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Index A Academic research, 6, 7, 14-15, 43, 276 Acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180-187, 219 Advection, 50-51, 83 Agricultural Research Service, 13, 305 Agriculture, 19-21, 22, 127, 149, 153, 219 fertilizer, 30 greenhouse effect, 121 irrigation, 28, 30, 149, 129, 131, 149, 216 Albedo, 117, 118, 119, 121-123, 125, 127, 239, 251 see also Greenhouse effect Amazon River, 103, 219 American Geophysical Union, 40, 43, 44, 86, 282, 310, 322 American Meteorological Society, 310 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 57 Antarctica, 51, 52, 125, 219, 241 Arkansas River, 93 Army Corps of Engineers, 27, 224 Atmospheric processes, 2-3, 4, 9, 45, 58, 116, 307 clouds, 116, 254 general circulation models, 9, 10, 63- 64, 105-113, 120-121, 124, 155, 190, 244, 250 global cycles, 34-35, 45-48, 159 337 greenhouse effect, 2, 48, 104, 115, 120-121, 123, 124-125, 190, 194, 216, 311, 312 HAPEX-MOBILHY, 10, 109, 130, 238, 244, 245, 246, 249, 300, 302, 307 land surface, interactions with, 10, 19, 32, 64-65, 106-107, 116-127, 128, 129-131, 154-155, 168, 169-171, 238-240, 299-300, 306-307; see also Evaporation; Evapotranspiration marine, 104, 106-107, 117, 164-166, 167 models, general, 9, 10, 63-64, 105, 129, 131-137, 169-171, 299 remote sensing, 105, 125, 134, 155 sounding, 155 spatial dimension, 111, 129, 130, 131, 133, 306-307 terrestrial planets, 33-34 thermal processes, general, 32, 35, 104, 108, 109, 126, 131 winds, 130, 136 see also Climate and weather; Precipitation B Battan, Louis J., 252 Basins, see Rivers and fluvial processes; Sedimentary basins; Watersheds

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338 Biological processes, 2-3, 17, 32, 35-37, 54-56, 57-58, 65, 69, 167-178 biogeochemical cycles, 1, 9, 16, 32, 36-37, 54-56, 63, 66, 159, 162, 163, 178, 190-194, 219 data quality, 228-229 ground water, 63, 88 marine, 55 photosynthesis, 36, 171, 190 seasonal variation, 167 soil, 5, 55, 187 spatial dimension, 168 water quality analysis, 271-273 see also Vegetation Boreholes, 77, 82, 257, 299 Bowen, Ira S., 150, 152 Boundary layer processes, 154 atmospheric-land, 10, 19, 32, 64-65, 106-107, 116-127, 128, 129-131, 154-155, 168, 169-171, 238-240, 299-300, 306-307 atmospheric-marine, 104, 106-107, 117, 164-166, 167 ground water, 85 surficial processes, 65, 142-167 vegetation formations, 169-171 winds, 130, 136 see also Land surface Buckingham, Edgar, 146 Bureau of Reclamation, 27, 224 C California, 30, 216, 227, 289 Chemical processes acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180- 187, 219 biogeochemical cycles, 1, 9, 16, 32, 36-37, 54-56, 63, 66, 159, 162, 163, 178, 190-194, 219 chemical engineering, 6-7, 275, 276 climate/weather and, 56, 63, 104 data quality, 228-229 fractured geologic media, 80 ground water, 5, 9, 36-37, 63, 69, 74, 81-85, 87-88, 89 hydrologic cycle, 3, 9, 18-19, 178-194 isotope geochemistry, 218, 242, 257- 259 multidisciplinary approach, 179 organic compounds, 5, 55, 89-90, 168, 178, 189 INDEX photosynthesis, 36, 171, 190 research priorities, 298, 319 sedimentation, 189-189 snow, 162, 183-185, 219 soil, 5, 9, 50, 54, 63, 65, 69, 157, 158, 178, 185-187 study of, general, 6-7 temporal dimension, 180, 185 see also Mineralogy; Pollution; Solution chemistry China, 23-24, 307 Chow, Ven Te, 282 Church, James, 235 Clay, 188 Climate and weather, 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 17, 21, 32, 46-47, 104-142, 217 chemical processes, 56, 63, 104 classification of, 126 clouds, 116, 254 erosion/sedimentation and, 101-104 general circulation models, 63-64, 105-113, 120-121, 124, 155, 190, 244, 250 glaciers, 51-52, 57, 114, 124-125, 219, 241 global, general, 9, 10, 35, 114-115, 159 greenhouse effect, 2, 48, 104, 115, 120-121, 123, 124-125, 190, 194, 216, 311, 312 historical trends, 21, 22 international activities, general, 105, 306-307 land surface, 4, 9, 10, 64-65, 96, 106- 107, 116-127, 306-307 Little Ice Age, 22 models, general 9, 10, 63-64, 105, 129, 131-137, 169-171, 299 paleoclimatology, 5, 34, 218, 259-265 prediction, 16, 102-104, 106, 128, 131- 137, 204-205, 207, 248-249 regional, 10, 64-65, 115, 131, 228 remote sensing, 105, 125, 134 spatial dimension, 111, 129, 130, 131, 133, 306-307 storms, 48, 248-249, 350, 309 vegetation and, 117, 168, 169-171 winds, 130, 136 see also Drought; Flooding; Precipita- tion Clouds, 116, 254 Colorado River, 263

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INDEX Computers and computer science, 195, 225 data bases, 15, 214, 216, 220-221, 225, 265-268, 302, 310 educational use, 8, 287 general circulation models, 105, 108, 120-121, 244-245 ground water models, 85 ISLSCP (FIFE), 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 numerical models, 10, 85, 105, 115, 119, 130, 136, 195, 241, 300 real time, 266 Continental Scientific Drilling Program, 299 Continental water processes, 4, 10-11, 50, 54, 57-58, 237 GEWEX, 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 see also Land surface Crustal processes, 45, 46, 63, 67-90, 319 tectonic, 51, 53, 62-63, 67-85 sedimentary, 37 volcanism, 37, 46, 68-69, 96, 228 D Dalton, John, 152, 165 Data bases, 214, 220-221, 225, 265-268, 302 access to, 15, 310 greenhouse effect, 216 Data quality and quantity issues, 5-6, 11-12, 16, 56, 214-273, 298, 302 chemical processes, 228-229 climate classification, 126 cold regions, 158 international efforts, 40 spatial dimension, 214, 218-223, 226- 230, 231, 233, 234-250 temporal dimension, 214, 218-223, 226-230, 233, 234-238 see also Measurement techniques; Sampling Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, 164 Dendrochronology, 260-261, 263, 264 Department of Energy, 76, 308 Department of the Interior, 308 Bureau of Reclamation, 27, 224 Geological Survey, 39, 42, 86, 225, 232, 243, 305 339 Deserts, 114-115, 174 Developing countries, 28, 230 China, 23-24, 307 India, 104, 235 Diseases and disorders, 22, 26, 28 Drainage systems, 21, 38, 41, 97-101, 226 see also Rivers and fluvial processes; Watersheds Drinking water, 22, 26, 28, 29 Drought, 16, 21, 22, 26, 37, 114, 118-119, 201-203, 223, 224, 225, 228 E Earth Observing System, 11, 253, 254, 256, 300 Earthquakes, 71, 73-75 Economic factors, 58, 125 see also Funding Education, see Public education; Scientific education Eel River, 227 Egypt, 19-20 Einstein, Albert, 196, 197 Energy fluxes, 162, 238-243, 300 GEWEX, 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 Engineering, 1, 33, 43, 44, 276, 277-278, 282 chemical, 6-7, 275, 276 education, 6, 7 Environmental Protection Agency, 305, 308 Equipment, educational, 307-308 Erosion, 33, 50, 53, 91, 93, 96, 99-101, 103-104 climate and, 101-104 Evaporation, 32, 42, 46-49, 108, 111, 128, 131, 228 large water bodies, 164-167 rivers, 151-152, 154-155 Evapotranspiration, 115, 116, 126, 128, 130, 152, 154, 171, 172-173, 175, 220, 237-238, 240, 242 Evenari, Michael, 174 F Federal Council for Science and Technol- ogy, 43, 45, 294 Federal government education, 308

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340 laws, specific, 44, 76, 176 National Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology Program, 248-249, 250 regulations, 24, 26, 76-77 research, 13, 14-16, 43, 155, 254, 266, 267, 305, 308, 309, 312, 317-321 standards, 111 water resources management, 27-28, 39, 224-225 see also specific departments and agencies Fellowships, 14, 305, 307-38 Field studies, 8, 10, 12, 14-15, 84, 215, 243-244, 299 boreholes, 77, 82, 257, 299 in education, 287, 303, 308 fractured geologic media, 79 funding, 306-307 geochemistry, 83, 90 GEWEX, 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 HAPEX-MOBILHY, 10, 109, 130, 238, 244, 245, 246, 249, 300, 302, 307 history, 38 ISLSCP/FIFE, 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 land-atmosphere interaction, general, 306-307 landform evolution, 103 longitudinal studies, 11, 14, 115, 117, 222-223, 225, 309-310, 311, 259- 268, 302 multidisciplinary, 308-309 runoff, 149, 151, 235, 236 soil processes, 144 FIFE, 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 Flooding, 21, 22-25, 37, 96, 228 historical perspectives, 23-24, 37, 132-133 prediction, 24, 44, 53, 131-137, 204, 223, 231 snowmelt, 216 urban floodplains, 23-24 vegetation, 97 Flux processes, 10, 214, 217, 231, 233- 238, 300 dissolved solids, 54 energy, 162, 238-243, 300 frozen soils, 158 global hydrologic, 34-37, 45-52, 66, 115, 116, 159, 300 INDEX sediments, 52-54, 93-97, 233 solute, 85, 87, 233 uncertainty, 219-220 Forchheimer, Phillip, 39 Forecasting, see Prediction Forests and forestry, 105, 114-115, 162, 170, 176, 238, 242 dendrochronology, 260-261, 263, 264 disease and deforestation, 22 Fossil fuels, 72, 74 Fractured media, 78-81, 91 France, HAPEX-MOBILHY, 10, 109, 130, 238, 244, 245, 246, 249, 300, 302, 307 Funding, 221, 225, 267, 304-313 education, 14 research, 2, 13-14, 15-16, 305, 307- 308, 317-321 G Ganges River, 104 Carrels, Robert M., 193 General circulation models, 63-64, 105- 113, 120-121, 124, 155, 190, 244, 250 Geological Survey, 39, 42, 86, 225, 232, 243, 305 Geology and geophysics, 72 chemical processes, 80 earthquakes, 71, 73-75 fractured media, 78-81, 91 glaciers, 51-52, 57, 114, 124-125, 219, 241 isotope geochemistry, 218, 242, 257- 259 models, transport processes, 53, 81-85 orogeny, 71 paleohydrology, 5, 34, 218, 259-265 spatial dimension, 1, 33, 44, 62-63, 74, 78, 81-85 tectonic processes, 51, 53, 62-63, 67- 85 temporal dimension, 1, 33, 44, 51, 62, 74-75 volcanism, 37, 46, 68-69, 96, 228 see also Crustal processes; Mineralogy GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment), 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 Gilbert, Grove Karl, 39, 103 Glaciers, 51-52, 57, 124-125, 219, 241 Ice Age, 114

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INDEX Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment, 139-140, 308 Global Atmospheric Research Program, 139 Global dynamics, 6, 14, 53, 159, 262-263 atmospheric, general, 34-35, 45-48, 159 biogeochemical cycles, 1, 9, 32, 3037, 54-56, 66, 159, 190-194 circulation of water, 1, 3-4, 10, 32, 45- 52, 58-60 climate, general, 9, 10, 35, 114-115, 159 data requirements, 225-226 evapotranspiration, 238 general circulation models, 63-64, 105-113, 120-121, 124, 155, 190, 244, 250 GEWEX, 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 greenhouse effect, 2, 48, 104, 115, 120-121, 123, 124-125, 190, 194, 216, 311, 312 heat exchange, 2, 17-18 hydrologic fluxes, 34-37, 45-52, 66, 115, 116, 159, 300 water balance, 4, 10, 45, 58-59, 105- 116 water reservoirs, 5, 45-52, 115, 116, 215, 300 Goddard Space Plight Center, 266 Graduate study, see Scientific education Greenhouse effect, 2, 48, 104, 115, 120- 121, 123, 124-125, 190, 194, 216, 311, 312 Greenland, 51, 125, 219, 241 Ground water, 10, 49, 50-51, 114, 237, 240, 242-243 alluvial aquifers, 3 biological processes, 63, 88 boundary layers, 85 chemistry, 5, 9, 36-37, 63, 69, 74, 81- 85, 87-88, 89 fracture media, 78-81, 91 frozen soil, 156-160 infiltration processes, 41, 54, 142, 143, 144-147, 157 for irrigation, 30 models of, general, 74, 78-79, 80, 84- 85, 214 oil and, 74 pollution, 63, 88-90, 114, 175, 178, 231 341 porous media, general, 75, 77, 81-83, 85, 87-88, 15~157 precipitation and, 70 pressure effects, 51 regional dynamics, 242-243 remote sensing, 256-257, 258 rivers and, 51 solute transport, 9, 36-37, 69, 81-85, 87-89 tectonic processes, 51, 53, 62-63, 67- 85 theory, 39, 42, 72, 86 H Halley, Edmund, 38 HAPE X-M OB I LHY ( Hyd r o l o gic - Atmospheric Pilot Experiments- Modelisation du Bilan Hydrique), 10, 109, 130, 238, 244, 245, 246, 249, 300, 302, 307 Historical perspectives, 4, 6, 19-31, 261, 322-327 biological processes effects, 229 civilization and water, 19-22, 37, 149 demographics of hydrologic experts, 294, 322-325 drought, 201-203 flooding, 23-24, 37, 132-133 hydrology as science, 37-45, 56 radioactivity, 258 research, 29, 37-45, 152, 153, 165, 186, 229 stochastic methods, 196 water resources management, 1, 24- 31, 44, 215, 221 Horton, Robert E., 40, 41-43, 56, 100, 148, 196-197 Hubbert, M. King, 70-71, 72 Human factors, 3-4, 11, 30-31, 45, 55-56, 59, 102, 116, 261-262, 300, 302 demographics of hydrologists, 290- 293, 295 diseases and disorders, 22, 26, 28 social factors, 6, 31, 125 Hursh, Charles R., 148, 176-177 Hurst, Harold Edwin, 206 Hwang Ho, 23-24 Hydrologic cycle, 3-4, 19, 42 chemical processes, general, 3, 9, 18- 19, 178-194 defined, 3, 18, 34-35, 41

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342 as global process, 34-37, 45-52, 66, 115, 116, 159, 300 human impact on, 45 Ice and ice processes astronomical sources, 45-46 erosion, 33 glaciers, 51-52, 57, 114, 124-125, 219, 241 Martian, 34 surface and subsurface water, 156-160 see also Snow and snow cover India, 104, 235 Infiltration processes, 41, 54, 142, 143, 144-147, 157 Information dissemination, publications, 16, 312 Information science, see Computers and computer science; Data bases; Data quality and quantity issues Interdisciplinary approach, see Multi- disciplinary approach International Council of Scientific Unions, 105 International Hydrologic Decade, 44, 45 International perspectives, 10-11, 45, 109, 130 climatology, 105, 306-307 data quality, 40 drinking water, 29 standards, 111 see also Developing countries; Global dynamics; specific countries International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 40 Irrigation, 28, 30, 149, 129, 131, 149, 216 ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program), 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 Isotope geochemistry, 218, 242, 257-259 Jacob, C. E., 39 Laboratory study in education, 287 INDEX porous media, 74 water quality, 272 Lakes and reservoirs, 166-167, 239 Land surface, 2, 4, 9, 90-104, 116-119, 121-123, 125, 127, 129-131 atmospheric interactions with, 10, 19, 32, 64-65, 106-107, 116-127, 128, 129-131, 154-155, 168, 169-171, 238-240, 299-300, 306-307; see also Evaporation; Evapotranspiration deserts, 114-115, 174 drought, 16, 21, 22, 26, 37, 114, 118- 119, 201-203, 223, 224, 225, 228 electromagnetic signature, 254 glaciers, 51-52, 57, 114, 124-125, 219, 241 landscape evolution prediction, 94, 96-97 regional dynamics, 64-65, 91-92, 96 research priorities, 299-300, 306-307 runoff, 22, 30, 39, 41, 49, 63, 99, 100, 147-148, 151, 173, 235, 236 surficial processes, 65, 142-167 temperature, 18, 34, 48, 117, 150, 154- 155, 161-162, 299 topography, 220, 228, 240-242 wetlands, 55, 93, 97, 177, 191-192 see also Continental water processes; Snow and snow cover; Soil science; Vegetation Langbein, Walter B., 43-44, 56 LIDAR, 239-240 Little Ice Age, 22 Legal issues data management, 267-268 legislative mandates, 6, 293 regulations, 24, 26, 76-77 standards, 111 Longitudinal studies, 14, 115, 222-223, 225, 259-268, 302, 309-310 atmospheric, 117 data sets, 11 greenhouse effect, 311 Long-Term Ecological Research, 309 Lorenz, Edward, 128 Lubin, C. I., 86 L'vovich, M. I., 171 L M Marine processes, 46, 47 atmospheric, 104, 106-107, 117, 164- 166, 167

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INDEX general circulation models and, 63- 64, 105-113, 120-121 microorganisms, 55 models, 63-64, 105-113, 120-121 precipitation, 46 sea level, 22, 51, 124-125 sedimentary, 37 thermal, 117 Mariner space mission, 34 Mars, 33-34 Mathematical models, 39, 41, 66, 85, 99- 101, 104, 105, 108, 194-207 numerical, 10, 85, 105, 115, 119, 130, 136, 195, 241, 300 see also Statistical programs and activities; Stochastic processes Mathematics education, 286, 308 Mead, Daniel, 39 Measurement techniques, 215, 221 atmospheric sounding, 155 boreholes, 77, 82, 257, 299 imaging, 146-147 pollution, 268-273 precipitation, 37-38, 231 radar, 114, 130, 135, 254, 256, 267 see also Data quality and quantity; Prediction; Remote sensing; Satellite technology; Uncertainty Meinzer, Oscar E., 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 56 de la Metherie, Jean-Claude, 38 Methodology, see Measurement tech- niques; Models; Multidisciplinary approach; Prediction; Sampling; Statistical programs and activities; Uncertainty Meyer, Adolf, 39 Mineralogy clay, 188 fossil fuels, 72, 74 oil transport via ground water, 74 ore formation, 75, 193 weathering, 186-187, 193 Minorities, 290-293, 295, 323 Mississippi River, 75, 93, 95, 103-104, 219, 226 Missouri River, 93, 95 Models, 6, 243-244 acid rain, 187 atmospheric/climatologic, 9, 10, 63- 64, 105, 129, 131-137, 169-171, 299 global/general circulation, 63-64, 105-113, 120-121, 124, 155, 190, 244, 250 343 data collection and, 214-215, 216, 220-221 drainage basins, 98, 99-100 forests, 242 GEWEX, 10-11, 14,105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program (ISLSCP/ FIFE), 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 geophyscial transport processes, 53, 81-85 ground water, general, 74, 78-79, 80, 84-85, 214 marine processes, 63-64, 105-113, 120-121 nonlinear systems, 51, 67, 195, 197, 199, 200-201, 203, 204-205, 207, 299 numerical, 10, 85, 105, 115, 119, 130, 136, 195, 241, 300 precipitation, 5, 128, 137-142, 148, 151 rivers, 195-199, 214 soil processes, 144, 145-146 spatial dimension, 101, 195-199 tectonic, 73, 78-79 transport processes, general, 53, 81-85 waste management, 84 see also Mathematical models; Projections; Stochastic processes Multidisciplinary approach, 1, 5, 10-11, 13-14, 16, 32, 45, 56, 58-59, 130, 158, 167, 265, 304 conferences and meetings, 16, 40, 313 chemistry, 179 education, 12, 16, 276, 277, 278-280, 283-284, 303, 307 field experiments, 308-309 funding and, 13-14 Mulvaney, T. J., 39 N National Aeronautic and Space Adminis- tration, 13, 266, 305 Earth Observing System, 11, 253, 254, 256, 300 National Flood Insurance Act, 44 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 155, 254 National Research Council, 40, 43 National Science Foundation, 13, 14, 57, 75, 229, 305, 308, 309

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344 National Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology Program, 248-249, 250 National Weather Service, 13, 305 Nevada, 76-77 NEXRAD, 267 Nile River, 19-21, 114, 206 Nonlinear systems, 51, 67, 195, 197, 199, 200-201, 203, 204-205, 207, 299 Norton, Dennis, 71 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, 76 Numerical models, 10, 85, 105, 115, 119, 130, 136, 195, 241, 300, 307 see also Mathematical models o Organic compounds, 5, 55, 89-90, 168, 178, 189 Orogeny, 71 p Paleohydrology, 5, 218, 259-265 Martian, 34 Palissy, Bernard, 37-38 Palynology, 261 Penman, Howard Latimer, 153 Perrault, Pierre, 38 Phases and phase transformations climate and, 104 snow, 219 Phillips, N. A., 108 Photosynthesis, 36, 171, 190 Polar regions, 51, 52, 125, 158, 219, 241 glaciers, 51-52, 57, 114, 124-125, 219, 241 Pollution, 26, 59, 120-121 acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180- 187, 219 albedo and, 125, 127 ground water, 63, 88-90, 114, 175, 178, 231 measurement, 268-273 non-point sources, 30 regulation, 26 salination, 28, 30 sediments, 97 soil, 55 surface water, 30, 179, 231, 232-233 transport, 9, 187-190 see also Radioactivity; Waste manage- ment INDEX Porous media, 75, 77, 81-83, 85, 87-88, 156-157 infiltration processes, 41, 54, 142, 143, 144-147, 157 Publications, scientific, 16, 312 Precipitation, 10, 21, 32, 47, 48-49, 64, 110, 115, 127-131, 242 acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180- 187, 219 clouds, 116, 254 erosion and, 53 ground water, 70 marine processes, 46 measurement, 37-38, 231 models, 5, 128, 137-142, 148, 151 National Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology Program, 248-249, 250 radar, 267 runoff production, 22, 30, 39, 41, 49, 63, 99, 100, 147-148, 151, 173, 235, 236 see also Drought; Flooding; Rain; Snow and snow cover Prediction climate and weather, 16, 102-104, 106, 128, 131-137, 204-205, 207, 248- 249 earthquakes, 73 floods, 24, 44, 53, 131-137, 204, 223, 231 ground water models, 84-85 human factors, effects, 11 landscape evolution, 94, 96-97 sea level rise, 125 Pressure effects and measurements frozen soil, 157, 158 global range, 18 ground water, 51 tectonic, 71, 72, 73, 78, 82 Problem solving, 297, 308 Professional associations and societies, 15, 43, 40, 44, 57, 86, 105, 310 American Geophysical Union, 40, 43, 44, 86, 282, 310, 322 conferences and meetings, 16, 40, 313 publications, 16, 312 Public education, 8, 288-290 R Radar, 114, 130, 135, 224, 239-240, 254, 256, 267

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INDEX Radioactivity, 76-77, 86 isotope geochemistry, 242, 257-259 temporal dimension, 76-77 Rain, 38, 116, 119, 126, 128, 131, 220, 227, 228, 233-234, 242, 254 acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180- 187, 219 erosion, 96 models of, general, 214 radar, 267 spatial dimension, 128, 137-142 stochastic modeling, 137-142 temporal dimension, 128, 133, 137-142 see also Drought; Flooding Real time, 266 Regional Aquifer System Analysis, 242- 243 Regional dynamics, 6, 10-11, 12, 246 climate and weather, 10, 64-65, 115, 131, 228 ground water, 242-243 HAPEX-MOBILHY, 10, 109, 130, 238, 244, 245, 246, 249, 300, 302, 307 human effects, 300, 302 International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program (ISLSCP/FIFE), 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 land surface and, 64~5, 91-92, 96 mesoscale convective systems, 131-137 soil processes, 144 water resources management, 27 Regulations floodplain development, 24 radioactive waste, 76-77 toxic substances, 26 Remote sensing, 11-12, 34, 80, 158, 195, 218, 226, 250-257, 267, 302, 300, 302, 306 atmospheric/climatologic, 105, 125, 134, 155 in education, 255 evapotranspiration, 237-238 ground water, 256-257, 258 radar, 114, 130, 135, 224, 239-240, 254, 256, 267 snow, 160-161, 163-164 temporal dimension, 250-251 vegetation, 251 see also Satellite technology Research, 1, 33 academic, 6, 7, 14-15, 43, 276 awards and prizes, 44, 153, 174 345 chemical processes, priorities, 298, 319 federal government role, 13, 14-16, 43, 155, 254, 266, 267, 305, 308, 309, 312, 317-321 funding, 2, 13-14, 15-16, 305, 307- 308, 317-321 historical perspectives, 29, 37=s5, 152, 153, 165, 186, 229 land surface, 299-300, 306-307 longitudinal studies, 11, 14, 115, 117, 222-223, 225, 259-268, 302, 309- 310, 311 priorities, 8-12, 40, 62-207, 296-303, 319 publications, 312 see also Data quality and quantity issues; Field studies; Measurement techniques Reynolds, Osborne, 152 Rhine River, 179 Richardson, L. F., 108 Rivers and fluvial processes, 5, 9, 38, 44, 56, 63-64, 97-101, 231, 246, 265 alluvial fans, 3, 97, 104 and civilization, 19-21 evaporation, 151-152, 154-155 flooding and, 23-24, 231 glaciers and, 52 ground water and, 51 Martian, 34 mathematical applications, 195-199 models, 214 models of, general, 195-199, 214 pollution, 179 resource management, 22 runoff, 147-148, 151 sediment processes, 93-95, 95-99, 101-104, 299 stochastic processes, 195-199 watersheds, 162-163, 176, 232-233 see also specific rivers Ruby, William, 70-71 Runoff, 22, 30, 39, 41, 49, 63, 99, 100, 147-148, 151, 173, 235, 236 S Sacramento River, 103 Salination, 28, 30 Sampling, 81-82, 84, 215, 217-220, 228- 229 snow density, 235

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346 watersheds, 232-233 see also Stochastic processes; Spatial dimension; Temporal dimension Satellite technology, 10, 114, 129, 134, 224, 226, 240, 243, 251, 254, 300 Earth Observing System, 11, 253, 254, 256, 300 forest cover, 242 GEWEX, 10-11, 14, 105, 238, 246, 300, 302, 307, 308 ISLSCP (FIFE), 10, 130, 244-247, 249, 250, 266, 268, 300, 302, 306-307 management of data, 11 Mars, 33-34 rainfall, 234 snow, 160-161, 163-164 solar radiation, 239 Scientific education, 1, 2, 6-8, 12-13, 16, 33, 275-295, 303 academic research, 6, 7, 14-15, 43, 276 computers in, 8, 287 demographics, 323 engineering, 6, 7 fellowships, 14, 305, 307-308 field experiences, 287, 303, 308 funding, 14 mathematics, 286, 308 minorities and women, 290-293, 295, 323 multidisciplinary aspects, 12, 16, 276, 277, 278-280, 283-284, 303, 307 remote sensing, 255 Sea level, 22, 51, 124-125 Seasonal variation, 4, 48, 116 biologically associated, 167 ice, 156 snow, 160, 161, 183-185, 216, 219, 228, 235 Sedimentation, 37, 66 alluvial fans, 3, 97, 104 chemistry, 188-189 climate and, 101-104 continental yield, 54 fluxes, 52-54, 93-97, 233 marine, 37 pollution, 97 riverine, 93-95, 95-99, 101-104, 299 runoff, 30, 99, 100 Sedimentary basins, 74-75, 261 Sedimentary rocks, 37 Shreve, R. L., 196 Slichter, C. S., 39 INDEX Snow and snow cover, 5, 52, 57, 121-123, 125, 127, 160-164, 220, 235 ablation, 235-236 acidic, 183-185 chemical processes, other, 162, 183- 185, 219 flooding, 216 flow through, 157-158 greenhouse effect, 216 phase transitions, 219 sampling, 235 satellite technology, 160-161, 163-164 seasonal variations, 160, 161, 183-185, 216, 219, 228, 235 spatial dimension, 162-163, 185 Social factors, 6, 31, 125 civilization, 19-21 urban areas, 1, 21-24, 27, 55 Soil Conservation Service, 27 Soil science biological processes, 5, 55, 187 chemistry, 5, 9, 50, 54, 63, 65, 69, 157, 158, 178, 185-187 fertilizer, 30 field studies, 144 frozen, 156-160 infiltration processes, 41, 54, 142, 143, 144-147, 157 irrigation, 28, 30, 149, 129, 131, 149, 216 models, 144, 145-146 moisture, 10, 117, 143, 144-147, 155, 171, 173, 175, 228, 233, 236, 242 pollution, 55 regional dynamics, 144 spatial dimension, 143, 144-147 vegetation and, 55, 171, 173-175 see also Agriculture; Erosion; Sedi- mentation Solar energy, 18, 34, 47-48, 69, 107, 116, 162, 239, 251, 306 photosynthesis, 36, 171, 190 see also Albedo Solution chemistry, 9, 17, 54, 69, 81-83, 85, 231, 233 acid precipitation, 5, 158, 160, 180- 187, 219 ground water transport, 9, 36-37, 69, 81-85, 87-89 sediments, 188-189 soil, 50, 157, 158 Soviet Union, 307

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INDEX Spatial dimension, 4, 9, 49, 53, 56, 57, 65, 66, 194-197, 265-268 atmospheric/climatologic, 111, 129, 130, 131, 133, 306-307 biological processes, 168 data sampling, 214, 218-223, 226-230, 231, 233, 234-250 evapotranspirtation, 237-238 flood prediction, 231 geophysical, 1, 33, 44, 62-63, 74, 78, 81-85 geostatics, 81-85 land surface energy exchange, 238- 240 models, 101, 195-199 rainfall, 128, 137-142 remote sensing, 250 research priorities, 299 runoff, 147-148, 151 snow, 162-163, 185 soil processes, 143, 144-147 see also Global dynamics; Regional dynamics Statistical programs and activities, 220 geophysics, 206 geostatics and spatial variability, 81- 82 land-atmospheric interaction, 129 time series analysis, 199-204 see also Data quality and quantity issues; Sampling; Stochastic processes Standards, international, 111 Steinhaus, Hugo, 195-196, 197 Stochastic processes, 5, 83-85, 195 biological processes and, 168-169 rainfall, 137-142 rivers, 195-199 time series analysis, 199-204 Storms, 24, 48, 248-249, 250, 309 see also Flooding Surficial processes, 65, 142-167 T Tectonic processes, 51, 53, 62-63, 67-85 earthquakes, 71, 73-75 models, 73, 78-79 pressure, 71, 72, 73, 78, 82 Temporal dimension, 4, 9, 49, 56, 57, 65, 115, 194 atmospheric-land interaction, 306 347 chemical processes, 180, 185 data sampling, 214, 218-223, 226-230, 233, 234-238 geophysical, 1, 33, 44, 51, 62, 74-75 longitudinal data, 11, 14, 115, 117, 222-223, 225, 259-268, 302, 309- 310, 311 radioactive waste disposal, 76-77 rainfall, 128, 133, 137-142 remote sensing, 250-251 research priorities, 299 river basins, 101 sedimentation, 96 surficial processes, 143 see also Prediction; Seasonal variation Theis, C. V., 39, 86 Thermal processes, 239-240 atmospheric, 32, 35, 104, 108, 109, 126, 131; see also Greenhouse effect crustal, general, 68-69, 73, 74 global heat exchange, 2, 17-18, 108- 111, 239-240 marine, 117 polar regions, 51, 52, 125, 158, 219, 241 surface, 18, 34, 48, 117, 150, 154-155, 161-162, 299 tropical regions, 230, 231, 254, 308 volcanism, 37, 46, 68-69, 96, 228 see also Ice and ice processes; Solar energy Thornthwaite, Warren, 126-127 Time series analysis, 199-204 Topography, 220, 228, 240-242 Transport processes, 317-318 advection, 50-51, 83 atmospheric-surface, 65 contanimant, 187-190 low-scale, 75, 77-78 geophyscial models, 53, 81-85 ground water, 74, 78-79, 80-85 organic compounds, 5, 55, 89-90, 168, 178, 189 pollutant, 9, 187-190 solute, 9, 36-37, 69, 81-85, 87-89 surficial, 65, 142-167 see also Sedimentation Tropical regions, 230, 231, 254, 308 U Uncertainty, 215 atmospheric measurements, 130

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348 flux processes, 219-220 greenhouse effect, 216 ground water, 80, 85 see also Stochastic processes Urban areas, 1, 21-22, 27, 55 floodplains, 23-24 V Vegetation, 5, 54-56, 65, 117, 169-175, 240, 242 boundary layers and, 169-171 climate, 117, 168, 169-171 erosion and, 96 floodplain, 97 photosynthesis, 36, 171, 190 remote sensing, 251 soil and, 55, 171, 173-175 see also Evapotranspiration; Forests and forestry Viking space mission, 34 Volcanism, 37, 46, 68-69, 96, 228 W Waste management, 30 disease and, 22, 26, 28 INDEX models, 84 radioactive, 76-77, 86 toxic, 26 Water resources management, 1, 6, 22, 24-31, 121, 155, 224-226 drinking water, 22, 26, 28, 29 history, 1, 24-31, 37~5, 215, 221 ice processes, 159 irrigation, 28, 30, 149, 129, 131, 149, 216 Watersheds, 162-163, 176, 232-233 Weather, see Climate and weather Weather Bureau, 39 Weeks Law, 176 Wetlands, 55, 93, 97, 177 methane releases, 191-192 Winds, 130, 136 Wolman, Abel, 29 Women, 290-293, 295, 323 World Climate Data Program, 10, 111, 115, 300 World Climate Research Program, 10, 105, 107, 306 see also International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project World Health Organization, 29 World Meteorological Organization, 105