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Resources and Strategies The development of a particular science is a cumulative process, with each advance building on the past contributions of diverse fields. Progress is normally the result of steady, patient effort guided and monitored by select disciplinary peer committees, funded by disci- plinary programs, and communicated through disciplinary journals. Hydrologic science has not had the benefit of this organized infra- structure, however, as it has grown in response to and been constrained by the evolving engineering and management needs of contemporary societal water problems: first water supply, then flood control, and more recently pollution abatement. Development of hydrology as a science is vital to the current effort to understand the interactive behavior of the earth system because of the key role that the hydrologic cycle is now known to play therein. Not only is such knowledge prerequisite to solving the many unfore- seen water problems that will result from future global change, but it is also needed to cope with the ever-increasing complexity of the more conventional water management problems. Achieving this comprehensive understanding of the earth system will require the kind of long-term disciplinary and interdisciplinary effort that can be sustained only by a vigorous scientific infrastructure. In conclusion this committee presents those resources and strategic actions that it believes are necessary to support a viable hydrologic science in the United States. 304

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RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 305 RESOURCES To advance the science of hydrology, resources will be needed in the following areas. Research Grant Programs The central role of water in the earth system over a broad range of space and time scales provides the scientific rationale for a unified development of hydrologic science. The associated need to create and maintain a cadre of hydrologic scientists requires development of a focused image and identity for this science. Establishment of distinct but coordinated research grant programs in the hydrologic sciences would address both of these issues. Support for research in hydrologic science in the United States is scattered among various agencies of the federal government, as detailed in Appendix A. In keeping with the pragmatic origins of the science (summarized in Chapter 2), the "action" agencies, such as the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Weather Service, and the Agricultural Research Service, manage water-related research programs oriented to their own specific missions. The basic science fraction of this research, quite properly, is small in comparison with the applied. The amount of funds spent in-house is large with respect to external grants, and there is little coordination of effort at the interagency level. Support for basic research in hydrologic science is concentrated within the National Science Foundation (NSF) but is diffused there among the divisions of the Geosciences Directorate, each with a mandate oriented toward its own interests. This partitioning not only slights important hydrologic areas, such as aqueous chemistry and the earth's vegetation cover, but also ensures that there is no cultivation of a coherent research program in hydrologic science, and that the science achieves no established identity. Fellowships, Internships, and Instructional Equipment The development of education in the hydrologic sciences will re- quire the involvement of scientists, educators, and others in federal, state, or local agencies, who will contribute at all levels from kin- dergarten through graduate school. At the graduate level, this committee recommends establishment of special research fellowships in the hydrologic sciences. These should be designed to train students for research in a specific branch of

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306 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES :~)RDI~NATE~D~ F~lELD~EXPERl~blEhIT5=!tEG~ION~A~L~:~STUDI ES~)F ~~:~ : ~ ~ ~~ ~~:~ ~~ hi: ICEDTMOSPH~ERE ~~I~J:lIR:=TIO~N~ : ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ VV nea~:~th~e~:~ su~n~:evanor~:es ~ water ~ ~trom~ ~~:the~:~eadh's ~ ~ I~a~nd~s~e . :~t~t~ ~~ :: ~~ ::::: ::~ :: :::: Aft: ::: ::~ :: :: ~process:~:c Roes awns Coo ~s~t~nM~su~rtace~.~:~0m~e~:~t Peso ~ar~:en~ergy::~:is~;;~c~a~r iec ~~i~ who - ~ ~evapo rated ~water~:~u p ~~ i Into: th e Amos ho e ~~ ~4 ho re:::: if t:~is~r~eased ~~:~ ~~ i: : ~::~:: ::: :: ::: : : ~ : : : I: :::::: :~ : :~ :~ : I: ::~:: Hi: ::: :: I: :: : : : ::: : ~ ::: :: : : ~ : : ::~ : : : :: :~ ~ : :~ : ~ ~ :: :: :~ :: :::: :: :~ : ~ : ::: : : : ~ : :: ~~in~rn~Whe~n~ that~water~va~liden:se:s~i~to~rain~.~:~ In ~th~i:s~:way~the~:~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,~ ~ ~: :: ~ :: ~: ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ts~ene~rgy~c ~~r~at~inti:m~ate y~u~p0,~:~and~the~ rnathem~ti~-~;~:~ ~~ c~ctes=i=l~on~:~t~ raft l~n~e~la~i~or}sh prime ~~an~d~spac~e~i~s~o~e~of~t~ ~~ :: : I::: ~ ::~: Hi: :::: :::~:: : :::::::: ::::~: :::::: :::: :~:::~ I: ::::: ~ ~ ::::: ~ :: :~ ::: :: :: :::: ~ :~: ::: : ::: i:: : . :. ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~~I~n~~ll3a~ unto ~ve:~p rot ems: 1;yc pro og~l~c:~s~clence~:~ ~ 1:e~ ~~uro~c~ses~l~n-~ :: ~~ v~ve~pend~cr~tt: - lay o~rl~sum~:~:th~i~ngs~:~a~s~the~l~p:bysiciaJ~prope~es~::~thti~ ~~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ , ~ ~ ~ I, ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ so ,~ lie ~~ Mean ~~ae~ns~o~ ~g~etatio~n~:~c~o~ver~~t 1e~:c ~I~,~t~ ~e~:season~::ot~ ~~:~ t Je~:~,~arld~tlfi~e~ wreath e r:~at~a~ nisi ven :~: meow ~ ~~e~l Y:'~obse~rv~ati~o~:s ~~ a re ~~n~es~sa~ torts :un~r0~nd~ Disco nplex Al - ~en~oJn~J:~th~ey~ Be :: :~:::::~: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::: ::::::::: ::::::::::: ~ ::::::: :: :::: ::::::: ::: ::::::::: :~::: :::::: :::::::: ::: ::: ::::::: : ::: :::::: :::: ::::: :::: ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ ~ :. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ T ~ ~ ~ T ~~ ~ ~:~e~g ,~ An sputa ~~ Oscar e~ Main ~~u~setu~ave:rages Mote lea - So ::: ~ : ~ ~ ~ I: ~ ~ ~ ~ :: ::::::::::: :::~:::::::~:: :: ::::::~: Hi: :~: ::~:~1 it::::::: ~i::::: ~ ::::::: ::: :~ ::: ::::: ::::: :::: :: ::::::: :::: ::: ::::: :::~:: :::~: ::::::: ::::: ::~: a: :: :::: :::: .::~:::: :~: :~:::: :~e ::::: : :::: ::: ~ Nate ra lacy ~ n eterogeaeo u s~s~u rta pep rope rat ease. ~~ ~~ Ot>sewat:'o n s Oft 130th amp- ~~ ~~ ~ ::~:::: :::~::~ :::::~:'::~:::~:: :::::: ~::~:: ~~:~ :::~:: : ::~ :: :: I::: :::::: ::: ::::; :::::::: :::::::: ::::::::::::::::: ~ ::::~: :::::: ::: ::~:: ::: ::::: : ~ ::~:: :::~: ::::: :::: ~~ - e re Stan d :~ I := d age: s u ~F~ it:: m: u st ::~:be~ mica cl e ,: am t loo e ~~ ~~ mu s t ~~ b e ~ ~ c Go r d i~d ~::~: ~ ~ ~~ : ::: ::: ~ ~::~ :~ If::: :~::~ ::::::: :::~::: :::: :~ :: Ail:: ::::: :~:::: :::::::: A:::: ::::: : ~:::~: ~ ~ :::: ~~ : :~: ~ ~~in:::time~ asps ipic;ilJi,~o~bserv~ations~of~l~ic~radiatiorI~:~ ~~: ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~,~ :,: ~~ ~~: ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ :~: hi: ~~are~maue~:r~n~o~:~r~, temperate, Saabs - spheric. :~: : :::::::::: :~::::::::::::::::::: ~ :: :::::::::: :::::::::~::::::::::::::::~:::::~:::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::: : I: ::::::::::::::: :::::: : :::: : ~ ~ :: ~:~ : :~: ~ ~ ~ Rare me~uretf~: ire;: ~ And ~~tem~herat~soll~ If- . ~~momure;~an~n~e~:~a~na~ Are Oat the round. ~~ ~~ ~~:~:~:~ if: The hi - a~L:, - ~e~lo~:Prd'iett::~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~t~ ot~tne~l ate - seam Anagram ~:~(WER~ ~~ :Ib:terna-~ ~:~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~: ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~: ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~tional~;atel~i~ Len :1~ Surface~l~logy :~:ProJe:Ct:~tlSl=P)~h:as~as~:~ :~ ~ :~ :: :~ ~~ ~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ :~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ :~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ j~impr~: Hi - Misunderstand Ing~interactions: ~w~ Ve~ Ad here Ova Al: s~c;~a~:th:rou~ ~the~u~se~:~8f ~~n~s~ From ~itts.~::tl3CP ~comp~rise~s~a~: seri:es~of~l~scia~ld:~(~ ~~:~l~004 ~ ~ . W ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~fi~ei i tsar: w hE tad pa~rt:i pi path I dg:i sty: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f ~ ~~: :s: :~ntsts:~aNnd:~rem~dte~wnsin~ex~Del~ts~ - rrL~the~::in~nal~sc~ie~ ~ s~eId~Expe~riment~ E) was c~tth~e~rass~-~ if hewn lied ~~s~r:rlear>~Man~hatta n .~ Ka~n~sa:s)~: in ~~ 1 :~7~ : ~~ ~: ri~co~i~sted~ ~~u~r;~i~nte~n~s~l~ve~t~'e~l~d~c~a~m:~pai~g~s;~eah Matting ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ , :. ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ :~: if. ~ Wheels aurl~ng~J~une->eptemoe~r~ ~~ano~mo:~:~t:~an~l~OO~sc~l~ent:l~sts~::partli~pateU:~:~ ~~ ~~ :~: ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ :~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~~: ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~: ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ :~ Ohs experiment. l~ne~:o~e~l~ve~t'~~was~Io:~c~pl~re~ Thea and ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ seas em: i~or~of~th~e~ tal~:lgrass ecosystem:~:based~on~:a series of in~::situ:~ ~~:~ ~ ~ :; ~ :. , ~ ~ :~ ~ ~~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ If, ~~: ~ ~~ ~ aft, ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~rn~or~ap,~no~s~pace-~sed~:c~ ve~ntio~n~al~an~d~ :re~mote~s~s;~l~otiserv~a-~:~ ~ I: ~~ ~.~: :. ~ :~ ::: if,: ~~:~:~ ~~.~,~ ~ ~~,~ ~~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~~ ~~ ~~: ~ ~ ~~ ~~ nits Ate ~so: I~-~ am- arm oh here~;systern . ~~ I n ~1:~8 ~ the ~:e~x i~sti no: - d~ ~eW~ ~rv~t~f~o~n~:~:~n~ork~:~:a~n:d~:s~l1~~te ~~sens:o~we~re~ :tb~:ni ~;~ie~4adhi~s of ~~t~lgrass~:~prair:~:i~e:~w~ith6Lit~Wany~ inte~ns:i~ve:~:fi~cam ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Apse; The p~mi~:ana~l~ysis~of~e com~l~n:si:ve~:~ta~s:etsN3i:)tLi :~r~l~a~ n - ~~r~;f~er~o - bio~;l~c~trol~:~:~mass~:~and~energy: exc~nge~ The: Sport : ~ ~ ~ ~ :; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ : ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ecosy~s~m~: i~dtm:osp~h~ere~ Ring ~ :: :: ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ I :: I: :::: : :~ : : ::::: :: :: I:: aviated smiting nerds.: ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ . ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~

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RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 307 :~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ I- ~ ~ T~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~: - :~: ~ ::: :::: ::::~: :: A: :~ ~ :~: ::: : : ::~ I::: I: ~ :: ::: ::: , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ :~ . ~ , - , ~ . ::::~: At; ~~ in ~~l~n~te~ns~{~ve:~:~:~e~ ~~:~ex~pe~r~m~e~n~t:~ hydrology and to increase the number of students equipped to inves- tigate interdisciplinary problems. Travel fellowships will enable students to enroll in specific courses, to interact with key scientists, and to participate in large-scale, coordinated experiments. Fellowships are especially important in increasing participation by women, ethnic minorities, and the handicapped, as are internships for the retraining of mature scientists from allied disciplines. At the undergraduate level, there is a strong need for providing modern, sensitive instructional equipment for students' use in the

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308 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES field and to back this up with logistical support for field trips and field classes. Summer or academic year institutes for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers can provide a basic science and mathematics background taught in the context of hydrology. Under the title of environmental science, or earth science, or general science, interesting hydrologic topics can be developed to fit into everyday instruction in science and mathematics at all levels. A key idea for these institutes is the training of resource teachers who will then conduct workshops in their own schools (or districts) for other teachers. Summer institutes for especially talented science and mathematics students should be established at colleges and universities to stimulate interest in careers in the hydrologic sciences by providing hands-on problem-solving activities. These activities should be supported primarily through grants from federal agencies i.e., the EPA, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the NSF, and others depending on the connection of the subject matter to their specific missions. However, partial support from state and local governments and industry is both possible and advisable. Coordinated Field Experiments Multidisciplinary field experiments with coordinated observations are needed for answering different types of scientific questions and are useful for instruction in the art and science of field observation. These include short-term, large-scale, multicollaborator studies, sometimes called campaigns or given acronyms such as GEWEX (for Global En- ergy and Water Experiment); long-term studies of processes, sometimes called base-line studies, such as those of watershed erosion formerly conducted by the Soil Conservation Service; and actual, controlled, small-scale experiments. Campaigns Simultaneous measurement of many hydrologic processes by scientists working within the context of an agreed-upon plan repre- sents a powerful means of generating new hydrologic insights. This is particularly true when the field program has the participation of theore- ticians right from the start of planning and when an intensive effort is made to anticipate how results will be shared and used by various analysts. These investigations (e.g., the Global Atmosphere Research Program/Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) and the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmospheric (TOGA) Program) are widely used by the other geosciences, particularly to characterize mesoscale and larger phenomena, but are just coming into use in hydrology (e.g., HAPEX and FIFE). Even

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RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 309 the largest of these field programs can and should be compatible with the best independent and individual science; such a program serves as an umbrella under which individual investigators carry out their work. Base-Line Studies Some excellent field stations, maintained by federal agencies, now participate in long-term observations in various fields of science. For example, several are part of the national network of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program being carried out under the leadership of the NSF's Directorate for Biological, Be- havioral, and Social Sciences. Although hydrology is fundamental to many of the research questions studied at the LTER stations, hydrologists are underrepresented among participating scientists; substantial op- portunity currently exists for collaboration in ongoing field experiments. There is a current lack of communication among hydrologists in the federal sector and their counterparts in the universities concerning the facilities, resources, and scientific potential of these sites and others. Improved communication is essential to foster the one-on-one contact that is the foundation of developing collaboration. Formalized agency programs supporting faculty and student involvement in field experiments and instruction at these facilities are badly needed. Observation of Transients Many hydrologic processes are distinguished by extreme episodes of short duration that may be catastrophic in their effect on society (e.g., floods, landslides, hurricanes, and blizzards). Too often these events are investigated weeks or months after their occurrence when the evidence of chronology and mechanism has been degraded. Timely study of these isolated phenomena could be facilitated if funding agencies had a mechanism for releasing funds on extremely short notice to put investigators into the field. It should be the responsibility of universities and government agencies to inculcate the necessary planning and observational skills for all these modes of research through a steadfast, long-term commitment to the teaching and financial support of field work in the hydrologic sciences. Long-Term Observations Continuous, long-term records of hydrologic-state variables (e.g., soil moisture, temperature, atmospheric humidity, and concentration of dissolved and suspended substances) and hydrologic fluxes (e.g., precipitation, streamflow, and evaporation) are essential, among other things, to quantify the variability of these quantities. Such records can reveal secular trends, periodicities, and the probability distribution of the random residuals information that has value in such areas,

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310 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES respectively, as identification of global change (the Mauna Loa car- bon dioxide record), isolation of mechanisms, and estimation of the risk of flood and drought. There is no substitute for such long-term data records in science and engineering. Unfortunately, however, their uninterrupted collection and cataloging are an unglamorous task. Therefore, the funds to support this vital task are traditionally high on the budget-cutter's list of targets. The committee must renew the plea here for unwavering support of the collection and storage of long-term hydrologic records. These resources are like a patient's medical record: useless during apparent health, but invaluable when illness appears. The only certainty is that if records are not kept, they will not be available when needed. Access to Data Bases The immediate, unrefined products of observation and experimen- tation are scientific data. These are obviously available to those who collect them, but their primary value is often realized by others at a later date and in a quite different scientific context. For hydrologic science to move forward it is essential that data sets, once acquired, be properly identified and described (i.e., purpose, location, instruments, spatial and temporal coverage, and so forth), be cataloged and archived (including archival maintenance), and be made available to the scien- tific community at reasonable cost and effort. Resources are needed for these tasks. STRATEGIES To further the recognition and establishment of hydrologic science as a distinct geoscience, hydrologists can take many actions, either individually or through their scientific societies. These include the following: Make use of relevant scientific societies as platforms for communi- cation, advocacy, organization, and education. Societies such as the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the Ecological Society of America can draw attention to the prob- lems and needs of hydrologic science through such activities as preparing, disseminating, and advocating positions on issues of hydrologic sci- ence that are of public interest; sponsoring graduate fellowships; generating educational material for use in secondary schools; pub- lishing review articles about hydrologic science directed at readers from allied sciences; and facilitating the organization of international scientific research programs.

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RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 311 :1::~ ~ ::: ~ ~ ~~:~LON:G-TER~M :DATA AND :::T~H~E~ G:~R:E::E~HOUS:E~ EFFECT: ~ T~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ i::: 1e ire a~t:~l~ons~ blip between certain trace: gases in ~ ~~e:~atm~osp~ here, not-:: : :: ~ ::b I y~:~c~a rb:o~n: :d~ i~ox~i de, ~ flea n do A l oral Chic I i m ate ~ c~h a:n~;e:~ i so d e~s:c r'~b~edi~: i n:~C h~a:pte~r~i~3 .~ ~~ :~i Despite ~:the~::~:c:wr~rent ~lu~ncerta~inty~w~i:th~re~spect:~to~:~ Our ~u~n:d:er~st~a~:ni~d~i~n~g:~lof~th~ei:~ ~~:~ pi mechanisms :u~nderl~y~i~nTg~the~i~g:l~obal::~h~ydroi~o:g::ic~cycil~e~ :a~::~con~:sen~su~:s:~:e~xists~:~ t : :1 That ~:fu~tu recharges ~ i:~n~c~i i mate: ~~b;eca:u~:se~:~ of ~~ a ~~c~on:t~i~n~u~al ~~ :i ncrea~se~ ~~o:f~::~trace~ ~~::~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ~~ ~ :: . . ,. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ grass concentrations In t he atmoso: here ~ may ~~ avers ~a: slR~n~:l:ticant~:~:l~m:oa~t:~:on: i: ~: :the~s:u:rviv~al ot~:ecos~y:stems : and The ~~m~:an~age:men~t::~:oJ~ ~~w:ater~re~sou~rces~. ~ ~ i:: : :::: Bu~t~::~how~d~o ::we~:~;:know: that th~e~r:e:: h~:as~i~:be~e~n~::~::a~: continual: i ncre~a~se~::~iln~: t:h:e~:: i:~: :conc:entr:at:ion of ~ trace gases like: carbon dioxide:::~(iCO :::: in th~e:~:a~tmos~ph~e~Fe:?~i:i~ 2 ~ ~ , _ it: . . . , ~ :~ .~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ , I n t ~e:caseot~ _0::: owed have some: lint Irect l~n~to:r~ma:tion tram tree-rin~g:rec~oros~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ant from::: Historical :~::mea:surem:e~nts~ot~ so :ar~ a ~~sor~p:ti:on ~si~pe~c^:tra~::~a~nc ~~:~:~:t Here::::: . ~ ~ ~ , ~ , . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ Is eat ~remar cao e set :ot: Irect measurements ~trom~: air mu 3~ West tra~ppec in ~ ~ B~u~t~the~s~i:~n~g~l~e~l~:~most:~:::Yail:~u~a~ble~s:et Of::::: ::::: CO2:~:mea~s~:urement~s~overt:i:::me~is:~the~::~record~::~dete:r~m~i~ned~by~C:har~l~es~D~av~i~d~ Keeling :at~M:aun~a:: Loa,~:::~H~aw~ai:i:~,::b:e:gin:~ning~in~:lJ:~95~8:~: :(~:~F:i~gure~ ~:7.~1~)~.:: :T:h~is~:~ve~ry~: ~ ~ ~ ~ , i~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ pr:e:c lose :~:t:~me~ :se:r~e:s ::~s:n~ows: oe~n:~tive~::y ~ tn~at~: COP: co:nc:en~trat::lo~n~s :: nave:: :~:neen::~:~ i:: ~::~r~l:~sl~ng~ :~ro~m~::~year:~to~:ye:a~r,~wit~ l~a~:s~e~a~so~n~a ~~ ~~m~oc A: ~~a~t:l~o~n~that:~a~l~so~l~s~:~l~n~c~re~a~s~-~::~ : .: :: i:: Be: : : 1 : ::: r I:: : ~ ~ ::: . : : I ~ ~ ,,: ~ : : be, ~ I: ~ ~ ~ ~ liner. ~~ l~t~::~sta~nos~ as:~:~:~one::~: Otis ~t:n~e::: ~:~c~l~a:s~s~l~c :~ex~a~m~P~l:~e:s ~ :o~t::~:~lon:g-t:e~r~m~:~:~t~l~e~l~:~:~:~wor~::~:~ , 1 I : l I taint flee core Haven :rro~m~ :^nTarct~lca:. ~1:: ha~vi ng~:~:::m~aJsr le:avi ron::me:nta:l Saigon if ica:n~ce.~l~G~:I: 1~: : ~1~:~ ~::Th~e~:~M~a~u~n:a: Local C~0~7~ i: mea~s~u:rem:e:nts ~~wer~e~i:n~:i~ti~ated~: ~d~u~r:i:~ng~t~h~e:~l~nte~:rna-:~:~l~i~ . 1 : ::~ 1 1 1: 1 1 1 ~~t~i~o:na~l~Ge~oph~y~s:i~cal~ ~ Year Abut They: ~m~i~ght~lh~ave~ bee:n l~d~isco~nti~n~ued~sh~o~rtly~ e: ~ or em: i: I ::~:: ::: : ::: ~ :: ::~: ::: e:~:~:::~::::::~:~::: ~~:::~:: : ~::~::~::::~ it: ::::::. ::: ~ ::::::: :~::::~: ::::: :::::::::::: a: :tnerearter na a not alar: re~w enil:~nteneo: people:: at ~tne ~cr:l~:pp~s ::~I:n~st~l:t:u~t':on::~:~o~r ~~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~~ ~ Oc:ea:n og rap h y: n u rtu:red i:: a i: yo:u :n go ~ ~:p:ostd onto ra I :~1~ :resea~rc h e r i: :w: it~hil~ :a~:: ~ m~i~:s~s to n:.l:~ i:i ~ _% . . ~ ~ ~ . ~ . , ~ , . ~ , ~ ~ ~ , . ues~p~lte ~In~e~ In~crea~s~l~ng~l~y:: recog~n~:~lz~ec~:~ :Importa~nce:: oT ~ca~la~ ~ re:c~oro~:s~:~ol~::::l~o~n~g~ ~ , ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Il~:lI:du~:~a~tion,::~on~l~yl::~a~l~ha~ndf:w~l~:~:of~d~e~d~icateid~re~se~a~rcfi~faci~liti~e~s~hav~e~s~u~:ccessfu:tl~y~:: , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : m a i n t a i n ~ e d ~ : ~ ~ ~ : h i g ~ - q ~ a a ~ l ~ ~ i t y ~ d a t a ~ ~ ~ c o l ~ l e ~ c t i ~ o n ~ I : s i t e s ~ ~ ~ 0 v e r ~ ~ I I ~ o n ~ g ~ p e r ~ i o d ~ s ~ . ~ ~ : ~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ : ~ R e s e : a ~ ~ r c ~ h ~ e : r s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~: ~ :~: ~ :: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~a~t:~t~h~ese:~s~: i te:s~: :h~ave: ~e~xp~e r ~ie n ced ~I: n :st~i:~tuti::o~na I :~re~ I uctan~c~e:~:to~ ~com~m~i~t~f~f~:n~d:~s~:: ~:~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :: ~ . . , ~ ~ ~ ,: ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~,~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~, ~ ~ :, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ye~ar::~ ~atte:r:: yea:r :~to::~:~:actl~v~lty ~tnat tre~q~uentI~y~ ~'s~::~te~rmeo:~ "monltorln~g~"~:~:tn ~a~:~:~:~: :: ~ , . . ~ , . , ~ ~ , , . ~ ~ ~ peJorative :sense. tm~pna~sis 15~: p~lacec::l~ns~teac~:~on: ::sn~ort-term ~s~tun~le~s~ex~- pected~lil~lto: bri~ng~ ~q~u~ic~k :~res:~u~lts~::::~that~::~:~can~:~l~be :u~s~ed :l~to~::~l~:b~o~i~ste~r :~:requ~est:s: :~tor~::::~:~:~ ~::inc~reases~::i~n~: th~e:~a:n~n~ua~l:~b:u~d~get~.~:~:~:~: ~ ~:~ ~:~ :I:I~:~T:h~e:::~:p~roblem:: ~ w~i~t~hi~:thi~s ~s~hort-te~r~m:~app:roac~h~i~s ~th:at ~:i~tl~:~is~n~ot::~re:sponsive~ ~:~ ~:~to t:h~e~ dat~a needs ::for~:~i~:nve:~st~iga:t~i~n~g~ en::viron~me~nta~l~c~h:a::n~ges~lt:h~at::opera~te~o~R ~ ~ ~:~ :la~rg~e~ :~s~:p~atia:::l ::l~sca~:les a:nd~llong~::it:im~e~ ~scale~s :: ~:~W~h::a:~:~ w~o~uldl~:~a:~n~y: two-~ito~l:l:th~re~e- ~:~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ t::~: ~ :~ ~year piece o~ tn~e ~ grape ~ l~n tne ~ M:auna Lo~a cu~2~: reco~ro te~l~l :~ us ~a~oout~::green~- ~: ~:hou~sel~:wa~r~m:~i:~ng~?~Recog:nli~t;~on:~ :must be~gi~ven~:i::to: the~fac~t~:~that~c~r:itic:al::;:::i~s~s~ues ~of:~ ~glo~b~al hy~lrolo~gy:~: ca~n~:n~ot ~b:e: r e~so:lv:ed:~:::by~i:n~st:i~tutio~nal~com~m~::itme:~n~t:~to~ : ~ : s u p ~ p ~ o : ~ r t : t : h a t ; s ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ~ I i ~ m ; ~ t e ~ d ~ : : t o I ~ I t : h e ~ I l a ~ ~ b o r a t o r y - ~ ~ r e : s e a ~ r c ~ h ~ I ~ t i : ~ m e I ~ s c : a ~ I ~ e . ~ I ~ ~ ~ C : o ~ m : m : i ~ t - ~ , ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :: men:t~ :~ano: tne clarity ot:: vl~sion:: :~tnat~::l n~s~p~i~:red~t~h:~at~:smalt grou~:p~ ~at: ~th~e~:~:Sc:~rip:p~s I n~stitution tn ree: ~eca~ues: :~ag~o~:~:mu~st:::now~:::~ta~e~:t:n:el~r p~l~ac~e~ :~l:g~l::n~ tne ~ pr:l-~: orl~t~les ~ ot~nose~:~::w~no~:: p~lan:~a~o ~::su~pp~ort~ n~yo~:ro~lo~g~l~c :researc:~: ~:pro~g~r:a~ms::: ~ot~ :: : , ~ ~ national: scope. 1~ :: . l 17~: 1: ::: , 1::::~:::: 1~::: , 1 I , : I ~ 1~: I 1~:~: 1~ ~ : 1: l I I I : l 1 : ~:: ::~ :: :~: ::: :~:: : :: ::::~::

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312 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 350 _ ~ 340 _ is 0 !;7 330 _ E A _ o cot ' 310 _ 300 . ~ A A ~ 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 YEAR 1980 1 985 FIGURE 7.1 Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at Mauna Loa Obser- vatory, Hawaii, expressed as a mole fraction in parts per million of dry air. The dots depict monthly averages of visually selected data adjusted to the center of each month. The horizontal bars represent annual averages. SOURCE: Data were obtained by C. D. Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California, and are from files in the Carbon Dioxide Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cultivate interest in hydrologic science among the appropriate mission-oriented agencies of the federal government. There is a need to argue for the allocation of a greater fraction of water research money to be spent by the agencies on basic hydrologic science. There is further need to seek interagency planning and coordination of how these monies are used. Consider the establishment of a separate journal for hydrologic sci- ence. The primary existing outlet for hydrologic science in the United States is Water Resources Research, which is arguably the premier journal in the world for a broad spectrum of water research from science to application and policy. It is not widely read in the broader geosciences community, however. On the one hand it is questionable whether the market can yet support a new and separate journal for hydrologic science, but on the other hand the visibility and identity fostered by a separate scientific journal may be necessary to attract the work of scientists from allied fields who want their work to be seen by their peers.

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RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 313 Stimulate joint meetings and symposia among the relevant scien- tific societies concerning issues of hydrologic science in order to fos- ter interdisciplinary understanding and cooperation. Review, in five years, the progress toward achieving the goals elabo- rated in this report, assessing the vitality of the field, surveying the changes that have occurred, and making recommendations for further action. SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING Andre, J. C., J. P. Goutorbe, and A. Perrier. 1986. Hydrologic atmospheric pilot experi- ment (HAPEX) for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the atmo- spheric climate scale. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 67:138-144. Becker, F., H. J. Bolle, and P. R. Rowntree. 1988. The International Land-surface Clima- tology Project. ISLSCP Report No. 10. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, lOO pp. World Meteorological Organization. 1988. Concept of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment. WMO/TD-No. 215. WMO, Geneva.

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