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Index A Acetylene, 25, 59 Adsorption, 42, 85 Aluminum, 37, 44, 49-50 Amino acids, 4, 44, 45, 61, 78-79, 80, 83, 86, 87 Ammonia, 23, 25, 31, 37, 39, 40, 66, 79, 80, 105 Antarctic, 77 Archaebacteria, 92, 93, 97-98 Archeozoic period, 66, 100, 104 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 33 Asteroids and comets, 1, 4, 17, 21, 36, 37, 39,42,46-48,51-53,57,61-62,81, 124, 127-128 atmospheres, 9, 12, 125 carbon and carbon compounds, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53-55 Ceres, 46 Halley, 43, 52, 53, 55, 62 impacts, 12, 19-20, 39, 41, 63, 66, 101, 102, 105, 127, 128 interplanetary dust, 53, 54, 55 or 53-55 planetesimal formation, 43, 45, 46-48 research recommendations, 9, 12, 47, 54-55, 124-125, 127-128 space missions, 52, 55 surfaces, 1, 46, 47, 61-62, 124-125 volatiles, 9, 12, 21-22,46, 51, 52, 55, 63, 64-65, 127 see also Planetesimals and planetoids Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s, 30, 118 Atmospheric processes boundary layers, 68 141 carbon compounds, 37, 59-61, 72, 125 chemistry, general, 9-10, 12, 58-61, 65-69, 71, 76, 101, 110, 111 climate and weather, 11-12, 19-20, 76, 101, 127 cometary, 9, 12, 125 Earth, 4, 6, 63, 65-67, 68, 69-71, 99, 105 Jupiter, 10, 12, 57, 58-59, 125, 128 lightning, 39, 40, 41, 59, 105 Mars, 67, 71, 72, 7~77 models, 4, 9, 12,76, 110 monomer synthesis, 4, 11, 126 outer planets, general, 3, 9-10, 58-59, 60, 125 pressure, 60, 72, 76-77 Saturn, 10, 12, 58, 125, 128 spectroscopic studies, 26, 116-117 tectonics and, 65-67 Titan, 9-10, 12, 59-61, 125, 128 Australia, 4, 68, 78, 81 B Bacteria, 92, 93, 94-95, 97-98 Bernal, J. D., 85 Biogenic elements and compounds, 6, 9, 17, 81 asteroids and comets, 9, 12, 47, 81, 127 cosmic history, 1, 2-3, 21-55, 81-82 Titan, 9-10, 59-61, 125 see also Chemical evolution; Clay; Volatiles; and specific elements and compounds Biogeochemistry, 3, 6, 11, 19, 56, 57-58, 71, 77, 91, 94, 99, 103, 126, 127

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42 C Cairns-Smith, A. G., 79, 85 Calcium, 37, 49-50, 67, 69 Carbon and carbon compounds, 37, 105 acetylene, 25, 59 asteroids, 46, 47, 48 atmospheric, 37, 59-61, 72, 125 comets, 52, 53-55 graphite, 31, 37, 45, 51, 53 interplanetary dust, 53-55 interstellar medium, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33-34, 39 meteorites, 21, 34, 38, 42, 43-45, 46, 47, 48-51, 52, 54, 55, 78, 80, 128 nitrites, 60 outer planets, 3, 59, 60, 62, 125 terrestrial planets, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 72, 76, 80, 81, 99 see also Hydrocarbons Carboxylic acids, 44, 45 Cassini space mission, 61 Cell biology chloroplasts, 95 eukaryotes, 94, 95, 96, 98 evolution, general, 6-7, 91-104 Mars, 7, 102 membranes, 81 metabolism, 4-5, 56, 80-83, 92, 93-104 prokaryotes, 93, 95, 96, 98 Ceres, 46 Charon, 64-65 Chemical evolution atmospheric, general, 9-10, 12, 58-61, 65-69, 71, 76, 101, 110, 111 biogeochemistry, 3, 6, 11, 19, 56, 57-58, 71, 77, 91, 94, 99, 103, 126, 127 clay, 5, 18, 53, 55, 77, 79, 83, 85-86 defined, 1, 14 early planetary environments, 3-4, 56-77 Earth, 18, 37, 63-71, 73-74, 75 gas-phase reactions, 24-26, 27-28, 29-31, 36-37, 38-39, 40-41, 42, 46, 52, 55, 59, 128 Mars, 62, 63, 67, 71-77, 111, 124 oceans, 57, 68-69, 70, 71, 74, 81, 101 outer planets, 3, 9-10, 12, 58-62 photochemistry, 31, 36, 39, 41, 61, 66, 81 polymerization, 18, 61, 80, 83, 85, 87 pyrolysis, 31, 40, 43, 44, 48, 51 redox reactions, 66, 82 research recommendations, 10-11, 126-127, 131-132 solar nebula, 36-41, 42, 46, 58, 62 Titan, 9-10, 12, 59-61, 125, 128 see also Biogenic elements and com- pounds; Isotopic analysis; Molecular evolution; Surface chemistry; Volatiles; specific elements and compounds INDEX Chloroplasts, 95 Chondrites, 21, 43-45, 48-51, 52, 55, 78 Circumstellar Imaging Telescope, 115 Clay interplanetary dust, 53, 55 organic replication and, 5, 18, 79, 83, 85-86 terrestrial planets, 77 Climate and weather Earth, 19-20, 76, 101 glaciers, 74, 101 lightning, 39, 40, 41, 59, 105 Mars, 11-12, 76, 127 Coenzymes, 82, 126 Collisional aggregation, 43, 63 Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, 55 Comets, see Asteroids and comets Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, 47, 50 Condensed phase and condensation, 36, 37, 46, 49, 51, 62, 64, 65 Continents and continental margins, 68, 73 Cosmic dust, 10, 12-13, 22, 28, 125-126, 128-129 grain growth, planet formation, 41-46 grain interrelationships, 13, 17, 31-37, 38, 45-46 see also Interplanetary dust Cosmic rays, 22, 28, 31, 59, 61, 128 Craters, 19, 43, 47, 68, 69-71, 74 Cretaceous period, 69, 99, 101 D Deimos, 43, 48 Department of Energy, 90 DNA, 79, 80, 85, 87, 89, 98 see also Genomes Dust, see Cosmic dust, Interplanetary dust E Earth, 4, 16, 18, 63-71, 93-104 atmosphere, 4, 6, 63, 65-67, 68, 69-71, 99, 105 chemical evolution, 18, 37, 63-71, 73-74, 75 climate and weather, 19-20, 76, 101 impacts, 6, 19, 63, 68, 69-71, 101, 102, 105, 127, 128 and Mars compared, 7, 67, 72, 73-74, 75-77, 79, 102-103 volatiles, 4, 63-65, 66, 67 Electromagnetic signals, 7, 13, 117-119, 122 Electron bombardment, 59, 60, 128 Electron microscopy, 92, 93, 96 Electrostatics, 42

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INDEX Enzymes, 82, 83, 126 eubacteria, 95 RNA catalysis, 5, 79, 82, 83, 84-85, 87 Ethane, 59, 60, 61 Eubacteria, 95, 97-98 Eukaryotes, 94, 95, 96, 98 Europa, 57 European Space Agency, 61 The Evolution of Complex and Higher Organisms, 100-101 Extinction, species, 20, 101 Extraterrestrial intelligence, 26-27 technology, evidence of, 8, 13-14, 106, 107-108, 111-112, 117-122, 129 F Ferromagnetism, 42 Flight operations, see Satellites Fossils, see Paleontology G Galactic processes, see Interstellar medium and processes Gases and gas-phase reactions atmospheric, 59 comets, 52, 55 grain-gas interactions, 42 interstellar medium, 24-26, 27-28, 29-31, 128 solar nebula, 36-37, 38-39, 40-41, 42, 46 see also Noble gases; specific gases Genetics, 80 codon assignments, 5, 86-87 expression, 5, 79, 86-87 metabolic diversity, 96-103 models, 4, 5, 79, 82, 86-87, 88, 90 nucleotides, 4, 11, 17, 23, 50, 78, 79, 80, 84, 86, 87 replication, 1-2, 5, 18-19, 56, 68, 79, 82-86 translation, 5, 11, 87-89, 98 virology, 84-85 see also DNA; Protein synthesis; RNA Genomes, 5, 6, 11, 19, 78, 88-90, 93-95, 97-98, 103 Geochemical cycles, see Biogeochemistry Geological processes, 4, 11, 18, 57, 64, 66, 68, 69, 78, 91-92, 93-94, 96, 99-100, 101, 102 comets, 55 glaciers, 74, 101 igneous phenomena, 11, 43, 44, 49, 65-66, 127 Mars, 8-9, 11-12, 18, 19, 72, 75, 124, 127 Mercury, 58 metamorphism, 44, 72, 73 143 Moon, 18, 19, 58 regoliths, 43 thermal, 68-69, 71, 74 volcanic activity, 45, 58, 65-66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76 see also Paleontology; Sedimentology; Tectonics Giant planets, see Outer planets; specific planets Grain processes planetary atmospheres, 59 see also Cosmic dust; Interplanetary dust Graphite, 31, 37, 45, 51, 53 Gravity micro, 45 outer planets, 58, 64 terrestrial planets, 62, 63, 74 Greenland, 68 H Halley's comet, 43, 52, 53, 55, 62 Heterodyning, 26 Hubble Space Telescope, 36, 115-116 Hydrocarbons, 33, 37, 40, 61, 62 acetylene, 25, 59 aromatic, 33 comets, 52 ethane, 59, 60, 61 meteorites, 44 methane, 25, 37, 39, 40' 60, 61, 64, 66, 79, 80, 105 methanol, 31 Hydrogen and hydrogen compounds, 22, 65 interstellar medium, 23, 26 meteorites, 44 outer planets, 3, 9, 58-59 terrestrial planets, 63, 64, 66, 67, 72, 79 see also Ammonia; Methane; Water and water systems Hydrogen cyanide, 40 Hydrospheres, planetary cycles, 3, 56 Earth, 64, 65-67, 68, 69 glaciers, 74, 101 liquid water, 9, 56, 60, 64, 68, 69, 76, 105, 124 Mars, aqueous environment of, 72-74, 75-76, 124, 127 oceans, 57, 68~9, 70, 71, 73, 74, 81c thermal, 68-69, 70, 71, 81, 105 see also Water and water systems; Ice processes I Iapetus, 61, 62 Ice processes, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 45, 52, 53, 101

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44 glaciers, 74, 101 outer planets, 58, 60, 61 terrestrial planets, 64, 74 Igneous phenomena, 11, 43, 44, 49, 65-66, 127 see also Volcanic activity Images and imaging, 7-8, 13-14, 30, 115-116, 117 Imbrium, 70 Impacts K Kuiper Airborne Observatory, 35 L Laboratory studies, 4, 78-80 comets, 55 interstellar medium, 12-13, 50-51, 128 Mars, 11 solar nebula, 41 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), 25, 30 Lightning, 39, 40, 41, 59, 105 Lunar bodies, 57, 61-62 of Jupiter, 57, 58 of Mars, craters, 43 outer planets, 58 of Saturn, 61, 62; see also Titan see also Moon asteroids, comets, and meteorites, 12, 19-20, 39, 41, 63-64, 65, 66, 101, 102, 105, 127, 128 collisional aggregation, 43, 63 craters, 19, 43, 47, 68, 69-71, 74 Earth, 6, 19, 63, 68, 69-71, 101, 102, 105, 127, 128 Mars, 19, 74, 76 Moon, 19 Infrared Astronomical Satellite, 35, 109 Infrared spectra, 10, 13, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31, 33-41, 48, 109, 111, 116, 119-120, 125-126 Intelligence, see Extraterrestrial intelligence Interdisciplinary approach, see Multidisciplinary approach Interferometry, 29, 116 Interplanetary dust, 2, 10, 13, 33, 34, 36, 45, 46,53-55,126 Interstellar medium and processes, 6, 91 carbon, 23, 25, 27, 31, 33-34, 39 clouds, 2, 10, 13, 22-31, 35, 36, 43, 46, 51, 125, 128 comets and, 52 complex molecules, 2, 21, 22-31, 35, 62, 125 research recommendations, 10, 12-13, 123-124, 127 125-126, 128-129 spectral studies, 13, 23, 25-27, 128 volatiles, 22, 31, 51, 125 see also Cosmic dust; Interplanetary dust lo, 57, 58 Iron, 37, 42, 49, 62, 64, 66, 67, 81 Islands, 68 Isotopic analysis, 4, 45, 94 asteroids, comets, and meteors, 12, 44, 47, 48, 49-51, 55, 127-128 dust, 10, 13,37,42,54 interstellar medium, 23, 25, 26, 34 Mars, 8, 71, 77, 124 meteorites, 21, 37 J Jupiter, 107, 110, 113, 114 asteroid belt, planetesimals, 43 atmosphere, 10, 12, 57, 58-59, 125, 128 moons of, 57, 58 INDEX M Marine processes, see Oceans Mars, 4, 16, 18, 37, 78, 79, 106 atmosphere, 67, 71, 72, 76-77 cell evolution, 7, 102 chemical evolution, 62, 63, 67, 71-77, 111, 124 climate and weather, 11-12, 76, 127 and Earth compared, 7, 67, 72, 73-74, 75-77, 79, 102-103 impacts, 19, 74, 76 moons, 43, 48 research recommendations, 8-9, 11-12, space missions, 11, 16, 71, 72, 74, 102, 103, 106 Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission, 74 Measurements and measurement techniques electron microscopy, 92, 93, 96 images and imaging, 7-8, 13-14, 30, 115-116, 117 interferometry, 29, 116 mirrors, 25, 30, 115-116 photometry, 114-115, 121 radar, 73 radio astronomy, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 118 see also Spectroscopic studies; Telescopes Melts and melting, 48-49, 64, 65-66, 67 Membranes, 81 Mercury, planet, 58 Metabolism, 4-5, 56, 80-83, 92, 93, 104 diversity, 96-103 model, 96 Metals, 37, 44, 45, 49, 64 see also specific metals

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INDEX Meteoroids and meteorites, 1, 6, 12, 48-51 biogenic elements, 21-22, 42-52 (passim), 65, 81 carbonaceous, 21, 34, 38, 42, 43-45, 46, 47, 48-51, 52, 54, 55, 78, 80, 128 defined, 48-49 impact effects, 6, 19-20, 39, 41, 43, 63-64, 65, 69-71, 74, 101, 102, 105; see also Craters noble gases, 42, 51 presolar grains, 33, 34, 36, 37, 46, 49 research recommendations, 47, 50-51, 55 Methane, 25, 37, 39, 40, 60, 61, 64, 66, 79, 80, 105 Methanol, 31 Microgravity, 45 Microorganisms, 4, 78 bacteria, 92, 93, 94-95, 97-98 plankton, 96 universal ancestor, 6, 68-71, 93, 97 virology, 84-85 Microwave Observing Project, 120, 122 Milankovich cycles, 101, 102 Miller, S., 18 Miller-Urey experiment, 18, 79 Millimeter spectra, 10, 25, 27, 28, 116, 125-126 145 prebiotic, 4-5 solar nebula, 36-41, 62 see also Amino acids; Genetics; Genomes; RNA; Spectroscopic studies; specific molecular compounds Monomers, 4, 11, 18, 78-79, 80, 84, 126 Moon, 4, 6, 18, 57, 65, 78, 79 craters, 19, 70-71 igneous activity, 49 Multidisciplinary approach general, 1, 3, 4, 6, 14-15, 17, 20, 79, 92, 130-131 genomes, 5, 90 star formation, 30 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 5, 7, 10-11, 14-15, 61, 90, 92, 100, 102, 104, 120, 130-132 see also Space missions National Institutes of Health, 10, 90 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 29 National Science Foundation, 10, 90, 104 Nectaris, 70 Neptune, 59, 107 Nickel, 37 Nitrites, 60 Nitrogen and nitrogen compounds, 37, 38, 44, 47, 50, 51, 53, 60, 63, 65, 67, 76, 80, 105 see also Ammonia Noble gases, 34, 36, 42, 50, 51, 53, 65 Nucleotides, 4, 11, 17, 23, 50, 78, 79, 80, 84, 86, 87 Minerals and mineralogy, 105, 124 asteroid surfaces, 46 comets, 55 grain accretion, 44, 45 interplanetary dust, 54 oceans, 69 terrestrial planets, 63, 67, 77 zircons, 68 see also Clay; Metals; Silicates Mirrors, 25, 30, 115-116 Mitochondria, 95 Models, 19, 78-80, 99, 102, 126 atmospheric, 4, 9, 12, 76, 110 Oceans, 73, 101 circumstellar/interstellar medium, 12-13, 28-29, 128 Earth, 92, 100 genetic, 4, 5, 79, 82, 86-87, 88, 90 impact effects, 70, 71, 128 Mars, 11-12, 127 metabolism, 96 monomer synthesis, 4, 11, 18, 78-79, 80, 126 planet formation, 37-38, 43, 45, 63, 64, 76, 109 solar nebula, 21-22, 29, 36, 37-41, 49, 64, 78 see also Laboratory studies Molecular evolution, 4, 79, 92, 93, 94-95 comets, 51-52, 54 interstellar, 2, 21, 22-30 grain growth, planet formation, 41-46 o atmospheric boundary layers, 68 chemical evolution, 57, 68-69, 70, 71, 74, 81, 101 Europa, 57 hydrothermal actions, 68-69, 70, 71, 81, 105 impact effects, 70, 74 plankton, 96 tsunami and tidal waves, 70, 74 Oligomers, 83 Oort cloud, 43 Origin and Evolution of Life Implications for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for the 1980s, 16 Orion nebula, 29, 33 Outer planets, 9-10, 12, 55, 58-62 atmospheres, 3, 9-10, 58-59, 60, 125 chemical evolution, 3, 9-10, 12, 58-62

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46 gravity, 58, 64 hydrogen, 3, 9, 58-59 ice processes, 58, 60, 61 planetary rings, 57, 61-62 research recommendations, 9-10, 125, 128 space mission, 58, 125 Voyager, 58 see also specific planets Oxygen, 25, 47, 53, 99 p Paleontology, 4, 11, 19, 78, 93-94, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 126 extinction, evidence, 20, 101 Mars, 8, 71, 76, 77, 103, 124 stromatolites, 4, 78, 81 Paleozoic era, 100 Particulates, see Cosmic dust Phanerozoic eon, 100, 101 Phobos, 43, 48 Phoebe, 61 Photochemistry, 31, 36, 39, 41, 61, 66, 81 Photometry, 114-115, 121 Phylogenetic studies, see Genomes Physical processes collisional aggregation, 43, 63 condensed phase and condensation, 36, 37, 46, 49, 51, 62, 64, 65 grain growth, planet formation, 41~6 grain interrelationships, 13, 17, 31-37, 38, 45-46 gravity, 45, 58, 62, 63, 64, 74 melts and melting, 48-49, 64, 65~6, 67 meteorites, 50 planetary environments, general, 56, 61, 91 porosity, 45, 54, 73, 74 pressure effects, 51, 60, 72, 70, 74, 76-77 see also Geological processes; Impacts; Shock processes; Thermal effects Planetary biology bacteria, 92, 93, 94-95, 97-98 defined, 1, 4, 14, 17 early environments, 3 - , 56-77 microorganisms, general, 4, 78 outside solar system, 7-8, 13-14, 17, 20, 105-122, 129 plankton, 96 universal ancestor, 6, 68-71, 93, 97 virology, 84-85 see also Cell biology; Genetics; Outer planets; Terrestrial planets; specific planets Planetary rings, 57, 61-62 Planetesimals and planetoids, 37-38, 62-77 (passim) grain growth processes, 42-45, 51, 58 INDEX impacts, 63-64, 65, 66 kilometer-sized, 43, thermal history, 49, 62 see also Asteroids and comets Planetology, 79 extrasolar, 13-14 formation, 35, 37-38, 41-46, 49, 51, 61, 63,76,108,109-110 see also Atmospheric processes; Geological processes; Outer planets; Solar nebula; Solar systems; Terrestrial planets; specific planets Plankton, 96 Pluto, 58, 64-65 Polymerization, 18, 61, 80, 83, 85, 87 Porosity, 45 interplanetary dust, 54 sediments, 73, 74 Pressure effects, 51 atmospheric, 60, 72, 76-77 tsunami and tidal waves, 70, 74 Procellarum, 70 Prokaryotes, 93, 95, 96, 98 Protein synthesis, 82, 83, 85, 126 translational processes, 5, 11, 87-89 Proterozoic period, 99, 100 Protons, 59, 60-61 Pyrolysis, 31, 40, 43, 44, 48, 51 R Radar, 73 Radiation effects cosmic rays, 22, 28, 31, 59, 61, 128 electron bombardment, 59, 60, 128 protons, 59, 60-61 ultraviolet radiation, 28, 59, 6~61, 78, 105 Radio astronomy, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 118 Raman spectra, 33-34 Redox reactions, 66, 82 Regoliths, 43 Remote sensing, see Satellites, artificial; Spectroscopic studies; Radio astronomy; Telescopes Remote Sensing of the Biosphere, 16 Research recommendations, 17, 123 asteroids and comets, 9, 12, 47-48, 54-55, 124-125, 127-128 chemical evolution, 10-11, 126-127, 131-132 flight operations, 8-10, 13-14, 17, 45, 54, 55, 123-126, 130-131 grain aggregation, 45-46 ground-based, 8, 10-14, 17, 116, 125, 126-129 interplanetary medium, 54-55 interstellar medium, 10, 12-13, 125-126, 128-129

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INDEX Mars, 8-9, 11-12, 123-124, 127 meteoroids and meteorites, 47, 50-51, 55 outer planets, 9-10, 125, 128 outside solar system, 7-8, 17, 20, 129 Titan, 9-10, 12, 125, 128 see also Laboratory studies; Measurements and measurement techniques RNA, 11, 79, 80, 86, 87, 88, 95, 96, 98, 103 catalysis, 5, 79, 82, 83, 84-85, 88-89 polymerization, 18 see also Protein synthesis S Satellites, artificial, 17 extra-solar planets, search for, 13-14 Skylab, 114 Space Shuttle, 30 Space Station, 45, 54 spectroscopic, 10, 25, 35, 36 Satellites, natural, see Lunar bodies Saturn, atmosphere, 10, 12, 58, 125, 128 moons, 61, 62; see also Titan Sedimentology, 11, 19, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 92, 93-94, 99-100, 101, 103, 126-127 Mars, 8-9, 67, 72, 73, 76, 77, 102-103, 124 SETI, see Extraterrestrial intelligence Shock processes, 30, 31, 38, 39, 40, 41, 78, 105 collisional aggregation, 43, 63 lightning, 39, 40, 41, 59, 105 see also Impacts Silicates, 34-35, 45, 52, 53, 62, 64, 66 see also Clay Skylab, 114 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 29 Solar flares, 39, 40, 41, 78, 105 Solar nebula, 3, 9, 13, 29, 46, 116, 124 gases, 3~37, 38-39, 40~1, 42, 62 grains, 36 41, 42, 58 models, 21-22, 29, 36, 37~1, 49, 64, 78 proto, 10, 17, 22-23, 34, 35, 59, 108-110, 120, 125 ultraviolet flux, 40 Solar systems, 6 formation, 2, 12, 21, 23, 37, 79 outside our own, 7-8, 13-14, 17, 20, 105-122, 129 star-forming regions, 10, 13, 22, 24-25, 29-31, 34-35, 128-129 see also Asteroids and comets; Interplanetary dust; Meteoroids and meteorites; Planetary biology; Planetary rings; Planetesimals and planetoids; Planetology 147 Solar winds, 53, 62 South Africa, 4, 78 Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 25, 35 Space missions, 14-15 asteroids and comets, 52, 55 Mars, 11, 16, 71, 72, 74, 102, 103, 106 outer planets, 58, 125 recommended, 8-10, 13-14, 17, 45, 54, 55, 123-126, 13~131 satellites, 10, 13-14, 17, 25, 35, 36 Skylab, 114 Space Shuttle, 30 Space Station, 45, 54 Titan, 61 Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, 55, 109, 113 Space Shuttle, 30 Space Station, 45, 54 Spectroscopic studies, 8, 26-28, 48, 62, 110-111, 113-114, 121, 124, 125-126, 128-129 asteroids and comets, 9, 46, 53 atmospheres of planets, 26, 116-117 gamma-ray, 48 infrared, 10, 13, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31, 33~1, 48, 109, 111, 116, 119-120, 125-126 interstellar medium, 13, 23, 25-27, 128 Mars, 9 mass, 53 millimeter, 10, 25, 27, 28, 116, 125-126 radio frequency, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 118 Raman, 33-34 submillimeter, 10, 13, 25, 29-31, 109, 111, 116, 125-126 ultraviolet, 31, 35, 36, 40, 48 X-ray fluorescence, 48 Stars forming regions, 10, 13, 17, 22, 24-25, 29-31, 34-35, 128-129 presolar grains, 3, 13, 17, 31-35, 36, 37, 38, 41~6, 49, 51, 108-109 see also Interstellar medium and processes; Solar flares; Solar nebula; Solar winds A Strategy for Earth Science from Space in the 1 980s, Part I, 16 A Strategy for Earth Science from Space in the 1980s and l990s, Part II, 16 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s, 30 A Strategy for the Detection and Study of Extrasolar Planetary Materials: 1990-2000, 20, 115 A Strategy for the Exploration of Primitive Solar-System BodiesAsteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids: 1980-1990, 47, 50, 55

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148 A Strategy for the Exploration of the Outer Planets: 1986-1996, 55 Stromatolites, 4, 78, 81 Submillimeter spectra, 10, 13, 25, 29-31, 109, 111, 116, 125-126 Sulfur and sulfides, 65, 66, 81, 82, 105 Surface chemistry, 61-62 adsorption, 42, 85 asteroids, 1, 46, 47, 61-62, 124-125 atmospheric boundary layers, 68 clay, catalysis, 5 comets, 9 dust, 28-29, 30 Mars,8-9,11,78, 124 planetary, general, 7, 56, 91, 105, 110 Titan, 60, 61, 125, 128 T Technology extraterrestrial, evidence of, 8, 13-14, 106, 107-108, 111-112, 117-122, 129 see also Measurements and measurement techniques Tectonics, 7 Earth, 57-58, 65-67, 68-69, 73, 75, 76, 94, 99 Mars, 12, 58, 73, 75, 76, 127 Moon, 70-71 Venus, 58 Telescopes, 25, 35, 36, 115-116 see also Spectroscopic studies Temperature effects, see Thermal effects Temporal dimension, 6, 93 asteroids, 46 Terrestrial planets, 79 carbon and carbon compounds, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 72, 76, 80, 81, 99 chemical evolution, general, 3, 4, 6, 37, 57, 58 clay, 77 gravity, 62, 63, 74 hydrogen, 63, 64, 66, 67, 72, 79 ice processes, 64, 74 minerals, 63, 67, 77 volatiles, 62, 63, 64 see also specific planets Tertiary period, 99 Thermal effects, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 48, 54, 76, 110 atmospheric, 59, 63-64, 65, 72, 76, 128 cold accretion, comets, 51 comets, 55, 128 hydrothermal, 68-69, 70, 71, 81, 105 igneous phenomena, 11, 43, 44, 49 lab studies, 51 lightning, 39, 40, 41' 59, 105 melts and melting, 48-49, 64, 65-66, 67 INDEX metamorphism, 44, 72, 73 planetary accretion, 62, 64 pyrolysis, 31, 40, 43, 44, 48, 51 Titan, 60, 61 volcanic activity, 45, 58, 65-66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76 see also Ice processes Titan, 9-10, 12, 59-61, 111, 125, 128 atmosphere, 9-10, 12, 59-61, 125, 128 carbon oxides, 3 research recommendations, 9-10, 12, 125, 128 TMC-1, 26 Tsunami and tidal waves, 70, 74 U Ultraviolet radiation, 28, 59, 60-61, 78, 105 spectra, 31, 35, 36, 40 Universal ancestor, 6 Uranus, 59, 61 Urey, H., 18, 79 V Van der Waals forces, 42 Venus, 37, 58, 63, 79 Vesicles, 81 Viking space mission, 11, 16, 71, 72, 74, 106 Virology, 84-85 Volatiles, 42 asteroids, comets, and meteorites, 9, 12, 21-22, 43-44, 46, 51, 52, 55, 63, 64-65, 127 Earth, 4, 63-65, 66, 67 interstellar clouds, 22, 31, 51, 125 particle trapping of, 42 terrestrial planets, general, 62, 63, 64 Volcanic activity, 45, 58, 65-66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 76 Voyager space mission, 58 W Water and water systems, 23, 25, 31, 38, 39, 40, 43-44 asteroids and comets, 47, 52 atmospheric, 65, 67, 79, 80 liquid water, 9, 56, 60, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73-7, 75-76, 105, 124 Titan, 60 see also Hydrospheres; Ice processes Weather, see Climate and weather X Y Z X-ray fluorescence, 48 Zircons, 68