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Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals
Figure 1-2 Model of distress induced by pain. Note relationship between sensory discriminative component and affective emotional component. Sensory component of pain ranges from threshold to tolerance and then intolerance. In affective components, intensity of pain can proceed from a state of comfort to distress. Arrow paths indicate flow from sensation to affect to behaviors. This is the normal case, but under some conditions, behaviors can influence affect and thus modify the sensation. Double arrows emphasize that behavior is primarily influenced by affect. (Direction of flow indicates schematized concept only, not neural pathways.)