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FORE TRY RESEARCH A MANDATE FOR CHANGE Committee on Forestry Research Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. i990

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National Academy Press . 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. . Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authom according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This Board on Biology and Board on Agriculture report is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture [Forest Service and Cooperative State Research Service (Contract No. 88-G-034-1~], the Society of American Forestem, and the National Association of Professional Forestry Schools and Colleges. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not nec~=rily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Society of American Forestem, or the National Association of Professional Forestry Schools and Colleges. Library of Congress cataloging Publication Data Forestry research: a mandate for change / Committee on Forestry Research, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Biology [and] Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04248-8 1. Forests and forestry Research United States. 2. Forest and forestry United States. 3. Forests and forestry Research. I. National Research Council (U.S.~. Board on Biology. Committee on Forestry Research. II. National Research Council (U.S.~. Board on Agriculture. SD356.5.F67 1990 634.9 '072073-dc20 90-6344 CIP Copyright ~ 1990 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, or may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government. Printed in the United States of America Cover photograph: LANDSAT photograph of the Ocala National Forest in Florida, courtesy of Randy Kautz, Flonda Game and Fish Commission.

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COMMITTEE ON FORESTRY RESEARCH JOHN C. GORDON (Chairman), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut WILLIAM ~ ATKINSON, Oregon State University, Co~vallis ELLIS B. COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MARY L. DURYEA, University of Florida, Gainesville GEORGE F. DUTROW, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina DONALD R. FIELD, University of Wisconsin, Madison RICHARD F. FISHER, Utah State University, Logan JERRY F. FRANKLIN, USDA Forest Service, University of Washington, Seattle DAVID W. FRENCH, University of Minnesota, St. Paul WILLIAM ~ GLADSTONE, Weyerhaeuser Company (retired), Hot Springs, Arkansas LAWRENCE D. HARRIS, University of Florida, Gainesville LOIS K MILLER, University of Georgia, Athens JAMES R. SEDELL, USDA Forest Sentence, Conallis, Oregon RONALD R. SEDEROFF, North Carolina State University, Raleigh DAVID B. THORUD, University of Washington, Seattle NRC Staff CLIFFORD J. GABRIEL, Study Director CAITILIN GORDON, Editor KATHY L. MARSHALL, Senior Secretary/Project Assistant Advisor JOHN ERICKSON, USDA Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin . . . 1H

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetu- ating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organiza- tion of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The Na- tional Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and rec- ognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appro- priate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Acade- my of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and ad- vising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the princi- pai operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. 1V

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Preface The National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Forestry Research to create a vision of what such research must be like in the future in order for society to achieve desired forest management goals. As part of this vision, the committee addressed how forestry research benefits society in general, research needs of those who use forests, and the financial and human resources that must be called forth to meet those needs. The committee approached forestry research from an integrated, rather than a disciplinary, perspective. The Committee on Forestry Research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Cooperative State Research Service, the Society of American Foresters, and the National Association of Professional Forestry Schools and Colleges. We first met as a committee on January 3~31, 1989. Since that time we have solicited input from a wide variety of forestry and other sources, have held a workshop for interested organizations and individuals (Appendix A), and have reviewed other relevant NRC reports including Man aging Forest Genetic Resources and Opportunities in Biology. We have attempted to examine all pertinent literature and have been given data by the Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, and others. This report is the carefully considered and discussed collective vision of the corn~mittee. This report was developed in parallel with another NRC report the Board on Agriculture's Investing in Research. The Committee on Forestry Research wrote Forestry Research: A Mandate for Change recognizing that v

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. V1 PREFACE the relationship between forestry and agriculture in this country (and else- where) needed to be enhanced and improved. We believe that the time has come to examine both fields and establish a new sense of partnership be- tween agriculture and forestry. This partnership must be based on a broad understanding of both fields and their essential similarities and differences. It will also require a new vision and renewed vigor in the research that supports both. It is in the hope of a massive revitalization of forestry research that we offer this report as a catalyst for discussion and action. JOHN C. GORDON, Chapman Committee on Forestry Research

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 1 SOCIETAL NEEDS AND CONCERNS FOR THE FOREST THE GAP BETWEEN SOCIETY'S NEEDS AND THE STATUS OF FORESTRY RESEARCH ...................... Funding for Forestry Research, 16 The Status of Forestry Education and Intellectual Leadership, 23 3 AREAS OF RESEARCH ............ Biology of Forest Organisms, 28 Ecosystem Function and Management, 33 Human-Forest Interactions, 37 Wood as a Raw Material, 41 International liade, Competition, and Cooperation, 46 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The Nature of Forestry Research, 50 Human Resources, 53 Maximize the Benefits from Increased Forestry Research, 54 Support for Forestry Research, 55 Summary, 58 . . .. . . V11 , . . 1 , . .9 13 ....27 ...50

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V111 REFERENCES . APPENDIXES A Workshop Participants B Research Needs...... Biographical Information on Committee Members. D Board and Commission Rosters.. INDEX .... CONTENTS . . . 59 ..... 61 ....63 . . . . . . .72 . . .75 ..... 79