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Index Administrator and Teacher Survey (1984), 143, 153n.37 Adult influences on children's growing up, 113, 114-115 Affirmative action programs, 194 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 169, 245 denial of benefits, 102-103 recipient characteristics, 239, 244 state benefit variations, 237, 238 American Enterprise Institute, 69 American Housing Survey, 207n.18, 267 Annual Housing Survey, 207n.18 Apartment buildings, 82, 105 Asians, 10~109 Atlanta, Ga. ghetto poverty in, 41 income in, 204 subway system, 23~231 Automobile ownership, 102 Baltimore, Md., 20n.6 ghetto poverty in, 36, 37, 41, 72 recidivism study, 161-162 subway system, 23~231 Blacks, 16 income job proximity and, 196-202 neighborhood effects, 28, 29, 9~97, 168 169, 170 residential segregation and, 187-188, 189-196, 217, 220 school effects, 171-172, 173 suburban employment, 202-206, 218 271 suburban residence, 206 216, 218, 219, 230, 255 in ghettos, 20, 30, 36, 37, 124, 25~259 income, 2S, 29, 96-97, 230 number of, 43-44, 50, 59-67 decreases in, 74, 85, 88, 228 increases in, 35, 37, 39-41, 42-43, 22~229 proportion of, 1, 2, 10, 11, 24, 26, 27, 48 unemployment, 256 middle class, 8, 76, 88, 124 neighborhood effects on, 111, 117-118 crime, 160, 257 educational attainment, 135, 136 137 income, 16~169, 170 teenage sexual behavior, 123, 131n.10, 163-166, 167, 175-176 public housing and, 226, 227 rural poor, 33-34 school effects on, 177 cognitive skills, 140, 14~152, 153, 154, 175 educational attainment, 12~130, 131-132, 133-135, 174 income, 171-172, 173 teenage sexual behavior, 166, 176 and welfare, 237 Boston, Mass., 20n.6 ghetto poverty in, 2, 10, 41, 72 SMSA boundaries, 58 Brooke amendment (1969), 225 Brooklyn (New York), 101-102 Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito, Tex. ghetto poor in, 36, 37

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272 Buffalo, N.Y. poverty neighborhoods, 72 Bush administration, 105 Cabrini-Green housing project (Chicago), 82, 83, 91, 225 California AFDC benefits, 237 Camden, Ad., 21, 25, 39 Census Bureau, l9n.4, 20, 76, 178, 179, 207n.18, 238, 267 Current Population Survey (CPS), 25, 32n.20, 209, 212, 219, 267 data suppression, 56-57, 134n.15 index of poverty, 69 SMSA boundaries, 57 Survey of Economic Opportunity (SEO), 208 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 239, 258, 267 Census tracts as basis for definition of ghetto poverty, 9-10 changes in, 45~7, 7~71, 72 as data sources, 30, 69 data suppression, 5~57 mixed-income, 20, 45, 47, 48~9, 5~51 as neighborhoods, 9, 19-20, 23, 112, 160 Chapter 1 (Education Consolidation and Improvement Act), 241, 242-243 Chicago, Ill. black employment in, 191, 19~193, 194, 195-196, 197 "community areas," 19 high school gangs, 132 housing conditions in, 77, 82, 83, 91 job proximity in, 198, 199, 218 mass transit use, 232 number of ghetto poor, 36, 37 out-migration, 254 poverty neighborhoods, 7~71, 72, 73, 88, 92 economic and social conditions, 78 erects on crime, 157-160, 162, 175 and teenage pregnancy, 123, 165, 166, 167, 175, 257 public housing, 82, 83, 91, 225 residential segregation, 228, 229 suburbs, 117-118, 120n.3 Chicago Housing Authority, 118n.2 Children. See also Teenagers education, family income and, 24~241 in poverty neighborhoods, 3, 83, 108, 111, 112, 113-118 cognitive skills, 13~155, 17~175 crime, 155-162, 175 INDEX educational attainment, 127-138, 174 labor market success, 167-173, 176 measuring effects on, 11~121, 123, 124, 125-126 sexual behavior, 162-167, 175-176 in single-parent families, 17, 27-28, 163, 256 welfare and, 259-260 Child support, 102 Cincinnati, Ohio poverty neighborhoods, 72 Cities. See also Ghetto poverty job proximity in, 199-201, 202 out-migration from, 49, 228 poverty in blacks, 213-216, 219-220, 228, 254 children, 164, 241 concentration levels, 2, 4, 7, 8-9, 11, 36 39, 40, 51, 69-70, 10~107 federal policies and, 223-224, 227, 245 public housing in, 225-226 residential segregation in, 229, 265 unemployment in, 209-210, 21~220, 254-255 welfare benefits in, 236 237, 238, 239-240 Civic Center (Los Angeles), 85, 102 Civil Rights Act (1968), 227 Clayton County, Gal, 204 Cleveland, Ohio ghetto poor in, 25, 44, 45, 49 poverty neighborhoods, 47, 48, 50, 71-72, 73, 88 suburban employment income, 202, 204, 205, 206n.17, 213, 218 Cognitive skills, 138, 15~155, 167 school racial composition and blacks, 14~152 and whites, 152-154 socioeconomic status elementary school, 144 146, 174-175, 179, 257 high school, 139-144, 170175 Coleman report (1966), 139, 146 Collective socialization models, 113, 110115, 116 College attendance effect on income, 203 high school effects racial composition, 131-132 socioeconomic status, 127-131, 172, 174, 176, 17~179 Community development strategies, 105-106 Community health centers, 239-240 Concentration of poverty. See Ghetto poverty

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INDEX Congressional Budget Office, 243 Consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSA), 32n.21 Consumer Price Index (CPI), 70, 71 Contraceptive use, teenage, 166, 167, 176 Crime, 30, 31 federal programs and, 241-242, 244, 245 neighborhood effects, 157-160, 167, 175, 177, 257 race and, 131 recidivism, 161-162 school eRects, 155-157 and wages, 195 Crowding in poverty neighborhoods, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94 analysis of, 95, 97, 98 Chicago, 78, 82 East and Midwest, 75, 78, 79, 81 Los Angeles, 83, 84, 92 New York, 80, 82 Cuban refugees, 87 Dallas, Tex. SMSA boundaries, 57 Data sources Census Bureau suppression, 56-57 ghetto poverty, 24-25 neighborhood effects, 179, 180 neighborhood poverty, 6~69 Davis, James A., 127-128, 131 Day care, 4, 260 Definition of poverty. See Ghetto poverty Detroit, Mich., 20n.6 black employment in, 191, 213, 218 number of ghetto poor, 36, 37 poverty neighborhoods, 72 public transit, 232 residential segregation, 228, 229 SMSA boundaries, 58 suburban employment income, 202, 202-203n.14, 204, 205, 206n.17 Divorce, 120 Drug addicts, 244 Durham, N.C. SMSA boundaries, 57 East. See also Northeast poverty neighborhoods in, 74-77, 86, 108 109 economic and social conditions, 39, 81, 82, 89, 92 Economic conditions poverty neighborhoods, 74-76 Economic development, 4, 261-262 federal policy, 10~107, 235-236 273 Economic Opportunity Act (1964), 241 Economic segregation, 42n.31, 178 federal policy promotion of, 123 124, 223 224 economic development, 235-236 housing, 112, 224-227 residential desegregation, 136-137, 227-230 transportation, 230-234 welfare, 23~240 in schools, 144, 15~157 Education, 108. See also School effects federal programs, 24~243, 263 and income, 203, 204 neighborhood effects, 135-137, 168, 174 school effects, 137-138, 174 raaal composition, 131-132 socioeconomic status, 127-131, 132-135 years of, 30, 76, 83 and labor market success, 99, 100, 101, 211-212, 214 Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, Chapter 1, 241, 242-243 Elderly in labor force, 101, 103 in poverty, 74, 83, 104 Elementary school poverty rates in, 142n.26 socioeconomic status, 14~146, 154, 175, 177, 179 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965), 241 Employers and black workers, 187-188, 189-191, 192-193, 194, 195, 202 federal policy and, 235-236 and ghetto residents, 4-5, 99 Employment, 17, 19 black, 220 job proximity and labor supply, 1~202, 217-218 residential segregation and, 187-188, 189-196, 217 suburban income, 202-206, 210, 218 suburban residence, 206 216, 218 federal policies and, =5, 21/-219, 262-263 highways and mass transit, 231-232 job training, 103, 243-245, 260, 263 school programs, 241-242, 243 suburban, 224, 235 taxation, 235-236 welfare, 237 in poverty neighborhoods, 28, 7~76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 97, 25~255, 256 labor force analysis, 99-102 neighborhood eRects on, 167-171, 176

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274 school erects on, 171-172, 179 subminimum wage, 106 Employment Service, 243 Encyclopedia ownership, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145 Enterprise zones, 105-106, 235 Epidemic models, 113-114, 116, 118, 161 Equality of Educational Opportunity (EEO) survey (1965), 139, 142, 111 145, 147, 151, 152, 153 European immigrants, 108 Experimental Housing Allowance Program, 91 Fair housing laws, 3-4, 229, 245 Family effects, 26-28, 176 on academic achievement, 129, 240-241 female-headed, 74, 96, 97, 254, 256, 262 single-parent, 2, 17, 19, 27-28, 102 socioeconomic status, 119-121, 156, 173 on teenage sexual behavior, 164 welfare receipt, 237 Family Support Act (1988), 10~103 Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports, 158 Federal Highway Administration, 233 Federal Housing Administration, 224-225 Federal policy ghetto poverty, 5-6, 12-13, 31-32, 52, 68, 111, 260-261 and poverty concentration promotion of, 3-4, 223-224, 245-246 economic development, 235-236 housing projects, 3, 103-105, 108, 112, 181, 224-227, 239, 245, 266 residential desegregation, 123-124, 218-219, 227-230 transportation, 234}234 welfare, 23~240 reduction of, 102-108 education, 24~243 human capital investment, 262-264 job training, 243-245 macroeconomic policy, 261-262 residential mobility, 260266 Female-headed families, 74, 96, 97, 254, 256, 262 Filtering process, 90, 92, 93, 95, 98, 99, 106 Food stamps, 237 Fort Lauderdale, Fla. ghetto poverty, 41 Fort Worth, Tex. SMSA boundaries, 57 Franklin, Mass., 58 Funding, research, 180 INDEX Gangs, high school, 132 Gary, Ind. poverty neighborhoods, 71-72, 73 Gentrification, 8, 18, 105 Ghetto poverty characteristics of, 21-23, 25-32, 69-73, 253-254, 258 eastern and Midwestern, 73~3 Los Angeles, 83-85 defining, 9-10, 17, 1~23 and employment, 18~189, 190191, 194-196, 219, 255 income, 96, 97, 202, 203, 204, 206, 213 federal policy and, 4-6, 31-32, 102-109, 260 266 geographic location, 36-39 population changes, 4~50, 73, 74, 83, 8~89, 91, 94-96, 98, 104, 108 filtering process, 90, 92, 93, 95, 106 poverty concentration, vii, 7, 34-36, 35n.25, 51, 230, 253-254, 267 effects of, 2 - , 255-260 federal policies housing projects, 3, 10~105, 108, 112, 181, 22~227, 239, 245, 266 promotion of, 3 - , 223-224, 245 reduction of, 240 245 tax policy, 235-236 welfare, 238 239 geographic spread of, 6, 43-51, 70 level of, 23 24, 3~33, 3903, 49, 51, 59-67 regional variations, 1-2, 1~11, 36, 4~41, 51-52, 59~7 Great Depression, 243 Gross National Product Deflator, 70n.2 "Hangout rate," 30 31 Hartford, Conn. schools in, 150, 172 Head Start, 241, 243, 263 Heating in poverty neighborhoods, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83~5, 94, 97-98, 99 Henry Homer Homes (Chicago), 91 High school, 142n.26 National Longitudinal Survey, 147, 151, 152, 171, 172 racial composition and college attendance, 131-132, 174 and labor market success, 171-172, 173 socioeconomic status and cognitive skills, 139-144, 154, 175 and college attendance, 127-131, 174, 176, 17~179

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INDEX and graduation, 17-18, 19, 132-135, 177 and labor market success, 171 and teen sexual behavior, 164 High School and Beyond (HSB) survey, 132-133, 142-143, 144, 149, 153, 154-155, 164 Highways, 230, 231, 234 Hispanics, 124, 228 ghetto poor, 20, 24, 93, 96, 99, 10~109 labor force participation, 101, 256, 262 in Los Angeles, 74, 83, 87~8, 94 in Miami, 87 in New York, 37, 82 number of, 1-2, 10, 33, 35, 39-40, 42, 59-67, 95, 98 in Texas, 36 high school dropout rates, 13~134 rural poor, 34 teenage sexual behavior, 164 Homelessness, 16, 181 Home values, 70, 207 in poverty neighborhoods, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 87, 89 Hough (Cleveland), 88 Household income, 74-76, 82, 83, % Housing. See also Public housing projects conditions, poverty neighborhood, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82~5, 87, 88, 89, 97-98 construction, 94, 95-96, 98, 106, 108, 264 costs, 90, 201, 207, 216 federal policy, 103-105, 224-227 residential mobility, 5-6, 260266 residential segregation, 123-124, 178, 181 and black employment, 187, 188, 189-196, 217 exclusionary practices, 187, 206, 265 policy implications, 218-219, 227-230 subsidies, 93-94, 100, 112, 225-227 vacancy rates, 76, 82, 83, 89, 97, 98 Housing Assistance Supply Experiment, 226, 227 Houston, Tex. poverty neighborhoods, 72 Human capital investment, 5, 6, 262-264, 265 Hurt Village (Memphis), 22 Immigration, 92, 108, 262 Income. See also Socioeconomic status blacks, 229, 230 central-city employment, 201 residential segregation and, 193-194, 217, 220 suburban employment, 8, 202~206, 218 275 suburban residence, 207-216, 218 federal programs and, 103, 243, 244 housing assistance limits, 225 maintenance transfer, 76, 10~103, 107-108, 236-237 poverty neighborhoods, 2~29 effects on, 135-136, 168-169, 176, 24~241, 256-257 household, 74-76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 89, 254 metropolitan area prosperity and, 96, 97, 99 national economy and, 88, 106 Index of poverty, 69 Inflation, 106 Institutional models, 113, 115, 116 Job Corps, 244-245, 263 Jones v. Mayer (1968), 227 Kain, John F., 187-192, 193n.5, 194n.6, 196 197, 209, 213 Kansas City, Mo. poverty neighborhoods, 71-72, 73 Labor force participation. See Employment Land-use controls, 225, 265 Long Beach, Calif. poverty in, 36, 37, 72, 73 Los Angeles, Cali black employment in, 195-196, 218 job proximity in, 198, 199, 202 poverty neighborhoods, 70, 72, 83~5, 92, 96, 99 Hispanics in, 74, 83, 87, 94 population changes, 36, 37, 73, 74, 83, 94, 108 Watts, 71, 88, 89 suburbanization of poverty, 101, 102 subway system, 230 231 Lower class, 17 Low-income areas, 69 Low-income housing, 91, 93, 103-104, 108, 112, 181, 225-227 McAllen-Pharr-Edinburg, Tex. ghetto poor in, 36, 37 Macroeconomic policies, 6, 261-262, 265 Male Marriageable Pool Index, 30, 31 Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, 244 Mass transit. See Public transportation Maternal and child health services, 239-240

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276 Mathematica Polioy Research, 244-245 Memphis, Tenn. ghetto poverty census tracts, 20, 2~23, 4~45, 46, 47, 48 economic characteristics, 2~29, 30, 31 number of poor, 36, 37, 49 racial distnbution, 26, 27 Meta-analysis, 149-150, 154 Miami, F-la. ghetto poverty in, 41 Hispanics in, 87 subway system, 230 231 Michael Reese Hospital (Chicago), 193 Middle class, 18 blacks, 8, 76, 88, 124 Midwest. See also North Central blacks in, 230 federal policies and, 3, 223-224, 245 persistent poverty, 258 population loss, 8 poverty neighborhoods, 71, 82, 86, 89 economic and social conditions, 74-77, 79 Milwaukee, Wits., 25 ghetto poor in, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 poverty neighborhoods, 71-72, 73 Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. poverty neighborhoods, 72 ~ ,. . . . ~lSSlSSlppl AFDC benefits, 237 Mixed-income census tracts, 20, 45, 47, 48 49, 5~51 Mortgage interest deductibility, 224, 225 Nashville, Ann. came in, 155-157, 162, 175 Nassau County, N.Y., 57, 58, 101-102 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 188n.1 National Housing Act (1949), 103-104n.4 National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, 131, 147, 151, 152, 171, 172, 259 National Supported Work Demonstration, 244, 245, 263 Nationwide Personal Transportation Study, 233 Neighborhood poverty, 17 Neighborhoods. See also Ghetto poverty Census Bureau and, 267 defining, 9, 19-20, 23, 112-113 effects on children, 3, 111, 113-118, 173, 17~177, 257 cognitive skills, 138 crime, 155, 157-160, 161-162, 175 INDEX educational attainment, 134, 135-137, 174 labor market success, 16~171, 173, 176 measuring, 118-127 teen pregnancy, 163-164, 165, 166, 167, 175-176 employment effects job proximity, 190199 socioeconomic status, 188, 189 persistently poor, 68 research on, 177-180 Newark, N.J. poverty neighborhoods, 36, 37, 72 residential segregation, 228, 229 New Orleans, La. ghetto poverty in, 2, 10, 36, 37 New York, N.Y. ghetto poor in, 2, 11, 36, 37, 40 mass transit use, 232 poverty neighborhoods, 71, 72, 73, 74, 88, 92 and crime, 160 economic and social conditions, 80, 82 population changes, 94-95, 96, 254 vacant housing, 76, 77, 83, 89, 97 residential segregation, 228, 229 SMSA boundaries, 57, 58 suburbanization of poverty, 101-102 welfare benefits, 237 Nonpoor neighborhoods, 20, 26 North. See also East; Northeast racial composition of schools in, 138, 147, 151, 172n.54, 174 North Central. See also Midwest ghetto poverty in, 1, 2, 10, 11, 36, 39, 4~41, 51, 61-63 Northeast. See also East; North federal policies and, 3, 223-224, 245 ghetto poor in, 11, 36, 39, 4~1, 51, 59~0, 71, 258 blacks, 1-2, 10, 41, 230 mass transit use, 232 population loss, 8 Oakland, Calif. suburban employment income, 203 Office of Economic Opportunity, 69, 70 Ogden, Utah SMSA boundaries, 57 Opinion Research Corporation, 212n.26 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 121n.4, 135, 137, 168 169, 189n.3, 201, 208n.19, 219, 240-241, 258, 259 Peer influences, 113, 164 Perry Preschool Project, 241-242

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INDEX Persistent poverty, 7, 16, 17n.1, 68, 71, 25~259 Philadelphia, Pa. employment job proximity, 198, 199 suburban income, 20~203n.14, 204, 205, 213, 218 ghettos, 2~21, 25, 44, 45, 71, 82, 88 economic conditions, 2~29, 31 growth of, 47, 48, 50 poor in, 36, 37, 49, 73 racial composition, 21-22, 26, 27 vacant housing, 76, 77, 83, 89, 97 public transportation, 232 residential segregation, 228, 229 school integration, 151 Phoenix, Ariz. housing assistance experiment, 227 Pittsburgh, Pa. housing assistance experiment, 227 job proximity in, 197-198, 202, 218 poverty neighborhoods, 71, 73, 82 Plumbing in poverty neighborhoods, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83-85, 87, 88, 89, 94, 97, 98 Police, 115, 158-159n.43, 161 Policy. See Federal policy Poor. See also Ghetto poverty economic conditions, 3, 17-18 federal assistance and, 10~103, 104, 238, 240, 241-242 federal transit policy and, 231-232, 234 ghetto concentration, 1-2, 10, 24, 32-33, 3~36, 6~70 blacks, 33, 230, 254, 265 migration, 4~49, 91, 254 rural, 33-34 and schools, 124, 178, 241-242 unemployment rates and, 261-262 Poverty. See also Ghetto poverty attitudes and, 259 feminization of, 74 rates, 9, 32n.20, 70n.2, 106-107 federal policies and, 223-224 and ghetto poverty, 4, 42, 253-254, 260, 261-262 in ghettos, 11 neighborhood, 17, 125-126 school, 142, 143n.27, 145, 146, 177 rural, 32-33 social effects of, 111, 123, 124 Poverty neighborhoods. See Ghetto poverty Primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSA), 32n.21 Princeton University Computer Center, 69 Project Concern, 172 Project Talent, 141, 144, 171 277 Public housing projects concentration of poverty, 3, 10~105, 108, 224, 225-227, 239, 245, 266 residents of, 76, 165 segregation in, 118n.2 turnover in, 91 Public policy. See Federal policy Public schools, 108, 139, 241 Public transportation federal policies, 223, 230 234, 245, 266 and job proximity, 100, 197, 199, 202, 206, 219 Queens (New York), 101-102 Race Census Bureau data suppression, 56-57 and crime, 162 housing discrimination, 216, 224-225, 227, 265 segregation, l9n.3, 5, 22, 42n.31, 124, 126, 136 137 and sexual behavior, 256-257 Racial composition ghettos, 1, 10, 21-22, 24, 26, 27, 33, 38 neighborhood effects, 173, 177 educational attainment, 130137 income, 16~169 school effects, 173, 177 on blacks, 146-152 college attendance, 131-132 labor market success, 171-172, 173, 176 teenage sexual behavior, 16~167 on whites, 152-154 Raleigh, N.C. SMSA boundaries, 57 Reagan administration, 105, 107 Recidivism, 161-162 Regional variations. See also names of individual regions ghetto poverty, 1-2, 10, 36, 4~41, 51-52, 5~67 home values, 89 population change, 8n.1 welfare benefits, 237 Regression equations, 130, 139 Relative deprivation theory, 11~117, 118, 127, 160, 161, 257 Rents, 82, 90 city and suburban, 207, 216n.28 in poverty neighborhoods, 75, 76-77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 87, 88, 89 supplements, 104, 226 Research needs, 6, 261, 267-268 neighborhood erects on children, 177-180

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278 residential segregation, 219-220 Residential mobility, 5-6, 260266 Residential segregation, 123-124, 178, 181 and black employment, 187, 188, 189-196, 217 exclusionary practices, 187, 206, 265 policy implications, 21~219, 227-230 Resident management, 105 Rochester, N.Y., 158-159n.43 Rooming houses, 96 Rural poverty, 33-34 St. Louis, Mo. police behavior, 158-159n.43 poverty neighborhoods, 71-72, 73, 88, 89 suburban employment income, 202, 205, 218 Salt Lake City, Utah SMSA boundaries, 57 San Antonio, Tex., 20n.6 ghetto poor in, 36, 37 San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. poverty neighborhoods, 72 suburban employment income, 203, 218 subway system, 230-231 San Jose, Calif. subway system, 23~231 Santa Fe, N.M. transportation study, 234 School effects. See also Education racial composition, 170175 and blacks, 140152 desegregation, 147, 149-151, 152, 153-154, 174, 175, 177 and labor market success, 171-172, 173 segregation, 131-132, 166, 178 and whites, 152-154 research needs, 180 social composition, 111, 115, 124, 126 and cognitive skills, 138 and crime, 155-157, 162 and labor market success, 171, 173 suburban, 172, 207-208 and teenage sexual behavior, 163, 164, 166 Scranton, Pa. SMSA boundaries, 57-58 Section 8 Existing Housing, 104, 108, 117-118, 227 New Construction, 104, 108, 226 Section 235, 103-104 Section 236, 103-104 Segregation economic, 42n.31, 178 federal policy promotion of, 123-124, 223-224 economic development, 235-236 INDEX housing, 112, 224-227 residential desegregation, 136-137, 227-230 transportation, 23~}234 welfare, 236 240 in schools, 144, 156-157 racial residential, 19nn.3, 5, 22, 42n.31, 123-124, 126, 136-137 and black employment, 187, 188, 189-196, 217 exclusionary practices, 187, 206, 265 policy implications, 218-219, 227-230 school, 131-132, 166, 178 Shapiro v. Thompson (1969), 238 Simpson-Mazzoli Act (1988), 108 Single-parent families, 2, 17, 19, 27-28, 102 female-headed, 74, 96, 97, 254, 256, 262 Single-room housing, 96 Social Security, 102 Socioeconomic status (SES), 111, 114n.1, 123-124 neighborhood eRects, 118, 122, 125, 173 black employment, 188, 189 crime, 115, 157-160, 161, 162 educational attainment, 137-138 teenage sexual behavior, 167, 175-176 parental, 152-153, 156, 166 school effects, 116, 131n.11 cognitive skills, 139-144, 154, 174-175 college attendance, 118, 127-131 crime, 155-157 educational attainment, 132-135, 137-138, 174, 17~179 income, 171, 173 teenage sexual behavior, 16~165, 176 South federal policies and, 3, 245 ghetto poverty in, 1-2, 1~11, 36, 39, 51, 63 66, 86 decreases in, 37, 40, 41, 52 persistent poverty, 258 population growth, 8 rural poverty in, 33-34 school integration, 132, 138, 147, 154, 174, 175 welfare benefits in, 237 Spatial mismatch hypothesis, 187, 188, 219, 254-255 suburban employment and, 202, 203 suburban residence and, 206, 21~211, 213, 216 Standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA), 32n.21, 52 boundary changes, 57-58 ghetto poverty in, 59~7

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INDEX States tax codes, 225 welfare benefit variations, 10~103, 237, 238, 266 work-welfare programs, 5, 263 Suburbs, 120n.3 employment in, 10~}102 and black joblessness, 187-188, 196 197, 19~200, 202, 250255 blacks living in, 206 216, 21~219 blacks working in, 194n.6, 202 206, 218 federal policies and, 224 225, 226, 231, 235, 245 minorities in, 8, 227-228, 229, 230 poor in, 39 schools in, 172, 207-208 subsidized housing in, 104 Suffolk County, N.Y. SMSA boundaries, 57, 58 Supported Work Demonstration, 244, 245, 263 Sustaining Erects (SE) study, 145-146, 149, 150, 155 Tampa, Fla., 15~159n.43 Taxation, 235, 240 mortgage interest deduction, 224, 225 Teenagers, 174. See also Children crime, 157-158, 159-160, 161, 175, 257 employment, 101, 167, 19~199, 202, 217, 218 pregnancy, 119-120, 123, 125, 165-166, 167, 257, 263 sexual behavior, 131, 162-167, 175-176, 177, 256-257 Temple University, 20-21 Tenant ownership, 105 Texas, 24n.12 ghetto poor, 36, 37 Hispanics, 33, 34 Transportation policy, 23~234, 266. See also Public transportation Underclass, 7, 11-12, 16, 17-18, 19, 68, 165, 257-258, 267 Unemployment education and, 103 federal policies and, 220, 223-224, 243 in ghettos, 2, 28, 76, 83, 9~102, 260 job proximity and, 196 197, 199, 200n.12, 207, 209 210, 219, 254-255 and migration, 237 neighborhood effects, 16~170 and poverty rate, 4, 261 United States. See also Federal policy Constitution, Z7 279 Department of Education, 145 Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 93, 104, 105, 227 Department of Labor, 208n.19 Supreme Court, 227, 238 Universities, 180 University of Chicago, 193 University of Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 121n.4, 135, 137, 168 169, 189n.3, 201, 208n.19, 219, 24~241, 258, 259 Urban Change and Policy (Committee on National Urban Policy), 7 Urban Mass Transportation Administration, 234 Urban poverty. See Ghetto poverty "Vanishing Black Family, The," 16 War on Poverty, 69 Washington, D.C. gentrification, 105 poverty neighborhoods, 71, 73, 82 subway system, 23~231 Washington Park (Chicago), 71 Watts (Los Angeles), 71, 88, 89, 102 Welfare, 19, 169-170 benefits, 237, 266 and children, 137n.20, 259-260 dependency, 2, 176, 263 federal job programs and, 244 federal policy, 102, 236 240 West federal policies and, 3, 245 ghetto poverty in, 1, 10, 36, 40, 6~67, 86 population growth, 8 Whites effects on blacks in employment, 190, 192-193, 194, 195, 217 in school, 146-152, 154 in suburbs, 216 federal housing for, 104 and ghetto poverty, 1, 10, 24, 33, 82, 123 out-migration from cities, 49, 50, 74, 87~8, 240 neighborhood edects on, 111 educational attainment, 135, 136-137 income, 16~169, 197-198, 204, 208, 230 parental effects, 146 school effects on, 188n.1 racial composition, 148, 152-154, 16~167, 174

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280 social composition, 130, 131-132, 133, 140, 141, 154, 160, 174, 175 teenage sexual behavior, 131n.10, 164 W~lkes-Barre, Pa. SMSA boundaries, 57-58 Women employment, 4, 101,171, 198, 260 feminization of poverty, 74 income, 212n.26, 217 INDEX single mothers, 29, 31, 102-103 teenage pregnancy, 167, 175-176 Women, Infants and Children (WIC), 263 Woodlawn (Chicago), 82, 88 Work-welfare programs, 5, 103, 263 Yonkers, N.Y., 207 Zoning, 265