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APPENDIX B Research Needs BIOLOGY OF FOREST ORGANISMS Physiological and Genetic Bases of the Mechanisms Underlying Forest Health, Productivity, and Adaptability ~ determine the physiological and genetic mechanisms involved in the growth and development of important tree species and other key forest organisms, especially their responses to stress and changing environments. ~ determine the ecological functions of all forest organisms that are critical to the maintenance of forest ecosystems and sustainable forestry. 1b determine the factors that limit population viability of aquatic . and terrestrial organisms. ~ understand the genetic basis for the unique biology of forest organisms, many of which are perennial woody plants or microorganisms that cannot yet be cultured in the laboratory. 1b develop new model systems that allow forest organisms to be investigated in the laboratory or in controlled environments to facilitate studies of forest biology and forest ecosystems. 1b define genetic and environmental factors that determine the characteristics of a forest environment, particularly nutrient uptake, water uptake, and the effects of these on the physiology of forest organisms. ~ use molecular techniques to modify or select improved organ- isms that will be increasingly specialized for specific uses. Examples include trees modified for faster growth or improved wood properties. 63

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64 APPENDIX ~ understand the genomic structure of key forest organisms to fa- cilitate identification of valuable genes or to learn how genetic modification could improve specific characteristics. 1b understand the genetic structure of the populations of important forest organisms and to determine the optimal strategy for conservation or utilization of the forest resource on the basis of the potential effects on the genetic structure of the population. . ~ utilize the technology of molecular biology to understand the basis for the properties and behavior of cells and tissues in culture. ~ develop molecular markers that can monitor environmental stresses in forest organisms and provide early information for evaluating potential threats to the health of a forest ecosystem. 1b examine the genetics of adaptability and productivity of currently and potentially important tree species or hybrids. 1b identify key organisms (including insects and microorganisms- for example, mycorrhizal fungi) that play important roles in forest ecosys- tems and to obtain basic information regarding the genetics and physiology of these organisms and the underlying mechanisms by which they interact with and contribute to other important forest components. ~ obtain basic genetic and physiological information on key or- ganisms, including tree pathogens, that stress plants, with a view to either managing the populations of those organisms or reducing their pathogenic effects. Long-Term Site Productivity 1b understand the factors that regulate site productivity. 1b determine the effects of even-aged management and rotation age on long-term site productivity. ~ determine the effects of various harvesting and intensive man- agement practices on long-term site productivity. ~ increase information on fundamental forest biology, carbon assimilation and allocation, water uptake and nutrient relations, and disease resistance relevant to maintaining and increasing forest productivity. Pest Management 1b understand more fully the basic biology and ecology of forest pest organisms. 1b determine modes of action for host-plant resistance. 1b establish methods of controlling pests while minimizing the development of resistant pest biotypes. 1b establish risk-assessment data for the introduction of genetically engineered biological control agents.

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APPENDIX B ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION AND MANAGEMENT Forest Ecosystem Research 65 To expand knowledge of the structure and dynamics of below- ground portions of forest systems, including the roles played by fungi and other soil organisms in controlling productivity and nutrient cycling. 1b expand knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forest canopies, including their roles as habitat for other organisms and as con- densing and precipitating surfaces for atmospheric materials, including water and particulates. To expand knowledge of long-term changes in the composition, structure, and function of forest ecosystems as they are associated with natural succession and with silvicultural manipulations. 1b examine relationships between forest structure and types and levels of ecological processes (such as productivity) and of organismal diversity, including greatly expanded consideration of organisms other than higher plants and vertebrates. ~ compare the structure and function of natural forest ecosystems and their long-term responses to natural catastrophes and disturbances created by human activities. 1b develop predictive models (including habitat classification) that allow comparison on a range of scales from fine resolution (tree or stand) to forest, biome, and interbiome. ~ develop methods for early diagnosis of stressed ecosystems. Landscape Ecology Tb develop models and other analytic tools for assessing effects of various landscape patterns on resource values over long periods of time. 1b expand information on the effects of forest patch sizes and configurations on such forest attributes as biological diversity. Special attention should be given to the extent and importance of edge or boundary effects on organismal diversity and on catastrophic forest disturbance. 1b develop information and analytic tools for analyzing cumulative effects of forest harvests on hydrologic phenomena and wildlife habitats. 1b expand information on the importance of connectiveness in forest and riverine landscapes, including the use of both corridors and altered matrices in the movement of organisms and materials.

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66 APPENDIX B Global Change ~ analyze the effects of the extent, magnitude, rate, and timing of global change on different forest ecosystems and to identity which forest ecosystems are at greatest risk from changes in climate, ozone, acid rain, and deforestation. ~ determine how the eRects of global change interact with manage- ment practices, such as intensively managed timberlands, parks, watersheds, and timber production. ~ develop methods to proportionally allocate forest stresses to natural and anthropogenic causes. ~ determine how global change is affecting the release of carbon from forest vegetation and soils. ~ determine stress-induced changes in natural emissions of volatile organic compounds by vegetation. 1b investigate the ecological, economic, social, and operational constraints on large-scale reforestation and other silvicultural practices that could be implemented as mitigation or adaptation strategies for global change. . lb determine the effects of global change on the natural distur- bances (fire, wind, drought, and so forth) experienced by different regional forests. ~ To analyze the effects of global change on the amount, timing, and chemistry of water yields from forested watersheds. ~ establish sites along climatic and pollution gradients at which to monitor and evaluate environmental stress and to study manipulated ecosystems over the long term. Biological Diversity . Lb analyze interactions between management practices and bio- logical diversity across levels, from the genetic to species and regional systems. To determine the relationship between biological diversity and for- est health. ~ document and monitor the status and distribution of species, vegetation types, and other levels of biological diversity within forest re- gions. 1b define the relationship between components of biological diver- sity (for example, species richness and threatened and endangered species) and-species distribution in relation to changing climatic conditions. To define the importance and ecological significance of native, convolved elements of biological diversity versus those that are alien.

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APPENDIX B Alternative Silvicultural Systems 67 1b develop silvicultural and agroforestry systems that provide for integrated production of commodities and for maintenance of ecological values. systems. 1b develop silvicultural systems for management of forests for maintenance or enhancement of biological diversity. 1b develop silvicultural systems that will ensure a high level of sustainable productivity by conserving key site resources, including physical and nutritional properties of soil. ~ investigate the relationship between forest structure and the silvicultural systems that provide for greater degrees of structural diversity and ecological values. ~ determine the implications of alternative silvicultural systems for disease, insect, animal damage, brush invasion, wildfire, and logging safety. 1b examine silvicultural patterns, including size of areas selected for treatment and contrasting effects of dispersing versus aggregating harvesting activities. 1b determine the costs associated with alternative silvicultural sys- tems, including values foregone when marketable wood is not harvested. ~ develop methodology for drastically improved and expanded monitoring systems (including habitat classification) necessary to assess performance of new silvicultural systems. This need includes the identifi- cation of suitable variables and the development of sampling and analytic procedures for assessing whether systems are achieving predicted manage- ment goals. 1b investigate impacts on future yields from alternative silvicultural Intensive Management for Wood Production ~ define sites that are especially well suited for efficient wood production through the use of habitat classification and other analytic tools. 1b investigate modifications in forestry practices that will enhance wildlife, water, scenery, and recreational values, and still allow efficient wood production. ~ develop technologies for harvesting, site preparation, regen- eration, early plantation management, and protection of the forest from fire, insects, and disease that minimize the use of potentially dangerous or otherwise unacceptable forestry practices.

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68 APPENDIX B ~ develop techniques of efficient and safe harvest of timber under complex silvicultural systems involving multiple entries, multilayer stands, partial cuts, and the leaving of woody debris on site. 1b determine the silvicultural regimes needed to grow wood of specified quality. ~ determine how genetic improvement of trees will modify silvi- cultural treatments and future growth and yields. HUMAN-FOREST INTERACTIONS Sociology and Forestry forests to thrive. ~ undertake a systematic study of "human capital" for the twenty- first century with special attention to encouraging women and members of minority groups to conduct research and to manage forest systems. ~ establish the human and biological conditions required for urban ~ assess the impact of urbanization at the forest edge. 1b examine the forest industry and dependent communities in transition, since the industry and its workers will continue to change. ~ broaden forest sociology research. Sociological research has been more heavily oriented toward management problems than toward understanding what motivates people to participate in recreational activities, patterns and cycles of use, and recreational trends. ~ expand research that deals with forest regions and forest com- munities. Demographic change, problems of fire, and residential locations on the fringes of USDA Forest Service areas merit research attention. 1b facilitate studies of private and public forest organizations un- dergoing change to better understand forest management practices, policy formation, and technology development. 1b develop educational programs for extension specialists on the utilization of sociological knowledge within extension programming; at the same time to encourage forest social scientists to seek careers in forestry extension. WOOD AS A RAW MATERIAL The Need for a Major and Sustained Commitment to Forest Products Research in the United States 1b understand certain tree species groups since U.S. industries will either use them or meet them in the marketplace. Worldwide, the man-made forests are increasingly growing certain staple forest crops, for example, the pines, eucalyptuses, teaks, and legumes.

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APPENDIX B 69 ~ develop essential technologies for adapting to changes in raw material. Roundwood from U.S. forests is increasingly of smaller size and higher in juvenile wood content. ~ utilize engineered raw material to improve future manufacturing , _ efficiency. For example, the pulp and paper sector of the forest products industry has evolved from a "user of residuals" decades ago to a dominating role today. ~ gather knowledge of the structure and properties physical and chemical-of wood, which is an essential base for improved product design, manufacture, and innovative applications. 1b employ biotechnology in developing new methods for converting existing low-value or residue products from existing wood-processing meth- ods into products of high value. Of particular utility may be microorganisms that can convert low-value products into usable and economically feasible products; genetic engineering may improve the efficiency of these organ- isms. Microorganisms may also provide an improved means of cleaning up waste products of the industry. . ~ improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of de- cay, formulate new approaches to decay control, and develop multifunc- tional chemical treatments that simultaneously contribute durability, weath- ering stability, decay resistance, and fire protection to wood products. 1b pursue manufacturing and process optimization research to increase product yield and manufacturing efficiency through computer- based technology, robotics, defect scanners, mechanized grading devices, and automated drying procedures. ~ develop and improve new pulping processes to mitigate en- vironmental problems from pollutants such as dioxins and chlorofo~. Necessary, too, is the development of nonchlorine bleaching processes, high-value papers using polymeric additives, newsprint from hardwoods and waste paper, and methods to improve the performance of high-yield pulp. ~ improve methods to control costs and production so that labor and equipment can be used with maximum efficiency and cost effectiveness. ~ develop new and improved methods of quality control, which are essential if U.S. products are to be competitive in the marketplace. 1b increase the use of wood in nonresidential construction through new engineering design aides, streamlined engineering calculations, and simplified building code requirements. ~ develop new structural wooden assembly products and associated novel connector systems. ~ improve the recycling of discarded wood products, particularly paper, and to include solutions to subcomponent problems of paper recy- cling, such as de-inking.

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70 APPENDIX B 1b enhance market analysis for wood and wood fiber products in order to create new and expanded opportunities in both domestic and international markets. Timber Harvesting Research To understand relationships among engineering design, silviculture, environment, logger safety, and operating characteristics of the individual machine and the raw material production system (full rotation). fib invent new systems, machines, and technologies to harvest tim- ber under alternative silvicultural systems, safely, at acceptable costs, and with minimal environmental damage. 1b design harvesting systems that are integrated with silvicultural systems and that enhance ail outputs from the forest. 1b develop measurement, sensor, and data-handling technology that will allow data to be more effectively used in engineering design and forestry operations. ~ develop ways of providing information feedback to managers of operations and operators of machines so that environmental, production, and safety goals can be met. ~ develop logger training curricula and materials, to test systems used to teach loggers, and to develop equipment that will be safer for loggers to use. INTERNATIONAL TRADE, COMPETITION, AND COOPERATION Information, Supply, and Demand To develop economic models that incorporate supply and demand information concerning natural resources; these models should project the resource consequences of national and international market strategies and . . po 1cles. ~ collect, analyze, monitor, and disseminate data on domestic and worldwide natural resource inventories and international trade. ~ develop economic models that explore how international trade and debt policies can foster equity among nations in both benefits and costs of environmentally sound management of natural resources coupled with sustainable economic growth. ~ determine the true value of natural resources, focusing on both commodity and noncommodity outputs of the forest environment. Th develop accounting systems for natural resources that accurately resect the value of forest resources and the products thereof.

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APPENDIX B 71 ~ relate forest resources and their management to global warming. This research should investigate both effect of deforestation on global warming and the effects of global warming on forest resources. To identify nations or forest resource conditions that promise com- parative economic advantage for expanded trade. To explore and analyze U.S. and international natural resource policies that will encourage sound land use, integrating forest manage- ment with watershed management to reduce erosion, lessen stream flow alterations, and reduce water pollution. To establish regional International Made and Development Centers (ITDCs) in forest products to overcome the lack of information and analysis that hinders promotion of exports. To address the issue of diminishing fuel wood supplies for growing segments of the world's population.