atypical, 22, 48-50

avoidance, 2, 6, 54

feeding, 26-28, 47, 97

maladaptive, 2, 3, 4-5, 7-9, 18, 22, 49-50, 54-55, 86, 98

signs of pain, 33-37, 41-45, 55

signs of stress and distress, 45-50, 95-98

signs of well-being, 47

stereotypic, 52

Benzodiazepines, 89-90

Biochemical processes, 4, 12, 14, 50-52

Birds, 44

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 115

Blood withdrawal, 101

Boredom, 29, 48

Bradykinin, 11-12

Buprenorphine, 74-75

Burdizzo forceps, 115

Butorphanol, 74

Butyrophenones, 89

C

Cages, 25, 29, 96-97, 99-101

Calcitonin, 52

Cannibalization, 102-103

Captive-bolt guns, 110, 115

Carbon dioxide, 108-109, 113, 114, 115, 116

Carbon monoxide, 108

Carnivores, 59

Catecholamines, 51, 110

Cats, 13-14, 42, 65, 68, 91, 107

analgesic dosages for, 70, 72, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 59, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 107, 113, 114

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

Cattle, 43-44, 59, 68, 91

analgesic dosages for, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 66

muscle-relaxant dosages for, 79

sedative dosages for, 88, 92

Cephalopods, 82

Cerebral cortex, 14-15

Cervical dislocation, 110, 113, 114, 115

Chinchillas, ketamine dosages for, 66

α-Chloralose, 78

Chloroform, 108

Chronic pain, 5, 36

Clinical signs

of pain, 5, 6, 33-37, 41-45, 50-52

of stress and distress, 45-52

Cold-blooded animals, 82,83

euthanasia of, 111, 113, 115-116

Comfort, definition of, 3

Committee on Animal Research, New York Academy of Sciences, 36

Conditioning, 55, 100-101

Conspecific relationships, see Social relationships

Corticosteroids, 51

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 51

Cranial concussion, 109-110, 113, 114, 115

Crocodilians, euthanasia of, 113

Crowding, 21, 109

Curiosity, 97-98

Cyclohexamines, 63-68

D

Decapitation, 104-105, 109, 110, 113, 114, 115

Defensive responses, 23-24, 96

Definitions, 2-9

Dens, 24-25, 96

Depression, 98

Deprivation, 21-23, 98, 100

Descending control mechanisms, 15-16

Detomidine, 91

Diagnosis, see Clinical signs

Diarrhea, 103

Diazepam, 64, 90

Discomfort, definition of, 3

Dissociative anesthetics, 63-68

Distress

clinical signs of, 45-52

continuum of, 7-8

definition of, 4-5

models of, 7-9

Dogs, 42, 46, 91, 98, 100

analgesic dosages for, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77

anesthetic dosages for, 63, 66

euthanasia of, 107, 109, 113, 114



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