Index

A

Abdominal surgery, 41

Acetaminophen, 76

Acetylpromazine, 87, 88

Acupuncture, 84

Adaptation, 2, 7-9, 18, 29-31, 100-101

α2-Adrenergic agonists, 90-92

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 51

Age, see Maturity

Aggression, 20-21, 95

Alopecia, 103

American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 1

Amphibians, euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115-116

Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care, and Management of Laboratory Animals, 116

Analgesics, 36, 57, 58, 105

see also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;

Opioids

Anderson, M.D., Cancer Center, University of Texas, 103

Anemia, 103

Anesthesia, 54, 56-69, 78-79

and euthanasia, 106-107, 113, 116

and muscle relaxants, 79-82

and salivation, 81

Anesthesia in Fish, 116

Animal Welfare Regulations, 1, 96

Antibody production, 101

Antipsychotics, 86-89

Anxiety, 6-7, 105, 108, 111

Anxiolytics, see Sedatives and tranquilizers

Ascites, 103

Atropine, 64

Atypical behavior, 22, 48-50

Autolysis, 102-103

Avoidance behavior, 2, 6, 54

Azaperone, 89

B

Barbiturates, 61-63, 90

for euthanasia, 111-112, 113, 116

Behavior, adaptive, 2, 7-9, 18, 29, 30-31, 100-101



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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Index A Abdominal surgery, 41 Acetaminophen, 76 Acetylpromazine, 87, 88 Acupuncture, 84 Adaptation, 2, 7-9, 18, 29-31, 100-101 α2-Adrenergic agonists, 90-92 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 51 Age, see Maturity Aggression, 20-21, 95 Alopecia, 103 American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 1 Amphibians, euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115-116 Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care, and Management of Laboratory Animals, 116 Analgesics, 36, 57, 58, 105 see also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Opioids Anderson, M.D., Cancer Center, University of Texas, 103 Anemia, 103 Anesthesia, 54, 56-69, 78-79 and euthanasia, 106-107, 113, 116 and muscle relaxants, 79-82 and salivation, 81 Anesthesia in Fish, 116 Animal Welfare Regulations, 1, 96 Antibody production, 101 Antipsychotics, 86-89 Anxiety, 6-7, 105, 108, 111 Anxiolytics, see Sedatives and tranquilizers Ascites, 103 Atropine, 64 Atypical behavior, 22, 48-50 Autolysis, 102-103 Avoidance behavior, 2, 6, 54 Azaperone, 89 B Barbiturates, 61-63, 90 for euthanasia, 111-112, 113, 116 Behavior, adaptive, 2, 7-9, 18, 29, 30-31, 100-101

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals atypical, 22, 48-50 avoidance, 2, 6, 54 feeding, 26-28, 47, 97 maladaptive, 2, 3, 4-5, 7-9, 18, 22, 49-50, 54-55, 86, 98 signs of pain, 33-37, 41-45, 55 signs of stress and distress, 45-50, 95-98 signs of well-being, 47 stereotypic, 52 Benzodiazepines, 89-90 Biochemical processes, 4, 12, 14, 50-52 Birds, 44 euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115 Blood withdrawal, 101 Boredom, 29, 48 Bradykinin, 11-12 Buprenorphine, 74-75 Burdizzo forceps, 115 Butorphanol, 74 Butyrophenones, 89 C Cages, 25, 29, 96-97, 99-101 Calcitonin, 52 Cannibalization, 102-103 Captive-bolt guns, 110, 115 Carbon dioxide, 108-109, 113, 114, 115, 116 Carbon monoxide, 108 Carnivores, 59 Catecholamines, 51, 110 Cats, 13-14, 42, 65, 68, 91, 107 analgesic dosages for, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 59, 63, 66 euthanasia of, 107, 113, 114 muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 sedative dosages for, 88, 92 Cattle, 43-44, 59, 68, 91 analgesic dosages for, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 66 muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 sedative dosages for, 88, 92 Cephalopods, 82 Cerebral cortex, 14-15 Cervical dislocation, 110, 113, 114, 115 Chinchillas, ketamine dosages for, 66 α-Chloralose, 78 Chloroform, 108 Chronic pain, 5, 36 Clinical signs of pain, 5, 6, 33-37, 41-45, 50-52 of stress and distress, 45-52 Cold-blooded animals, 82,83 euthanasia of, 111, 113, 115-116 Comfort, definition of, 3 Committee on Animal Research, New York Academy of Sciences, 36 Conditioning, 55, 100-101 Conspecific relationships, see Social relationships Corticosteroids, 51 Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 51 Cranial concussion, 109-110, 113, 114, 115 Crocodilians, euthanasia of, 113 Crowding, 21, 109 Curiosity, 97-98 Cyclohexamines, 63-68 D Decapitation, 104-105, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115 Defensive responses, 23-24, 96 Definitions, 2-9 Dens, 24-25, 96 Depression, 98 Deprivation, 21-23, 98, 100 Descending control mechanisms, 15-16 Detomidine, 91 Diagnosis, see Clinical signs Diarrhea, 103 Diazepam, 64, 90 Discomfort, definition of, 3 Dissociative anesthetics, 63-68 Distress clinical signs of, 45-52 continuum of, 7-8 definition of, 4-5 models of, 7-9 Dogs, 42, 46, 91, 98, 100 analgesic dosages for, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66 euthanasia of, 107, 109, 113, 114

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 postsurgical pain in, 37 sedative dosages for, 88, 92 Dorsal column postsynaptic spinomedullary system, 14 Dorsal horn nociceptive mechanisms, 12-14 Dosages, 56 of analgesics, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77 of anesthetics, 59-60, 63, 65, 66, 67 of barbiturates, 61, 62-63 of ketamine, 65-68 of muscle relaxants, 79 of neuroleptanalgesics, 69, 70 of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 77, 78 of opioids, 72-75 of pancuronium, 79 of phenothiazines, 88-89 of sedatives and tranquilizers, 86-92 of xylazine, 91-92 Double pithing, 111, 116 Droperidol, 69, 89 Drug-abuse potential, 64, 106, 112 Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 112 Drugs, see Pharmacologic approaches; specific types and classes Dry ice, 108 E Ecologic dimensions, 18, 19-28, 46, 94-98 Eicosanoids, 76 Electric shock, 29 Emesis, 72 Endorphins, 51 End-tidal alveolar concentration, 59-60 Enflurane, 59, 108 Environment enrichment of, 25, 30, 48, 98, 99-100 predictability of, 28-29, 97-98 Epidural injection, 75 Epinephrine, 51 Equilibrium, see Adaptation; Homeostasis Ether, 108 Ethical considerations, 38-40 Euthanasia, 102-116 Euthanasia of Amphibians and Reptiles, 115 Exercise devices, 25, 30, 96 Experimental design, 17, 46, 54-55, 100-101 and euthanasia, 102-103 guidelines, 33, 36, 38-40 Exsanguination, 109, 111 F Fear, 6-7, 105 Feeding behavior, 26-28, 47, 97 Feeding puzzles, 30, 99 Fentanyl, 69, 89 Ferrets, euthanasia of, 113, 114 Fetal surgery, 82-83 Firearms, 110, 113, 115 Fish, 45, 82 anesthesia for, 59 euthanasia of, 107, 113 Food, 100 see also Feeding behavior; Feeding puzzles; Foraging; Nutrition Foraging, 28, 97 Freezing, 105, 111, 116 Frogs, euthanasia of, 113, 116 G GABA-chloride ionophore receptor complex, 90 Geese, euthanasia of, 115 Gender, and social space, 21, 95 General anesthesia, 57-60, 61 and muscle relaxants, 80 Glucagon, 51 Goats, 44, 91 opioid dosages for, 75 sedative dosages for, 88 Grooming, 23 Group living, 95, 98-99 Growth hormone, 51 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1, 96 Guidelines for experiments, 33, 36, 38-40, 94, 103-104

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Guillotines, 110, 114 Guinea pigs, 43, 68 analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75 anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66 euthanasia of, 114 sedative dosages for, 88 Gunshot, 110, 113, 115 H Habitat, 19-20 Halothane, 59, 107, 108 Hamsters anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66 euthanasia of, 114 sedative dosages for, 88 Handling, 21, 23, 29, 35, 98-99 Hepatic enzymes, 56 Herbivores, 56 Homeostasis, 2, 3, 7 Hormones, 11-12, 47, 51-52 Horses, 43, 87, 90-91 analgesic dosages for, 73, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 66 muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 sedative dosages for, 88, 89, 92 Human contact, 21, 23, 29, 35, 98-99 Human drug-abuse potential, 64, 106, 112 Husbandry practices, 29, 46, 93-100 Hydrogen cyanide, 108 Hyperalgesia, 11 Hyperglycemia, 51 Hypothermia, 83, 103 Hypoxia, 108 I IACUCs, see Institutional animal care and use committees Icterus, 103 Immature animals, 21-22, 95, 98-99 euthanasia of, 107, 108 weaning of, 27-28, 94 Immobility reflex, 83-84 Immunization, 101 Inbred animals, 46 Infant-parent bonds, see Maternal dependence Inflammation, 35 chemistry of, 11-12, 52 and opioid synthesis, 14 see also Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Inhalational agents, anesthetic, 58-60 for euthanasia, 107-109, 113 Innovar-Vet, 69, 70, 89 Insects, 82 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2 Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 36, 79, 103 , 104 Insulin, 51 Intracardiac injection, 111, 114, 116 Intraperitoneal injection, 62-63, 111, 114, 116 Intrapulmonic injection, 111 Intravenous agents, for anesthesia, 60, 62-63, 70 for euthanasia, 111-112, 114, 115, 116 Isoflurane, 59 K Ketamine hydrochloride, 63-68, 112 L Lesions, 103 Lethargy, 103 Leukotrienes, 11 Liquid nitrogen, 105, 111 Lizards, euthanasia of, 113, 116 M Maladaptive behavior, 2, 3, 4-5, 7-9, 18, 49-50, 54-55, 86 caused by social deprivation, 22, 98 Manipulanda, 30, 99 Maternal dependence, 21-22, 27-28, 94 Maturity, 21, 22-23, , 95 Mechanoreceptors, 12

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Meperidine, 74 Methoxyflurane, 59, 107, 108 Methylated oxybarbiturates, 61, 62 Metomidate, 89 Mice, 43 analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 59, 63 sedative dosages for, 88 Microwave irradiation, 110-111 Midazolam, 90 Minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), 59-60 Models of distress, 7-9 Monitoring, of euthanasia, 104 of surgery, 60, 81 Monkeys, see Primates Morbidity, 102-103 Morphine, 14, 72, 74 Motivational demand, 49-50 MS 222 euthanatizing agent, 113, 116 Muscle relaxants, 79-82, 89, 90 Musculoskeletal disorders, 36 Myelinated nociceptors, 11 N Naloxone, 15-16, 71, 75 Naturalistic environments, 99 Neonatal surgery, 82-83 Nesting, 24 Neuroendocrine activity, 4, 12, 14, 50-52 Neuroleptanalgesics, 68-70, 87 Neuroleptics, 86-89 Neurologic problems, 103 Neurosurgery, 54 Newts, euthanasia of, 113 New York Academy of Sciences, Committee on Animal Research, 36 1986 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, 102 Nitrogen, liquid, 105, 111 Nitrous oxide, 60, 108 Nociception, 5-6, 10-16, 54-55 chemistry of, 11-12, 51-52 in neonates and fetuses, 82-83 Nociperception, 5 Nocturnal species, 48 Nonhuman primates, see Primates Nonmammalian species, 82, 83 Nonpain causes of stress, 17-31, 45, 46, 93-101 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 12, 75-78 Norepinephrine, 51 Novelty of environment, 28-30, 97-98 of foods, 26, 100 Nurturing, see Maternal dependence Nutrition, 26, 27, 97 O Operant conditioning, 55 Opioid antagonists, 52, 69, 71-75 Opioids, 14, 15-16, 51, 57, 61, 68-75, 91, 112 Outbred animals, 46 Oxybarbiturates, 61, 62 Oxymorphone, 74 P Pain, acute, 34, 35 chronic, 5, 36 clinical signs of, 5, 6, 33-37, 41-45, 50-52 in distress models, 8-9 postsurgical, 36, 37, 41 sensitivity range, 6 studies of, 53-55 threshhold, 6, 41, 115 tolerance, 6, 41, 53-55 see also Nociception Palpation, 35 Pancuronium, 79-80 Paralysis, 103 Paresis, 103 Pentazocine, 73, 74 Pentobarbital, 61-63, 112, 114, 115, 116 Personnel and euthanasia, 104, 106 training of, 1, 50, 104, 109 Pharmacologic approaches, 52, 53, 56-83, 86-92 in euthanasia, 107-108, 111-112

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals Phencyclidine hydrochloride, 64 Phenobarbital, 61, 62 Phenothiazine, 86-89 Physiologic response, 4, 31, 47, 50-52 Pigs, 44 analgesic dosages for, 70, 75 anesthetic dosages for, 59, 67 euthanasia of, 107 muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 sedative dosages for, 88, 89 Pithing, 109, 111, 115-116 Polymodal nociceptors, 11 Postsurgical pain, 36, 37, 41 Posture, 18, 33-34 Predator-prey relationships, 23-24, 96 Primates, 12, 13-14, 15, 41-42, 65, 98-99, 100-101 analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 65 euthanasia of, 113, 115 feeding behavior, 27 sedative dosages for, 88 social bonds among, 22-23 Prolactin, 51 Promazine, 87, 88 Prostaglandins, 11 Q Quadripole mass spectrometers, 60 R Rabbits, 42-43, 68 analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 63, 67 euthanasia of, 107, 113, 114 sedative dosages for, 88, 92 tonic immobility in, 84 Rats, 13-14, 24-25, 26, 43, 50, 99, 100 analgesic dosages for, 70, 73, 75, 77 anesthetic dosages for, 63, 67 euthanasia of, 114 sedative dosages for, 88 Record-keeping, 47, 112 Regulation, 1 Relief of Pain in Cold-Blooded Vertebrates, 116 Replication of findings, 1,2 Reproduction, 94 Reptiles, 44-45 euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115-116 Respiratory problems, 103 Restraint, 35, 55, 80, 83-84, 97, 100-101, 105 Rodents, 21, 27, 43, 59, 62-63, 64 euthanasia of, 107, 109, 113, 114 see also Mice; Rats Ruminants, see Cattle; Goats; Sheep S Salamanders, euthanasia of, 113 Salivation, and anesthesia, 81 Sanitation, 25, 96, 97 Scent-marking, 96 Sedatives and tranquilizers, 58, 61, 72, 86-92, 101, 105 Self-mutilation, 36, 103 Sensitivity range, 6 Sensitization, 11 Sheep, 44, 91 analgesic dosages for, 75 anesthetic dosages for, 67 muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79 sedative dosages for, 88 Shelter, 24-25, 96 Snakes, euthanasia of, 113, 116 Social relationships, 20-23, 95, 98-100 and euthanasia, 105 Sodium pentobarbital, 112, 114, 115, 116 Space, among animals, 20-21, 95 in cage design, 25, 96 Spinocervical tract, 13 Spinomesencephalic tract, 13-14 Spinothalamic tract, 12-13 Stereotypic behavior, 52 Sternotomy, 41 Stimulation, environmental, 29-30, 48 social, 23 Stresnil, 89 Stress acute, 2, 6, 49, 51, 86 beneficial, 3-4, 18, 93 clinical signs of, 45-52

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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals definition of, 3-9 environmental, 4, 7, 17-31, 47-48, 86, 93-95, 97, 98 nonpain causes of, 17-31, 45, 46, 93-101 psychologic, 4 Stunning, 109-110, 113, 114, 115 Substance P, 12, 52 Surgical procedures, 36, 37, 41, 47, 54 anesthesia in, 64, 68-69, 80-82 on neonates and fetuses, 82-83 Swine, see Pigs Sympathoadrenal system, 51 T Telazol, 65, 68 Thalamocortical mechanisms, 14-15 Thiobarbiturates, 61, 62, 63 Thoracotomy, 41 Threshold of pain, 6, 41, 115 Tiletamine, 65, 68 Toads anesthesia dosages for, 59 euthanasia of, 113, 116 Tolerance of pain, 6, 41, 53-55 Tonic immobility, 83-84 Tortoises, euthanasia of, 113 Tracheal intubation, 58-59, 80 Training of animals, 54-55, 100-101 of laboratory personnel, 1, 50, 104, 109 Tranquilizers, see Sedatives and tranquilizers Transportation, 29 Tremors, 103 Tricaine methanesulfate, 113, 116 T-61 euthanizing agent, 112 Tumors, 103 Turkeys, euthanasia of, 115 Turtles, euthanasia of, 113, 116 U Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 116 University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 103 Urethane, 78 Urinary dysfunction, 103 U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training, 33 U.S. Public Health Service Policy for Humane Care and Use of Animals , 1 V Validation of findings, 1, 2 Valium, 90 Vasopressin, 51 Veterinarians, 104 Vocalizations, 34-35, 105 W Weaning, 27-28, 94, 99 Weight, 103 Well-being, 3, 33, 47, 99 Wide-dynamic-range neurons, 12 Wild animals, 87 World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), 116 X Xylazine, 64, 90-92, 112 Z Zolazepam, 68

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