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Index Academe collaborative research and development by, 114-118, 123-124 cooperation with government and industry, ~7 funding of research in, 126 interuniversity collaboration in, 124 research and development by, 7, 87-94, 95-96 research centers and institutions in, 92-94 stability of programs in, 124 technology in, 4 undergraduate programs in, 91, 97-99, 124 Advanced Research Initiative, 124, 125 Advisory committee, 8, 113-114, 127 Alumina, 30 Aluminum industry competitiveness of, 48-49 hydrometallurgical processing in, 74 orientation of, 26 production in, 30-31 pyrometallurgical processing in, 70-71 research and development in, 79 revival of, 18, 23 trends in, 16, 17 American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 116 American Mining Congress (AMC), 110, 115-116, 120 135 Argonne National Laboratory, 85-87 Australia, government agency in, 113 Australian Minerals Industries Research Association (AMIRA), 113 Automotive industry demand by, 38-39 materials competition in, 46-47 Aviation industry, demand by, 39~1 Base metals, 29, see also specific metals Bauxite, 30 Beneficiation, 27 Bore-hole logging, 60 Building industry, demand by, 42 Bureau of Mines (BOM) advanced research initiative of, 125 alternative models for, 111-113 budget of, 109, 110 collaborative research by, 118 expert advice to, 113-114, 127 focus of research by, 126 funding by, 126 improved planning and coordination by, 120-122 and industry, 109-111 information dissemination by, 120, 128- 129 in maintaining relevance of research, 125-126

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36 Mining and Metallurgy Laboratories of, 85, 86 recommended actions for, 7-8, 125-129 research and development by, 5, 7-8, 81, 84 role of, 108-113 statusof,109-111 technology in, 5-6, 108 technology transfer by, 110, 111 university research programs of, 92-93, 96-97 visiting committees to, 127 Canada, government policy of, 106-107 Canadian Center for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), 107 Capacity utilization, 21 Casting, 27 Chemical industry, demand by, 42 Cobalt, hydrometallurgical processing of, 71-73 Collaborative research and development, 6- 7, 114-118, 123-124 Comminution, 65-68 Committee on Materials (COMAT), 83, 121 Committee on Mining and Mineral Resources Research (CMMRR) evaluation of GMTCs by, 96 functions of, 5, 105 funding of, 114 and government policy, 83 impact of, 104 structure of, 113-114 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), 113 Comparative advantage, see Competitiveness Competitiveness factors affecting, 51, 52-53 general trends in, 44~5 by sector, 45-51 technology and, 51-54 "Concentrate," 27 Congressional Research Service (CRS), 102, 103 Consensus, development of, 118-119 Consortia, 114-118, 123-124 Construction industry, demand by, 42 Consumption, see Demand Cooperative research and development, 6-7, 114-118, 123-124 Copper industry competitiveness of, 49 hydrometallurgical processing in, 71 INDEX market share for, 48 orientation of, 26 production in, 32, 33, 34 pyrometallurgical processing in, 69 revival of, 18, 21 trends in, 16, 17 "Coproducts," 27 Core drilling, 61 Corporate structure, 13-14 Cost estimates, 47 Cost reductions, 19-20, 21 Data analysis, 8, 54-55, 128-129 Deep Seabed Mining Research Program, 94 Demand by automotive industry, 38-39 by aviation industry, 39-41 by building and construction industry, 42 changing patterns of, 11-13, 20, 36 by chemical industry, 42 current status of, 35-36, 38 by electronics industry, 42-43 by energy industry, 43 factors affecting, 36 overview of, 26-30 planning for, 54-55 projections of, 36-37 by telecommunications industry, 44 world distribution of, 26-29 Department of Commerce (DOC), research and development by, 82-83 Department of Defense (DOD), research and development by, 83, 87 Department of Energy (DOE) collaborative research by, 112, 118 expenditures by, 82, 84, 85 research and development by, 82 Work-for-Others Order of, 87 Department of the Interior (DOI) and Bureau of Mines, 5 research and development by, 81 Developing countries government policies of, 107-108 supply and demand in, 11, 13, 26-29 Diversification, 14 Dollar, weakening of, 20 Drilling technology, 61 Economic well-being, 102 Electronic materials, 29, 30 Electronics industry, demand by, 4203 Energy crisis, 11, 13

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INDEX Energy industry, demand by, 43 Engineering students, 91, 97-99, 124 Environmental regulations, 102 Bureau of Mines and, 109 cost of complying with, 14 for lead industry, 34-35 Expert advice, 8, 113-114, 127 Exploration, 27 Bureau of Mines in, 109 geology of, 59 research and development in, 61-62, 75-76 technology of, 58-62 Expropriation, 10 Extraction in situ, 74-75, 77 research and development in, 74-75, 77- 78 technology of, 68-75 Federal government, see Government Federation of Materials Societies (FMS), 119, 128 Ferroalloys, 29 Flash smelting, 58, 69 Flaws, 68 Flotation, 65, 67, 68 Free market, 103 General Accounting Office, 102 Generic Mineral Technology Centers (GMTCs) funding of, 6, 7, 8, 92-93 industry involvement with, 123-124 relevance of research by, 6, 96-97, 125- 126 structure of, 92-93 Geochemistry, 60-61 Geophysics, 59~0 GEOREF, 59 Geosensing, 64 Germany, collaborative research in, 117 Globalization, of production and ownership, 9-10 Gold mining industry competitiveness of, 48 hydrometallurgical processing in, 74 pyrometallurgical processing in, 71 research and development in, 80-81 revival of, 18 trends in, 17-18 Government Bureau of Mines, 108-113 change in role of, 101 137 collaborative research and development by, 114-118 cooperation with academe and industry, 6-7 in developing consensus, 118-119 expert advice to, 113-114 planning and coordination by, 120-122 policy of other countries, 106-108 policy of United States, 102-105 research and development by, 5, 81-87 technology in, 4-5 in technology transfer, 119-120 Health and safety issues, 102, 109 Heap leaching, 27 Human resources, 3, 97-99 Hydrometallurgical processing, 27 adoption of, 95 recent developments in, 71-74 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 87 Indicative planning, 54 Industrial Research Associates program, 112-113 Industry Bureau of Mines and, 109-111 collaborative research and development by, 114-118, 123-124 cooperation with government and academe, ~7 corporate structure of, 13-14 National Institute of Standards and Technology and, 112-113 outlook for, 24 overview of, 26-30 research and development by, 3, 4, 79- 81, 94-95 revival of, 18-24 technology in, 3-4 United States, see United States industry world, 9-14 Information, dissemination of, 8, 120, 128- 129 In situ extraction, 7~75, 77 Intensity of use (I/U), 12, 13, 37 Interagency Materials Group, 83 Interdependence, 103 International Copper Association, 116 International Copper Research Association (INCRA), 116 Internationalization, of production and ownership, 9-10

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138 International Lead-Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), 116 Iron ore mining industry competitiveness of, 50 market share for, 48 revival of, 18, 24 trends in, 16 Japan collaborative research in, 117 government policy of, 106 Land use, 102 Leaching, 27 Lead industry competitiveness of, 49 hydrometallurgical processing in, 73 market share for, 48 orientation of, 26 production in, 32-35 pyrometallurgical processing in, 70 revival of, 18, 21-23 trends in, 17 Light metals, 29-30 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87 Managed joint research, 117 Manufacturing sector, materials competition in, 4~47 Manufacturing Technology Centers (MTCs), 112 Mapping, 59 "Market mills," 50 Market share, 44, 45, 48 Materials competition, in manufacturing sector, 4~47 Materials Engineering and Processing Program, 82 Materials planning, data analysis for, 54-55 Metal extraction in situ, 74-75, 77 research and development in, 74-75, 77- 78 technology of, 68-75 Metal Mining Agency of Japan (MMAJ), 106 Mined Lands Reclamation Center, 93 Mineral Availability System, 59 Mineral Institutes funding of, 95, 96 industry involvement with, 6, 124 list of, 92 relevance of research by, 7, 8, 125-126 INDEX Mineral processing research and development in, 65~8, 77 technology of, 65-68 Mineral Resources Data System, 59 Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 128 "Mini-mills," 31, 50 Mining, 27 research and development in, 63~5, 7 77 technology of, 62-65 Mining and Excavation Research Institute (MERI), 116 Mining and Metallurgical Society of America (MMSA), 110 Mining and Metallurgy Laboratories, 85, 86, 118 Mining and Minerals Policy Act (1970) (P.L. 91- 631), 4, 103 Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institutes, see Mineral Institutes Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Society for, 128 Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), 106 Molybdenum industry, trends in, 1~17 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 102, 103 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 83, 87 National Cooperative Research Act (1984), 117 National Critical Materials Council (NCMC), 83 National forum, 8, 127-128 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Bureau of Mines and, 112 and industry, 112-113 research and development by, 82-83, 84 Nationalism, 10 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), research and development by, 83, 84, 93-94 National Science Foundation (NSF), research and development by, 82, 84 National Sea Grant College Program, 83, 93-94 National security, 102 National Strategic Materials and Minerals Program Advisory Committee, 83 Net import reliance, 44 45, 49, 50

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INDEX Nickel hydrometallurgical processing of, 71-73 pyrometallurgical processing of, 69 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 82, 85 Office of Basic Energy Sciences, 82 Office of Industrial Programs, 82 Office of Mineral Resources, research and development by, 81-82 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 102, 103 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (1988), 112 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 13 Ownership, globalization of, 9-10 Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 87 Paley Commission, 102, 103 Peer review, 96 Pilot stage, 46-47 Platinum group metals (PGMs), 29, 30 hydrometallurgical processing of, 74 Policy of other countries, 106-108 of United States, 102-105 Precious metals industry, see Gold mining industry; Silver mining industry Precompetitive research, 114-118 President's Commission on Materials Policy, 102, 103 Price index, 16 Processing, see Production Production of aluminum, 30-31 of copper, 32, 33 globalization of, 9-10 of lead, 32-35 overview of, 26-30 of steel, 31 trends in, 30-35 world distribution of, 2~29 of zinc, 35 Productivity, 7-8 Prospector, 59 Prototype stage, 46 Pyrometallurgical processing, 27 recent developments in, 69-71 Recession, 11-12, 14 Refining, 27 139 Research and development (R&D) by academe, 7, 87-94, 95-96 by Bureau of Mines, 5, 7-8, 84, 85, 86, 96-97 collaborative, 6-7, 114-118, 123-124 decentralization of, 95 in exploration, 61-62, 75-76 federal policy on, 103-105 funding for, 95, 96 by government, 5, 81-87 human resources and, 97-99 by industry, 3, 4, 79-81, 94-95 information on, 120, 128-129 issues affecting, 94-99 managed joint, 117 in metal extraction, 74-75, 77-78 in mineral processing, 65-68, 77 in mining, 63~5, 76-77 planning and coordination of, 120-122 precompetitive, 114-118 recommendations for, 7-8, 123-126 targeted, 120 technology transfer and, 97 Roast-leach-electrowin (RLE) technology, 69 Safety issues, 102, 109 Sea Grant program, 83, 93-94 Self-sufficiency, 103 "Semifabricated parts," 27 Shared research and development, 6-7, 114- 118, 123-124 Silver mining industry competitiveness of, 48 trends in, 17-18 Smelting, 27 Solvent extraction/electrowinning (SX/EW) technology, 32, 33, 34, 95 Special-interest groups, 119 Staffing, 3, 97-99 State Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institute Program Act (1984) (P.L. 98- 409), 4-5, 103-105 State Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institutes, see Mineral Institutes State Water Resources Research Institutes, 94 Statutory responsibilities, 102 Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act (1988), 82 Steel industry competitiveness of, 50 orientation of, 26

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140 production in, 31 research and development in, 79-80 revival of, 18, 23-24 trends in, 17 Steel industry metals, 29 Steel Initiative, 82, 87, 117-118 Stockpile, 103 Subindustries, 29 Supplier infrastructure, 47 Supply, changing patterns of, 11-13, 20 Surface Mining Act (1977) (P.L. 95-87), 103 Surveying, 59 Targeted research, 120 Technology(ies) in academe, 4 background of, 57-58 breakthrough vs. incremental, 3, 8, 56- 58, 116-117, 125 in Bureau of Mines, 5 - , 108 capital and, 94-95 and comparative advantage, 51-54 cooperation in, ~7 costs and effectiveness of new, 94 drilling, 61 exploration, 58-62, 75-76 goals for, 57 in government, 05 in industry, 3-4 metal extraction, 68-75, 77-78 mineral processing, 65~8, 77 mining, 62~5, 7~77 vs. new deposits, 94 Technology transfer, 97 by Bureau of Mines, 110, 111 stimulation of, 119-120 INDEX Telecommunications industry, demand by, 44 Third World countries government policies of, 107-108 supply and demand in, 11, 13, 2~29 Titanium industry revival of, 18 trends in, 17 Undergraduate programs, 91, 97-99, 124 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Mines, 111-112 expenditures by, 84 research and development by, 81-82 university programs of, 94 United States government, see Government United States industry competitiveness of, 44-54 revival of, 18-24 trends in, 14-18 Universities, see Academe Vertical integration, 14 Visiting committees, 127 Work-for-Others Order, 87 World minerals and metals industry, 9-14 World War II, 10 Zinc industry hydrometallurgical processing in, 73 market share for, 48 orientation of, 26 production in, 35 pyrometallurgical processing in, 69-70 revival of, 18, 23 trends in, 17