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260 ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE Ames, B.N., R. Magaw, and L.S. Gold. 1987. Ranking possible Carcinogenic hazards. Science 236:271-280. Andelman, J.B. 1985. Inhalation exposure in the home to volatile organic contaminants of drinking water. Sci. Total Environ. 47:443-460. Andersen, M.E. 1987. Tissue dosunetry in risk assessment, or what's the problem here anyway? Pp. 8-23 in Pharmacokinetics ~ Risk Assessment. Driving Water and Health, Vol. 8. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Andersen, M.R. 1988. Sample injection in supercritical fluid chromatography. LC-GC 6:566, 568, 570. Andersen, M.Ee, HJ. Clewell III, MeL. Gargas, Fat. Smith, and R.H. Rein. 1987. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the risk assessment process for methylene chloride. To~ncol. Appl. Pharmacol. 87:185-205. Anderson, M.R., J.T. Swanson, N.L. Porter, and B.E. Richter. 1989. Super- critical fluid as a sample introduction method for chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 27:371-377. Angell, J.B., I.H. Jerman, S.C. Terry, and S. Saadat. 1980. A Prototype Gas Analysis System Using a Miniature Gas Chromatograph. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 81-115. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupa- tional Safety and Health. 70 pp. Available from NTIS as PBS1-201394. Annest, J.L., J.L. Pickle, D. Makuc, J.W. Neese, D.D. Bayse, and M.G. Kovac. 1983. Chronological trend in blood lead levels between 1976 and 1980. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:1373-1377. Arey, J., B. Zielinska, R. Atkinson, and A.M. Winer. 1988. Formation of nitroarenes during ambient high-volume sampling. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:457-462. Arnold, M^. 1983. An introduction to biocatalytic membrane electrodes. Am. Lab. 15:34. Asano, K.G., G.L. Glish, and S^. McLuckey. 1988. Coupling of an atmo- spheric sampling ion source with an ion trap mass spectrometer. Pp. 636- 637 in Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, 5-10 June 1988, San Francisco, Calif. Ashby, J. 1988. Comparison of techniques for monitoring human exposure to genoto~nc chemicals. Mutat. Res. 204:543-551. Ashford, N^. 1986. Policy considerations for human monitoring in the workplace. J. Occup. Med. 28:563-568. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service). 1988. The Nature and Extent of Lead Poisoning in Children in the United States: A Report

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262 ASSESSING NUMAN EXPOSURE Berglund, B., U. Berglund, and T. Engen. 1987. Do sick buildings affect human performance? How should one assess them? Pp. 477-481 in Indoor Air '87, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Vol. 2, B. Seifert, H. Esdorn, M. Fischer, H. Ruden, and J. Wegner, eds. Berlin: Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene. Beveridge, A. 1983. Reliability In large-scale surveys: The case of the annual housing survey. Unpublished manuscript presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Public Opinion Research, May 1983, Buck- hiDs Falls, Penn. Baseman, TV. 1985. High volume collection of organic vapors using solid absorbents. Pp. 51-100 in Trace Analysis, Vol. 4, J.F. Lawrence, ed. New York: Academic Press. Bidleman, T.~. 1988. Atmospheric processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:361 367. Bidleman, T.~., and W.T. Foreman. 1987. Vapor-particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. Pp. 27-56 in Sources and Fates of Aquatic Pollutants, R^. Hites and SJ. Eisenreich, eds. ACS Advances in Che- mistry Series, No. 216, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. Bidleman, T.F., W.N. Billings, and W.T. Foreman. 1986. Vapor-particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds: Estimates from field collections. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20:1038-1043. Biller, W.F., T.B. Feagans, T.R. Johnson, G.M. Duggan, Rut. Paul, T. Mc- Curdy, and H.C. Thomas. 1981. A general model for estimating exposure associated with alternative NAAQS. Paper No. 81-18.4 in Proceedings of the 74th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, 21-26 June 1981, Philadelphia, Pa. 25 pp. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot. 1960. Transport Phenomena. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Bishop, G., R. Oldendick, and A. Tuchfarber. 1982. Effects of presenting one versus two sides of an issue. Public Opinion Quarterly 46:69-85. Blacha, P.D., G.B. Howe, R.K.M. Jayanty, and DJ. van Lehmden. 1988. Development of an automated cryogenic Reconcentration system for analy- sis of toxic gaseous organics at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels ENVR-061. Abstracts of Papers of the Third Chemical Congress of North America, 5- 10 June 1988, Toronto, Canada. Blumberg, W.E., J. Eisinger, AA. Lamola, and D.M. Zuckerman. 1977. Zinc protoporphyrin level in blood determined by a portable hematoliluorome- ter: A screening device for lead poisoning. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 89:712-723. Blurton, K.F., and J.R. Stetter. 1978. A sensitive electrochemical detector for gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 155:35-45.

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REFERENCES 263 Borman, S^. 1982. New electroanalytical pulse techniques. Anal. Chem. 54~6~:698-705. Boughton, B^., J.M. Delaurentis, and W.E. Dunn. 1987. A stochastic model of particle dispersion In the atmosphere. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 40: 147-163. Boulos, B.M. 1985. Risk assessment to exposure to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: All overview. Pp. 215-226 In Polynuclear Aromatic Hydro- carbons: Mechanisms, Methods, and Metabolism, 8th International Sympo- sium, M. Cooke and AJ. Dennis, eds. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Press. Bourne, S., G. Reedy, P. Coffey, and D. Mattson. 1984. Matrix isolation GC/FTIR. Am. Laborat. 16~6~:90. Bowne, N.E., and RJ. Londergan. 1983. Overview, Results, and Conclusions for the EPRI Plume Model Validation and Development Project: Plows Site. Report No. EA~3074e Prepared byTRCEnv~ronmentalConsultants, Inc., East Hartford, Conn. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. 225 pp. Bradburn, N.M., and S. Sudman. 1988. Polls and Surveys: Understanding What They Tell Us. LC88-42778 (Social and Behavioral Science Series). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bradburn, N., L. Rips, and S. Shevel. 1987. Answering autobiographical questions: Impact of memory and inference on surveys. Science 236:157- 161. Brandt-Rauf, P.W. 1988. New markers for monitoring occupational cancer: The example of oncogene proteins. J. Occup. Med. 30:399-404. Breslin, J^., and R.L. Stein. 1975. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 36:576-583. Brief, R.S. 1960. A simple way to determine air contaminants. Air Eng. 2:39~1. Briggs, GA. 1969. Plume Rise. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Division of Technical Information, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. 81 pp. Available from NTIS as TID 25075. Briggs, GA. 1971. Some recent analysis of plume rise observation. Pp. 1029-1032 in Proceedings of the 2nd International Clean Air Conference, H.M. Englund and W.T. Berry, eds., 6-11 December 1970, Washington, D.C. New York: Academic Press. Britten, AJ. 1989. Can your GC system find nitrogen in this flower? Res. Dev. 31~9~:77-80. Brown, S.D. 1986. The Kalman Filter in analytical chemistry. Anal. Chim. Acta 181:1-29.

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264 ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE Bryant, M.S., P.L. Skipper, S.R. Tannenbaum, and M. Maclure. 1987. Hemo- giobin adJucts of ~aminobiphenyl in smokers and nonsmokers. Cancer Res. 47:602-608. Burlingame, A.L., K. Straub, and T^. Baillie. 1983. Mass spectrometric studies on the molecular basis of xenobiotic-induced toxicities. Mass. Spec- trom. Rev. 2:331-387. Busch, K.L., Glish, G.L., and S^. McLuckey. 1988. Mass Spectrometry/ Mass Spectrometry: Techniques and Applications of Tandem Mass Spec- trometry. New York: VCH Publishers. 333 pp. Buttner, WJ., G. J. Maclay, and J.R. Stetter. 1990. Microfabricated ampero- metric gas sensors with an integrated design. Sensors and Materials 2~2~: 99-106. Calabrese, EJ. 1987. Animal extrapolation: A look inside the to~ncologist's black box. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21:618-623. CaBeman, CJ. 1984. Hemoglobin as a Dose Monitor and its Application to the Risk Estimation of Ethylene O'nde. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Radiobiology, University of Stockholm. University of Stockholm: Stock- holm, Sweden. Calleman, CJ., L. Ehrenberg, B. Jansson, S. Osterman-Golkar, D. Segerback, K. Svensson, and C^. Wachtmeister. 1978. Monitoring and risk assess- ment by means of alkyl ~oups in hemoglobin in persons occupationally exposed to ethylene o~nde. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 2:427-442. Caprio, RJ., H.L. Margulis, and M.M. Joselow. 1974. Lead absorption in children and its relation to urban traff~c densities. Arch. Environ. Health 28:195-197. CarieDo, N.F., and W.G. Thilly. 1986. Use of gradient denaturing gels to determine mutational spectrum in human cells. Basic Life Sci. 38:439-452. Cariello, N.F., J.K. Scott, A.G. Kat, W.G. Thilly, and P. Keohavong. 1988. Resolution of a missense mutant in human genomic DNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing using in vitro DNA amplification: HPRT Munich. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 42:726-734. Carrano, A.V., and A.T. Natarajan. 1988. Considerations for population monitoring using cytogenetic techniques. Mutat. Res. 204:379-406. Carrico, J.P., A.W. Davis, D.N. Campbell, J.E. Roehl, G.R. Sima, G.E. Span- gler, K.N. Vora, and RJ. White. 1986. Chemical detection and alarm for hazardous chemicals. Am. Lab. 18:152, 155-7,159-163. Casuccio, G.S., P.B. Janocko, RJ. Lee, J.F. Kelly, S.L. Dattner, and J.S. Mge- broff. 1983. The use of computer controlled scanning electron microscopy in environmental studies. J. Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc. 33:937-943.

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266 ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE CMA (Chemical Manufacturers Association). 1987. Guidance for Estimating Furtive Emissions, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association. July 1987. CMA (Chemical Manufacturers Association). 1989. Improving Air Quality Guidance for Estimating Fugitive Emissions from Equipment, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association. January 1989. 182 pp. Cochran, W.G. 1963. Sampling Techniques, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 413 pp. Committee on Biological Markers of the National Research Council. 1987. Biolog~c~ markers In environmental health research. Environ. Health Perspect. 74:3-9. Converse, J., and S. Presser. 1986. Survey Questions: Handcrafting the Survey Questionnaire. Beverly Hills, Cali: Sage. Cooper, D.W., and M. Horowitz. 1986. Exposures from indoor powder releases: Models and experiments. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 47:21~218. Cooper, J^., and J.G. Watson. 1979. Final Report Summary of the Portland Aerosol Characterization Study (PACS). Paper 79-29.4. Air Pollution Control Association, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15 pp. Cooper, J^., and J.G. Watson. 1980. Receptor-oriented methods of air particulate source apportionment. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 30:1116- 1125. Core, J.E., J^. Cooper, P.L. Haurahan, and W.M. Cow 1982. Particulate dispersion model evaluation: A new approach using receptor models. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 32:1142-1147. Corn, M., and NA. Esmen. 1979. Workplace exposure zones for classifi- cation of employee exposures to physical and chemical agents. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 40:47-57. Coutant, R.W., L. Brown, J.C. Chuang, R.M. Riggin, and R.G. Led. 1988. Phase distribution and artifact formation in ambient air sampling for poly- nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Atmos. Environ. 22:403-410. Halsey, J.M., and L^. Gundel. 1989. Tracing the Sources of Indoor Aero- sols Using Combustion-Evolved Gas Analysis. Paper No. 89-145.3 present- ed at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Asso- ciation, 25-30 June 1989, Anaheim, Calif. 13 pp. Daisey, J.M., and A.T. Hodgson. 1989. Initial efficiencies of air cleaners for the removal of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds. Atmos. Environ. 23:1885-1892. Daisey, J.M., and TJ. Kneip. 1980. Atmospheric particulate organic matter: Multivariate models for identifying sources and estimating their contribu- tions to the ambient aerosol. Pp. 197-221 in Atmospheric Aerosol:

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268 ASSESSING HUA~1N EXPOSURE Dr~scoll, J.N. 1977. Evaluation of a new photoionization detector for organic compounds. J. Chromatogr. 134:49-55. Drives, PJ., P. G. S~mmonds, and F.H. Shair. 1972. Experimental charac- terization of ventilation systems in buildings. Environ. Sci. Technol. 6:609- 614. Droz, P.O. 1985. The use of simulation models for setting BEIs for organic solvents. Ann. Am. Conf. Gov. Ind. Hyg. 12:339-350. Droz, P.O., and M.P. Guillemin. 1983. Human styrene exposure. V. Devel- opment of a model for biological monitoring. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 53:19-36. Duan, N. 1981. Micro-Env~ronment Types: A Modelfor Human Exposure to Air Pollution. SIMS Technical Report No. 47. Stanford, Calif.: De- partment of Statistics, Stanford University. 24 pp. Duan, N. 1982. Models for human exposure to air pollution. Environ. Int. 8:305-309 Duan, N. 1985. Application of the Microenvironment Monitoring Approach to Assess Human Exposure to Carbon Monoxide. R-3222-EPA. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. 88 pp. Available from NTIS asPB85- 228995. Duan, N. 1989. Estimation of microenvironment concentration distributions using integrated exposure measurements. Pp. 15-1-15-14 in Proceedings of the Research Planning Conference on Human Activity Patterns, T.H. Starks, ed. EPA/600/~89/004. Las Vegas, Nev.: Office of Research and Development, U.S. Enviromnenta1 Protection Agency. Dunn, B.P., and H.F. Stich. 1986. 32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA abducts in human oral mucosal cells. Carcinogenesis 7:1115-1120. Earp, R.F., and R.D. Cow 1984. Identification and quantitation of organics in ambient air using multiple gas chromatographic detection. Pp. 159-169 in Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Air, L.H. Keith, ed. Boston: Butterworth. Eatough, DJ., C. Benner, R.L. Mooney, D. Bartholomew, D.S. Steiner, L.D. Hansen, J.D. Lamb, Em. Lewis, and N.L. Eatough. 1986. Gas and parti- cle phase nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke. Paper 86-68.5 in Pro- ceedings of the 79th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Associa- tion, 22-27 June 1986, Minneapolis, Minn. 15 pp. Eatough, DJ., C.L. Benner, J.M. Bayona, G. Richards, J.D. Lamb, M.L. Lee, EA. Lewis, and L.D. Hansen. 1989. The chemical composition of envi- ronmental tobacco smoke. 1. Gas phase acids and bases. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23:679-687.

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