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Appendix C Contributors MARILYN BERGNER is professor of health policy and management at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. She also is a member of the Health Services Research and Development Center and the Program in Medical Technology and Practice Assessment of Johns Hopkins. Before joining Johns Hopkins, Dr. Bergner was a faculty member at the University of Washington. With her colleagues she developed the Sickness Impact Profile, a widely used health status measure that assesses health-related behavioral dys- function. Dr. Bergner has written extensively in the area of health status mea- surement. She received her Ph.D. from Columbia University. THOMAS A. BUBOLZ has been on the faculty in community and family medicine at Dartmouth Medical School since 1986. He is the designer and administrator of a 300-million record data management system at Dartmouth that supports studies in the epidemiology of health care utilization and outcomes for various surgical and medical therapies. Dr. Bubolz is managing the develop- ment of analytic software for small-area and outcomes research. His current research is on the application of claims data to the assessment of rural-urban differences in health care utilization and outcomes. Dr. Bubolz was on the fac- ulty in statistics at Iowa State University from 1974 to 1985, where he taught undergraduate and graduate courses in statistical computing and data analysis and supervised a computer applications development group. He coauthored the RELIABILITY procedure in SPSSX, a program widely used for evaluating multi-item scales in behavioral and psychometric research. Dr. Bubolz has col- laborated with associations and state agencies in Iowa on small-area studies of health care utilization. 206
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APPENDIX C 207 JOHN P. BUNKER is professor emeritus at Stanford University and a visit- ing fellow at the King's Fund Centre for Health Services Development in London. At Stanford he was professor and chairman of the Department of Anesthesia from 1960 to 1972 and more recently professor of health research and policy, director of the program in Health Services Research, and chairman of the Council of the Consortium on Health Research and Policy. He was chair- man of the National Research Council Committee on the National Halothane Study and senior editor of its report published in 1969. As visiting professor of preventive and social medicine at Harvard Medical School, he chaired the surgi- cal study group and its parent seminar in health and medicine. The proceedings of the surgical study group, for which he was senior editor, were published in 1977 as Costs, Risks, and Benefits of Surgery. His most recent publication is Pathways to Health: The Role of Social Factors, which he edited with Deanna S. Gomby and Barbara H. Kehrer. Together with Frederick Mosteller he cur- rently heads a newly formed program of research, Pathways to Health: The Role of Medical Care. Dr. Bunker is former chairman of the Health Services Research Study Section of the National Center for Health Services Research. He is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. DAVID M. EDDY is the J. Alexander McMahon Professor of Health Policy and Management at Duke University. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Virginia. After two years of residency in cardiovascular surgery at Stanford, he left clinical practice and received a Ph.D. in engineering-eco- nomic systems (applied mathematics) at Stanford. After serving on the faculty at Stanford as a professor of engineering and medicine, he went to Duke University in 1981 to set up the Center for Health Policy Research and Education. Dr. Eddy's research has been to develop and apply methods for evaluating health practices and designing practice policies. He has developed policies and related guidlines for organizations such as the American Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute, World Health Organization, the Office of Technology Assessment, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, the Council of Medical Specialty Societies, and the American Medical Association. His mathematical model of cancer screening was awarded the Lanchester Prize, the top award in the field of operations research. He has recently completed a book that describes a new set of statistical methods for synthesizing evidence to estimate the effect of medical interventions on health outcomes. Dr. Eddy serves on the Board of Mathematics of the National Academy of Sciences and is a member of the Institute of Medicine. ELLIOTT S. FISHER received his medical degree from Harvard. He com- pleted residency training in internal medicine and public health at the University of Washington, where he was also a fellow in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. In Washington State he was active in health policy, helping develop a pilot state-funded health insurance program for the uninsured. Since
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208 APPENDIX C 1986 Dr. Fisher has been on the faculty at Dartmouth Medical School and on the staff of the Veterans Administration (VA) hospital in White River Junction. He has worked with both Medicare and VA health care data bases and is cur- rently the director of a project to develop claims-based methods for evaluating both utilization patterns and outcomes of care within the northeast region of the VA. ANNETINE C. GELIlNS is international fellow at the Institute of Medicine and the principal staff officer for the IOM Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine. Before joining the IOM, she was senior researcher for the Project on Future Health Care Technology cosponsored by the European office of the World Health Organization and the Dutch government. From 1983 to 1985, Ms. Gelijns worked for the Steering Committee on Future Health Scenarios, where she helped develop models for long-term health plan- ning in the areas of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging. At the time, she had a joint appointment with the Staff Bureau for Health Policy Development, the Department of Health, the Netherlands. Ms. Gelijns has been a consultant to various national and international organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Dutch Health Council. In 1983 she received her LL.M. degree from the University of Leyden. Currently she is writing her Ph.D. dissertation on medi- cal innovation for the University of Amsterdam. She received the Querido Award in support of her doctoral work from the Netherlands Praeventiefonds (Dutch Fund for Disease Prevention). VIC HASSELBLAD is research associate professor at the Center for Health Policy Research and Education at Duke University. He received an M.S. degree in mathematical statistics from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. in bio- statistics from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Hasselblad then joined the U.S. government biometric group, which eventually became part of the Environmental Protection Agency. As a member of that organization, he was responsible for the design, conduct, and analysis of empirical epidemiologi- cal and toxicological studies, as well as the development of new methods for analyzing epidemiological and toxicological problems. In 1982, Dr. Hasselblad was given the Environmental Protection Agency's Scientific and Technology Achievement Award for his work, and in 1985 he joined the Center for Health Policy Research and Education. His main research interest is in developing sta- tistical methods for evaluating health technologies. This work has culminated in the coauthorship of a recent book on statistical methods for synthesizing evi- dence. He has published widely in the epidemiological, statistical, and medical literature on health and methodological topics. WILLIAM H. W. INMAN has been responsible for developing both nation- al systems for monitoring drug safety in the United Kingdom. In 1964, follow- ing the thalidomide tragedy, he was invited by S* Derrick Dunlop to develop
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APPENDIX C 209 the yellow card system and, as principal medical officer in the Department of Health, was medical assessor of adverse reactions for the Committee on Safety of Drugs. In 1980 Dr. Inman was seconded to the University of Southampton to establish the independent Drug Safety Research Unit and in 1984 was appointed to the first chair in pharmacoepidemiology to be established in the United Kingdom. Dr. Inman received his M.A., M.B., and B.Chir. at Cambridge University, and in 1981 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. GERALD D. LAUBACH is president of Pfizer, Inc., and chair of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Technological Innovation in Medicine. Dr. Laubach is a research chemist by training and served as a labora- tory scientist in his early years at Pfizer. He is a member of the IOM and the National Academy of Engineering and serves on the IOM Council on Health Care Technology. His current activities also include membership on the execu- tive committee of the Council on Competitiveness (successor group to the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness), the boards of the Food and Drug Law Institute, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the National Committee for Quality Health Care, and the Corporation Committee for Sponsored Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and direc- torships of CIGNA Corporation of Philadephia and the Millipore Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts. Previously, Dr. Laubach served as chair of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association from 1977 to 1978 and as a board member until April 1989. Dr. Laubach holds a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. KENNETH L. MELMON received his undergraduate and medical training at Stanford and the University of California Medical Center, respectively. He trained for three years at the National Institutes of Health in the Experimental Therapeutics Branch of the National Heart Institute. After completing a final year of medical training as a chief resident at the University of Washington King County Hospital, Dr. Melmon joined the medical faculty at the University of California at San Francisco, where he instituted one of the first programs for research and training in clinical pharmacology. His research has focused on the pharmacology of the immune response. Dr. Melmon served as the chairperson of the Commission on Prescription Drug Use (1976-1980) where he became familiar with the methodology that might be used for detecting the effects of marketed drugs. Since that period he has contributed to the literature regarding the need to systematically detect the effects of marketed drugs and, secondarily, of devices and procedures. He joined the Stanford Medical School faculty in 1978 as chair of the Department of Medicine. Dr. Melmon presently serves as professor of medicine and pharmacology and associate chair of the Department of Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine.
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210 APPENDIX C ALBERT G. MULLEY, JR., is associate professor of medicine and associ- ate professor of health policy at Harvard Medical School and chief of the General Internal Medicine Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. After receiving degrees in medicine and public policy from Harvard, he completed his residency training in internal medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. He is author and editor of the text Primary Care Medicine and of many articles in the medical and health services research literature. Dr. Mulley's research has included the evaluation of medical intensive care and the cost effectiveness of prevention strategies and other common clinical practices. Recent work has focused on the use of decision analysis, outcomes research, and preference assessment methods to distinguish between warranted and unwarranted varia- tions in clinical practices. In 1981 he was among the first general internists to receive the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Faculty Scholar Award. He is a member of the Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians and the Institute of Medicine Medicare Quality Assurance Committee. LESLIE L. ROOS graduated from Stanford University and received his doctoral degree in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before coming to the University of Manitoba in 1973, he held fac- ulty positions at Brandeis, Northwestern, and Indiana universities. He has held a National Health Scientist Award from the Research Programs Directorate, Health and Welfare, Canada, since 1982. Dr. Roos is a member of the Department of Community Health Sciences (Faculty of Medicine) and the Department of Business Administration (Faculty of Management) at the University of Manitoba. He is an associate of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. NORALOU P. ROOS graduated from Stanford University and received her doctoral degree in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before coming to the University of Manitoba in 1973, she taught at MIT and at Northwestern University. She has held a National Health Scientist Award from the Research Programs Directorate, Health and Welfare, Canada, since 1975. Dr. Roos teaches in the Department of Community Health Sciences (Faculty of Medicine) at the University of Manitoba. She is an associate of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. ROSS D. SHACHTER received an S.B. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in operations research from the University of California, Berkeley. Since 1982 he has been an assistant profes- sor in the Department of Engineering-Economic Systems at Stanford University and a participating faculty member in the Section on Medical Infonnatics. His research involves decision making under uncertainty, with emphasis on medical decision making and on the representation and analysis of decision models with
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APPENDIX C 211 influence diagrams. During the academic years 1986-1988 Dr. Shachter was a visiting professor at the Center for Health Policy Research and Education at Duke University, where he developed interactive analytical tools to assist in medical technology assessment. He is an active participant and organizer of the Workshops on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence and an officer of the Slav:.. Operations Research Society's Special Interest Group on Decision Analysis. STEPHEN B. THACKER is currently director of the Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Dr. Thacker came to the CDC in 1976 and became the first director of the Division of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies in the CDC Epidemiology Program Office. After chair- ing the committee that developed the first comprehensive CDC plan for public health surveillance, he was chosen to be the assistant director for science, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control. Dr. Thacker received his undergraduate degree at Princeton University and his M.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 1973. He completed residency training in family medicine at the Duke University School of Medicine. At Duke, Dr. Thacker was also a Robert Wood Johnson clinical scholar. In 1984, Dr. Thacker was awarded an M.Sc. in epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. Thacker currently holds appointments at both the Emory University School of Medicine and Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Dr. Thacker has published in a broad range of fields in epidemiology, including public health surveillance, infectious disease, and technology assessment. He has written papers on electronic fetal monitoring, ultrasound, methodologies for surveillance of medical technologies, and related areas. SAMUEL O. THIER is president of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Thier's previous appointments include Sterling Professor and chair of the Department of Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine, vice chair and professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, and chief of the renal unit and assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Thier did research at the National Institutes of Health from 1962 to 1964 and served on the director's advisory committee from 1980 to 1984. He is the author of numerous articles on renal physiology, inherited diseases of the kid- ney, and kidney stones and is coauthor of a textbook on pathophysiology. Dr. Thier has served as president of the American College of Physicians and as chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He received his undergradu- ate degree from Cornell University and his M.D. degree from the State University of New York at Syracuse. JOHN E. WENNBERG is director of the Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences and professor of epidemiology at Dartmouth Medical School. He is a graduate of Stanford University and McGill Medical School, Montreal. Dr. Wennberg serves on a number of national committees, including the Health
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