141-142, 146 Dependents (other than children) effects of work on, 48-49 Depression in caregivers, 46, 54 in employed wives, 46 in husbands of employed women, 46 Direct services providers, 13 see also Child care; Counseling; Elder care; Health insurance Disabled adults/disability care for, 19, 49, 54, 57, 84-85 definition, 84 earnings, 85 employer programs, 4 funding for programs, 85 in nursing homes, 84 participation in programs, 85 prevalence and severity, 84 race/ethnicity, 84-85 rehabilitation programs, 85 spouses, 49, 85 work losses, 84 Disability insurance/programs, 4, 23, 85, 88, 100 availability, 118 costs, 92-96 employee participation, 102, 107 employer costs, 104 firm size and, 102 life-cycle stage and, 115-116 long-term, 96, 97, 100, 102, 107 pregnancy-related claims, 124 short-term programs, 92, 100, 112, 117, 121 state laws, 93-95, 117 Disability leave, 111, 115 Discounts on goods and services, 96, 102 Discrimination effects on workers, 15-16 maternity-related, 121 -122 Divorce and health coverage, 115 hours worked and, 51 and labor force participation by women, 20-21, 24, 29, 46 Dual-earner families careers of both parents, 61-62 child care as percentage of income, 82

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250 earnings, 30-31 employment, 30-31 evolution of, 20-21 family performance, 44, 62 flexible benefit plans, 137 growth, 1, 7, 23, 41 household responsibilities, 31, 52 job performance, 44, 62 marital satisfaction, 46, 62 social acceptability, 23-24 E Earned time off policies, 115 Earnings of disabled adults, 85 and employment, 24-39; see also Family income; Income and health insurance status, 109 marital status and, 55 race/ethnicity and, 37-38 Economic conditions and family structure, 49 and labor force participation rates, 40 Economic performance and quality of life, 170-177 and wages, 24 Economic Recovery Act off 1981, 137 Economic security, 15, 46 Economies industrial, 19-21 preindustrial, 18-19 Education on benefit programs, 5 and earnings, 25-26 employers' concerns, 77 and employment, 25-26, 39, 76-77 and labor force composition, 24 and labor force participation by women, 25-26 and labor shortages, 40 public, 20, 76 quality, 76-77 and race segregation, 38 sex differences, 25 subsidized, 96, 102 . . . . union bargaining initiatives, 141 - 142 Elder care and absenteeism, 58 availability, 70 and child care by women, 73-74 by children, 57 community-based programs, 70-72 costs, 64, 66, 73 INDEX elements, 73 employer-based programs, 4, 116, 119 and family responsibilities, 66, 73 federal support, 70-72 geographic mobility and, 72 home, 66-70, 86 long-term, use, 67 need for, 48 noninstitutional services, 69 in nursing homes, 66-69, 71, 86 paid, 66, 68, 69-72, 86 payment, 70-71 predictor of institutionalization, 72 problems in obtaining, 16 projections, 67 providers, 73 by relatives, 2, 19, 46, 57, 66, 68, 71-74 time expenditures, 74 types, 66-68 unpaid, 72-74 women's employment and, 31, 49, 72, 73-74 Elderly people economic status and health, 86 frail, 66, 70, 71, 72 geographic distribution, 65, 72 income, 65, 66 living arrangements, 65, 70 population growth, 31, 48, 64-65, 72 in poverty, 65-66 use of long-term care, 67 use of paid home and community services, 70-71 Empire State Child Care system, 132, 140 Employee Assistance Programs, 115, 119, 135 Employee Retirement Income Security Act, 96, 98 Employer-supported policies and programs alternative schedules and locations, 124- 130 bases for changes, 10-11 business conditions and, 143-145 costs, 12, 104, 144, 242 counseling, 135, 191-192 dependent care, 4, 22, 131-134, 192-193 development, implementation, and dissemination, 5, 195-197 direct provision of services, 4-5, 13, 190-191 effects on employers, 4-5, 123-124, 133-134, 145, 153 effects on families, 4-5, 53-54 employee participation, 97, 102

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INDEX flexible benefits, 4, 194-195 government support, 5 health insurance, 2, 5, 16-17, 193-194 industry and occupational differences' 139 legal constraints, 130-131 by life-cycle stages, 115-116 research needs, 242 resource and referral services, 4, 84, 134-135 size of firm and, 2, 12, 97, 101, 102, 112, 138-139 types, 2 unionization and, 11, 140 women employees and, 139 workplace culture and, 140, 143 see also Benefits; Insurance; Leave Employment definition, 9 and earnings, 24-39 and health insurance status, 109 interdependence between families and, 43 projected trends, 39-40, 41 by sector, 34-35 status by working status of spouse, 28 see also Self-employment; Work Equal employment opportunity, 8, 15-16 government programs, 148-150, 131 Equal Employment Opportunity Commis- sion, 121-122 Europe, see Western Europe; and specific countries European Economic Community, parental leave legislation, 163-164 Extended family constellations, 19 F Fair Labor Standards Act, 130 Families changes in composition, 1, 7, 18-21, 40 definition, 9, 26 economic well-being, 41 effects of work, 2-3, 44-54, 181, 240 241 effects on work, 3, 23, 54-62, 181-183, 241 in industrial economies, 19-20 interdependence between employment and, 43 in preindustrial economies, 18-19 size trends, 30-31 traditional, 20, 22 251 see also Dual-earner families; Extended family constellations; Household responsibilities; Low-income families; Minority families; Single-adult households; Single-earner families Family and Medical Leave Act of 1990, 150 Family Assistance Act of 1988, 150 Family assistance programs, 40, 151 Family day care, 79 Family income distribution trends, 29 household composition and location, 33 race/ethnicity and, 33-34 Family leave Canada and Western Europe, 161-164 costs of implementing policies, 149-150 effects on families, 4, 154 employer contributions, 105-106 legislation, 120-121 by occupation, 119 types and definition, 117 union bargaining initiatives, 141-142 in United States, 148-150 Family-related benefits alternative schedules and locations, 124- 131 employer-sponsored programs, 114-138 family support services, 131-136 flexible benefit programs, 136-138 and health insurance, 2 legal constraints, 130-131 see also Child care; Employer-supported policies and programs Family status and effects of terms of employment, 43 and employment and earnings, 26-27, 40, 41 Fathers child care by, 52, 77, 80 responsibilities, 20 use of leave, 122-123, 163 Federal Employees Health Insurance System, 137 Federal Unemployment Tax Act of 1939, 92 Female-headed families benefit coverage, 102 earnings, 41 labor force participation by mothers, 76 minorities, 49 poverty rates, 76 prevalence, 28, 41 Fertility, and labor force composition, 24

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252 Financial assistance programs, by life-cycle stages of employees, 115-116 Finland child care programs, 169 economic performance, 171, 173 expenditures on social welfare, 159 maternity leave, 161 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 164, 165 quality of life, 174, 176 Flexible benefit programs, 4, 114, 153 disadvantages, 144 employee satisfaction, 137 firm size and, 138-139 health insurance, 136-137 by occupation, 119 Flexible spending accounts, 13, 137, 138 Flexibile work schedules, 114 advantages to employees, 167 benefits to employers, 145 compressed work week, 125, 127, 131, 167 effects, 2, 3, 4, 127, 188-189 employee abuses, 127 firm size and, 138 flextime, 125, 127, 128, 131, 138, 145, 167 home-based work, 125, 128-129, 153 job sharing, 125, 128, 167 legal constraints, 130-131 life-cycle stages and, 115 maxiflex, 127 occupation and, 167 and overtime, 131 phased retirement, 125 regulation, 129 union bargaining initiatives, 141-142 in Western Europe, 167 Food stamps, 65 Ford, Henry, 22 Ford Foundation, 133 Ford Motor Company, welfare capitalism in, 21-22 Framingham Heart Study, 53 France child care programs, 168-169 economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 161 part-time work, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 Funeral leave, 97, 101, 107 INDEX G Gender stereotypes' 47 Geographic mobility of workers effects of family on, 54, 62 and elder care, 72 Germany economic performance, 171, 173 health insurance, 162 holiday and vacation leave, 160, 161 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 161, 162 part-time work, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social insurance, 156, 166 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 Government programs and policies, 8 alternative policies, 198-201 benefit programs in United States, 90-91; see also specific programs Canada and Western Europe, 168-170 for child care, 132 exemptions from benefit coverage, 12 for elder care, 70 employee participation, 97 equal employment opportunity, 148-150 family leave, 148-150 tax credits and incentives, 12, 14, 23, 146-148 for working poor, 150-152 see also Public sector Great Depression, 22, 88 Greece maternity leave, 162 H Hawaii, disability laws, 93, 148 Head Start, 77, 83, 84 Health caregivers, 54 children in care settings, 48 job satisfaction and, 52 multiple roles and, 52-53 outcomes in Western Europe, 176 social support at work and, 53 work and, 45-46, 62 Health care costs and coverage, 16, 99 government role, 16-17 long-term, 16 physician visits by uninsured people, 110-111 uncompensated care costs, 111

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INDEX Health insurance, 5, 8, 11, 96, 98-99 for children, 110, 112, 148 cost, availability, and participation, 15, 98-99, 105-109, 112, 152 coverage, 105-109, 143-144 employee participation, 97, 102, 107 employer costs, 96, 99, 104, 112, 143- 144 family coverage, 107, 108, 109, 115 family-oriented benefits and, 2 flexible coverage plans, 136-137 firm size and, 12, 99, 102, 106, 109 government initiatives, 152 life-cycle stage and, 115-116 long-term care, 119 mandatory employer-provided, 16-17, 152 maternity leave and, 123 nonparticipants, characteristics of, 108 occupation and, 119 regulation, 99 as a standard benefit, 89 union negotiations for, 89 see also Uninsured Americans Health Interview Survey, 110 Health promotion plans, 115, 119 High school dropouts, 39, 56 Hispanics economic conditions within communities, 49 educational attainment, 40 health insurance status, 109 income, 28, 33-34 labor force participation, 24, 25-26 poverty rates, 30, 66, 76, 109 single-adult households, 28, 30 unemployment, 40 in unions, 36 Holiday leave, 96, 97, 101, 107, 115, 160-161 Home care for elderly people benefits, 71 demonstration projects, 71 and nursing home and hospital use, 71 paid, 69-72 tax incentives, 72 unpaid, 72-74 see also Elder care Home health aides, 69 Home-based work, 125, 128-131 Homemakers full-time, 2, 7, 22, 145 help for elderly people, 69 men as, 30 Household responsibilities discrimination, 15-16 253 in dual-earner families, 31 and health, 46 housework, 43 and job-related travel, 52 lack of time for, 3 of men, 25, 31, 43 and productivity at work, 60 specialization in, 19 and stress, 43 technology and, 20 of women, 31, 43, 60 see also Child care; Elder care Households, definition of, 25 Housing subsidies, 65 IBM,74,135, 144 Income, 44-45 and availability of benefits, 112, 158 child care costs as percentage of, 82 of elderly people, 65 household, 33 and men and women by occupation, 32- 33 minimum, 15, 20 race/ethnicity and, 28, 33-34, 37 real, and benefits, 3 and stress, 60 supplements, 15 tax rates, 3 in Western Europe, 175 and work-family interference, 62 see also Family income; Wages Identity, work and, 44-45 Industrialization, and labor force composi- tion, 24 Industry benefit differences by, 103 and earnings variation, 34-35 and employer costs for benefits, 104 and employer-sponsored programs, 2, 101, 139 private-public partnerships in education, 77 and unionization, 34-36 Infants attachment to mothers, 48 leave for care, 122, 149 out-of-home care, 47, 59, 79, 81, 86 Insurance, see Health insurance; Life insurance Internal Revenue Service, on-site child care for employees, 132

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254 International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 142, 144 International comparisons, see Cross . . . national comparisons International Ladies Garment Workers, 142 International Union of Electrical Workers, 142 Italy economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 162 part-time work, 164, 165 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 J Job demands, see Terms of employment Job performance in dual-earner families, 44 effects of families, 54, 62 Job satisfaction, 52, 74, 127, 130, 133 Job sharing, 125, 127, 128, 167 Jobs availability of, and labor force participa- tion, 56-57 opportunities for women, 24, 26 sectoral shift in availability, 24 Jury duty leave, 97, 101, 107 L Labor demand and benefits, 88 and women's employment, 24 Labor force composition of, 41 turnover, 62 Labor force participation availability of jobs and, 56-57 effects of families, 55-57 family status and, 41, 55 and health, 45, 62 marital status and, 42 by men, 25, 28, 42 motivation, 57 race/ethnicity and, 25-26, 28, 41 sex differences, 36, 41 and work status of spouse, 28 Labor force participation by women age of children and, 26, 57 causes of increase, 20-21, 23, 24 and childbearing, 24 INDEX and child development, 47 education and, 25-26 effects on families, 2-3, 7 and elder care? 31, 49 as heads of households, 76 and husbands' attitudes toward wives, 45, 46, 62 husband's occupation and, 30 family status and, 26-27 importance, 45 marital status and, 24, 29, 56 `'Mommy track," 61 in nontraditional occupations, 47 projections, 25, 39-40 race/ethnicity and, 25-26 social acceptability, 23-24 trends, 1, 23, 25, 56 and work schedules, 56-57 and work status of spouse, 28 Labor movement' weakening of, 11; see also Collective bargaining; Unions/ . . . unionization Labor supply and benefits, 11 shortages, 40 Leave availability of, 117-123, 185 costs of, 124 effect on employers, 123-124 effects on families, 122, 185-187 employer attitudes on, 54, 122- 123, 140, 143 flexible, 128 government programs, 148-150 by life-cycle stages, 115-116 mandatory entitlement, 119-120 scope of the problem, 1 l 7-123 unpaid, 101, 144, 154 see also specific kinds of leave Legal constraints on benefit programs, 130-131 Leisure time, 43 Life expectancy, and labor force composi- tion, 24 Life insurance, 96, 97, 100, 104, 107, 115-116 for dependents, 115 Life satisfaction, in minority families, 50 Location of work alternatives, 4, 128-130, 167-168 effects of families, 3, 4 flexible, 127, 128-129, 167, 189-190 home-based, 127, 128-129, 167-168 relocation policies, 136 sex differences in willingness to move, 61

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INDEX Western Eurpoean policies, 167-168 Low-income families benefit coverage, 103, 106, 112 child care arrangements, 78-79, 81 corporate community school for children, 77 effects o:t child care on children, 48 effects of work, 3 labor force participation by mothers, 20 quality of dependent care, 83 work-family interference, 62 Low-wage workers benefit coverage, 12, 15 economic security for, 15 M Marital satisfaction hours worked and, 51 work and, 46 Marital status and earnings, 55 and elder care by children, 57 and labor force participation, 42, 46, 55- 56 and schedule, 55 Marriage leave for, 115 women's employment and, 24 Married women labor force participation, 2, 20, 26, 75-76 part-time work, 125-126, 166 unpaid work, 22 Maternity leave, 2, 4 availability, 113, 117, 153 definition, 117 employer-sponsored programs, 115 and employment during pregnancy, 56 legislative initiatives, 148 occupation and, 119 and public assistance costs due to lack, 123 use, 123 in Western Europe, 161-164 Meals on wheels, 69 Medicaid, 65, 70, 152, 152 coverage of in-home services, 71 expenditures for benefits, 71, 91 payment of family members for elder care, 71-72 "spend down" for nursing home care, 68 Medicare, 65, 70, 86, 99, 112, 152 expenditures on home care for elderly people, 71 255 Part A, 91 Part B. 91 Men effects of shift work, 51 employment as a part of identity, 44-45 labor force status, 27 see also Fathers; Paternity leave Mexican Americans, 49, 50 Military leave, 97, 101, 107 Minimum Health Benefits for All Workers Act, 152 Minority families earnings, 41 effects of work, 3, 48-49 labor force participation, 25, 40, 41, 56 life satisfaction, 50 perspectives on work and family, 49-50 in poverty, 76 structural changes, 49 "Mommy track," 61 Mothers, responsibilities of, 20 N Nanny care, 78-79 National Federation of Independent Businesses, 103 National Health Interview Survey, 58-59 National Informal Survey of Caregivers, 73 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 135 National Long-Term Care Survey, 66, 68, 73 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 82 National Nursing Home Survey, 68 National Research Council Panel on Child Care Policy, 149 National Survey of Caregivers, 57 National Survey of Families and House- holds, 85 National Treasury Employees Association, 141 Netherlands, 157 child care programs, 168-169 economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160, 161 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 162 part-time work, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159 New Deal, 88 New Jersey, disability laws, 94, 148, 149 New York, disability laws, 94, 148, 149 Newspaper Guild, 142

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256 Norway economic performance, 171, 173 expenditures for public assistance programs, 159 holiday and vacation leave, 160 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 165 quality of life, 174, 176 Nursing home care avoidance by elderly people, 72-73 bed supply, 66, 69, 72 costs, 66, 68, 69, 86 for disabled adults, 84 and family responsibilities, 66 Medicaid payment, 68-69 profit status of institutions, 68 quality, 68, 69 quality of life, 69 regulation, 69 staff, 69 o Occupational safety and health rules, 8, 131 Occupational segregation, 36, 38, 60 Occupational stressors, 53 Occupations and demand for women's labor, 21 and earnings, 32-34 and employer-sponsored programs, 2, 112, 139 family-related benefit programs by, 119 fastest growing, 40 and household responsibilities, 32 husband's, and labor force participation by wives, 30 and paid leave coverage, 111, 112 . . . . . A. ant . participation in neneilt programs, 107 status of, and dependent care, 61-62 and terms of employment, 22, 32-34 and work schedule, 125 see also Jobs Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers, 142 Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance, 91 Older Americans Act, 70, 71 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, 71 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, 151 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries, holiday and vacation leave, 160-161 INDEX p Paid leave, 4 amount, 111 Canada and Western Europe, 160-164 coverage, 111, 112-113 definition, 117 employee participation, 97, 107 employer costs, 96, 104 firm size and, 111 occupation and, 111 voluntary benefits, 100-101 see also specific types of leave Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 57, 58, 59, 101, 123 Parental leave, 115, 117, 122, 140, 141-142, 144, 148-149, 163 Part-time work/workers advantages, 126 benefits, 2, 27, 101, 105, 126, 166 Canada and Western Europe, 164-166 commitment to work, 57 defined, 125 disadvantages, 27, 51, 127 effects on families, 4, 187-188 and elder care, 68 employer motivation, 127 growth, 35-36 and health insurance, 17, 126 job sharing, 127-128 and marital satisfaction, 51 marital status and, 56 permanent, 127 phased retirement, 127 policies encouraging, 165-166 sectoral trends, 34, 35-36 sex differences, 27, 50, 56 voluntary, 128 wages, 105, 126 in Western Europe, 164-166 by women, 165 work sharing, 127-128 see also Flexible work schedules Paternalism, 21, 134 Paternity leave, 53-54 availability, 122, 153 definition, 117 occupation and, 119 use, 143 Western Europe, 162 Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, 98 Pension/retirement benefits, 2, 8, 11, 20, 23, 88, 96, 98 child-care-related losses, 81 defined benefit, 97, 98, 107

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INDEX defined contribution, 97, 98, 107 employee participation, 97, 101, 107 employer costs, 96, 104 evolution, 88 firm size and, 102 life-cycle stage and, 115-116 maternity leave and, 123 regulation, 98 union negotiations, 89 see also Social Security Personal care for elderly people, 69 Race/ethnicity Personal leave, 97, 101, 107, 115, 119 Polaroid, 133 Poor, working child care as percentage of income, 82 elects of tax credits, 146 and health insurance coverage, 110 public programs, 150-152 Postal Workers/Letter Carriers, 142 Poverty children, 28, 76 and dependent care, 19, 69, 81 elderly people, 65-66, 69 and health insurance coverage, 109 level, for family of four, 33 race/ethnicity and, 65-66 rates, 28-29 and work-family stress, 76 Pregnancy disability, 117, 140 employment during, 56 Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 118, 121 122, 148, 153-154 Productivity at work child care arrangements and, 60, 145 flextime and, 145 Public sector family-oriented programs offered, 139 growth of jobs, 36 Puerto Ricans, 49 Puerto Rico, disability laws, 94, 148 Q Quality of dependent care child care, 47-48, 59, 64, 83-84 and costs, 83 employer programs, 132 evaluation, 16 factors affecting, 86 job status and, 62 measures, 83 nursing homes, 68, 69 stress in caregiver and, 49 257 terms of employment and, 42 Quality of Employment Survey, 50-51, 54, 57, 61, 103 Quality of life economic performance and, 170-177 in nursing homes, 69 work schedule and, 51-52 R and disability, 84-85 of elderly people in poverty, 65-66 and employment and earnings, 36-38 and income, 28, 33-34, 37 and labor force participation, 24, 25-26, 41 and poverty rates, 76 segregation by, 38 and union membership, 36 see also Blacks; Hispanics; Minority families Recruitment of workers and benefit packages, 114, 133, 143 effects of family, 54 Research approaches case studies, 43 surveys, 44; see also specific surveys Research needs, 197-198 costs of employer programs, 10, 242 on dependent care, 6, 16 effects of employment on families, 6, 240-241 effects of families on work performance, 241 effects of occupational status, 61 productivity of workers, 9-10 Resource and referral services, 4, 84, 128, 134-135, 141-142 Respite care, 69 Retention of workers benefits and, 144 effects of family, 3, 54 Retired people, 20 health benefits, 99 Retirement age of, 25; see also Pension/retirement benefits phased, 125, 127 Retirement Equity Act, 96 Rhode Island, disability laws, 94, 148 Role conflict and overload and child development, 48 and mothers with infants, 48

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258 social support at work and, 53 in women, 45~6, 48 Rural-to-urban migration, 24 S Satisfaction, see Job satisfaction; Marital satisfaction Schedules, work income, 28 male-headed, 55 part-time work, 27 in poverty, 76 prevalence, 27-28 problems, 28 work-family interference, 62 see also Female-headed families Single-earner families earnings, 27-30 terms of employment, 22 Single mothers afternoon shifts, 51 alternative, in Canada and Western Europe, 164-166 and child care, 56, 77, 86 effects of families, 54 effects on families, 4, 32, 42, 43, 50-52, 54 hours and weeks worked, 3, 22, 32, 34, 38, 51, 54, 55, 89, 124-125 and interaction of family, 77 legal constraints, 88, 130-131 marital status and, 55 negotiation, 89 night shifts, 51 occupation and, 125 racial/ethnic differences in, 38 Social insurance traditional, 124-125 see also Flexible work schedules; Part time work/workers Scientists and engineers, women, 60-61 Self-employment, 9, 129 Service Employees International Union, 105, 108, 141 Services sector Sex demand for women, 24, 34 employment shift, 40 growth, 35, 41 and earnings, 32-33, 36-38 and home-to-work spillover, 55 and household responsibilities, 19 and labor force participation, 24-26, 41 and location of work, 61 nonday shifts, 50 rotating shifts, 50 segregation, 32 and union membership, 36 and work schedules, 50 Sick child/family member leave, 2, 101, 119, 121, 141-142, 170 Sick leave, 2, 4, 23, 89, 96, 97, 101, 102, 107, 112, 115, 119 Single-adult households child care problems, 76, 81, 82 effects of work, 3, 55 growth, 1 INDEX absenteeism from work, 58 labor force participation, 26, 56 poverty rates, 29-30 prevalence, 49 see also Female-headed families; Single- adult households Small businesses benefits provided, 89 effects of leave policies, 124 growth, 35, 41 health insurance, 12, 99, 106, 109 evolution, 40, 91 provisions in other countries, 155-157, 166, 170 Social policy in Canada and Western Europe, 155-160 Social Security, 8, 12, 65, 86, 89, 112 compliance problems of small firms, 122 disability benefits, 100 exemption, 137 funding, 91, 98 initiation, 20, 22, 88, 90-91 retirement benefits, 91, 98 Social Security Act of 1935, 90-91 Social support at work, 53-54 Social welfare expenditures in other countries, 157- 160 in United States and Canada, 156 Spouse benefits, life-cycle stage and, 115-116 Standard employee benefits aggregate value, 89-90 coverage among workers, 101-111 employee costs, 106 employer costs, 23, 90, 92, 104 evolution, 87-90, 112 federal programs, 90-91 legally required, 23, 90-96, 104, 112 state programs, 91-96 tax exemptions, 92 State benefit programs, 91-96

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INDEX Stress counseling programs for, 135 defined, 54 income level and, 60, 76 and job performance, 62 job satisfaction and, 61-62 level of job and, 60, 61-62 role conflict and, 54, 127 Stride-Rite Intergenerational Center, 131 Supplemental Security Income program, 85 Supplementary Medical Insurance, 91 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 56, 82, 101, 117, 122, 123 Surveys, about employee benefits, 87; see also specific surveys Sweden child care programs, 168, 169, 170 economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160 income distribution, 175 maternity leave, 161-162 part-time work, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 159 Switzerland economic performance, 171, 173 income distribution, 175 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 158, 159 T Tardiness at work child care and, 74 effects of families, 3, 10, 54, 62 flexible schedules and, 127 sources, 58-59 Tax credits and incentives, 14 changes in, 3 costs to government, 90, 147, 151, 152 for dependent care, 12, 16, 72, 82, 84, 137, 146, 147, 154 earned income, 15, 84, 145, 147, 151 effect on benefits, 11, 12, 90, 112 employer-based, 23, 112, 146-147 evolution, 40 for home care, 72 income splitting, 145 legislative initiatives, 146, 147-148 value to workers, 103 wage levels and benefits of exemptions, 92 Technology and household responsibilities, 20 and labor force composition, 24 259 Teenagers employment during pregnancy, 56 unemployment rates, 39 Telephone contact arrangements for children, 133 monitoring for elderly people, 69-70 Terms of employment effects on families, 3, 4, 42, 50, 52-53, 184-195 post World War II, 22 and quality of dependent care, 42 see also Leave; Location of work; Part- time work/workers; Schedules, work Title XX, 70, 84 Transportation services, for elderly people, 69-70 Travel, job-related, effects on families, 52 Travelers' Companies, 74 U Unemployment, 38-39 age and, 39 education and, 39 insurance, 8, 12, 23, 92, 112, 122, 138 race/ethnicity and, 39, 49 rates, 38-39, 40 sex and, 38 Uninsured Americans, characteristics, 2, 109-111, 112 Unions/unionization and benefit coverage, 101, 103, 112 collective bargaining for benefits, 11-12, 41, 89, 96, 131, 141-142 and employment and earnings, 36 and family-related benefits, 140 industry differences in representation, 36-37 opposition to home-based work, 130-131 public-sector, 11, 132, 140 race/ethnicity and, 36 sex and 36 and wages, 36, 41 and welfare capitalism, 22, 88 United Auto Workers, 141 United Food and Commercial Workers, 142 United Kingdom economic performance, 171, 173 holiday and vacation leave, 160, 161 home-based workers, 168 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 159

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260 United Mine Workers Association, 140, 141 United States economic performance, 171, 173 income distribution, 175 part-time work, 164-165, 166 quality of life, 174, 176 social welfare expenditures, 157, 158, 159 social welfare programs, 156 United Steel Workers, 141 Universal benefits, 158 U.S. National Income and Product Accounts, 111 Vacation leave, 2, 11, 23, 101, 105, 112, 115 employee participation, 97, 102, 107 firm size and, 102 occupation and, 119 policies in United States, 88, 89, 96, 161 policies in Western Europe, 160-161 Veterans' Benefits and Services Act of 1987, 71 Voluntary benefits and programs, 11 alternative schedules, 166-167 alternative work sites, 167-168 availability, 112 death benefits, 23 disability insurance, 100 employer costs, 96 factors affecting, 11, 90 growth, 144 health insurance, 23, 98-99 life insurance, 23, 100 outlook for improvements, 113 Workers paid leave, 23, 100-101 part-time work, 164-166 pension plans, 23, 98 regulation, 96, 117 tax status, 13 in Western Europe, 164-168 see also Family-related benefits Volunteerism, labor force participation by women and, 13 W Wages INDEX and labor force composition, 24 minimum, 20, 150-151 unions membership and, 36 see also Earnings; Income Walsh-Healy Act, 130 Welfare capitalism, 21-22, 88 Western Europe child allowance programs, 147, 151 government expenditures, 159 leave arrangements, 150 Women employees earnings, 24, 34 effects of work, 2-3 and employer support programs, 139 family pressures, 31 scientists and engineers, 60-61 in unions, 36 see also Married women Work characteristics, see Schedules, work; Terms of employment and children's well-being, 47~8 effects of families, 3, 23, 54-62, 181 183, 241 effects on family, 2-3, 44-54, 181, 240 241 and identity, 44-45 incentive programs, 150 interruptions, 3, 62 and health, 45-46 and marital satisfaction, 46 problems related to families, 3 sharing, 127 see also Employment; Labor force participation; Occupations productivity measures, 10 supply, 23 Workers' compensation, 8, 85, 88, 91-92, 112, 131 Workplace changes in, 21-24 culture and employer-supported programs, 140, 143 modern era through World War II, 21-22 post World War II, 22-23 y and benefits coverage, 101 economic conditions and, 24 Yale Bush Center Advisory Committee on Infant Care Leave, 149