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References A.D. Little Co. (1975) Social Cost of Drug Abuse. Cambridge, Mass.: AD. Little Co. Allen-Hagen, B. (1988) Public Juvenile Facilities, 1987: Children in Custody. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Allison, M., R.L Hubbard, and J.V Rachal (1985) Treatment Process in Methadone, Residential' and Outpatient Drug Free Programs. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. American Bar Association/American Medical Association (1961) D,ug Addiction: Come or Disease? Interim and Final Reports of the Joint Committee of the American Bar Association and the American Medical Association on Narcotic Drugs. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. American Medical Association Council of Scientific Affairs (1987) Scientific issues in drug testing. Journal of the American Medical Association 257~223:3110-3114. American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ea., revised. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. Anglin, M.D. (19883 The efficacy of civil commitment in treating narcotic addiction. Pp. 8-34 in C.G. Leukefeld and FM. Tims, eds., Compulsory Treatment of Drug Abuse: Research and Clinical Practice. NIDA Research Monograph 86. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Anglin, M.D., and W.H. McGlothlin (1984) Outcome of narcotic addict treatment in California. Pp. 106-128 in EM. Tims and J.P. Ludford, eds., Drug Abuse Trea~nent Evaluation: Strategies, Prowess, and Prospects. NIDA Research Monograph 51. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Anglin, M.D., W.H. McGlothlin, and G.R. Speckart (1981) Effect of parole on methadone patient behavior. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 8:153-170. Anglin, M.D., G.R. Speckart, M.W. Booth, and T.M. Ryan (1989a) Consequences and costs of shutting off methadone. Addictive Behaviors 14:307-326. Anglin, M.D., M.-L. Brecht, and E. Maddahian (1989b) Pretreatment characteristics and treatment performance of legally coerced versus voluntary methadone maintenance admissions. Criminology 27~3~:537-557. 301

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302 TREATING DRUG PROBLEMS Attewell, P., and D. Ge~tein (1979) Government policy and local practice. American Sociological Review 44(April):311-327. Backer, T.E., and K. O'Hara (1988) Technical Report: Survey of Drug Abuse Services in EAPs. National Study of Workplace Drug Abuse Programs. Human Interaction Research Institute, Los Angeles. Bale, R.N., W.W. Van Stone, J.M. Kuldau, T.JJ. Engelsing, R.M. Elashoff, and V.P. Zarcone (1980) Therapeutic communities vs methadone maintenance. A prospective controlled study of narcotic addiction treatment: design and one-year follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry 37:179-193. Ball, J.C. (1989) Unpublished data tables. Addiction Research Center, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, Baltimore. Ball, J.C., H. Graff, and J.J. Sheehan, Jr. (1974) The heroin addict's view of methadone maintenance. British Journal of Addiction 69:89-95. Ball, J.C., Lo Rosen, J.A. Flueck, and D. Nurco (1981) The criminality of heroin addicts when addicted and when off opiates. Pp. 39-65 in J.A. Inciardi, ea., The Drugs-Crime Connection. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Ball, J.C., J.W. Shaffer, and D.N. Nurco (1983) The day-to-day criminality of heroin addicts in Baltimore: a study in the continuity of offense rates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 12:119-142. Ball, J.C., W.R. Lange, C.P. Meyem, and S.R. Friedman (1988) Reducing the risk of AIDS through methadone maintenance treatment. Joumal of Health and Social Behavior 29 214-226. Beauchamp, D.E. (1980) Beyond Alcoholism: Alcohol and Public Health Policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Beck, AJ., and B.E. Shipley (1989) Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Special Report, NCJ-116261. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Beck, AJ., S.A. Kline, and L.A. Greenfeld (1988) Surv~ of Youth in Custody, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ-113365. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Beschner, G.M., B.G. Reed, and J. Mondanaro, eds. (1981) Treatment Services for Drug Dependent Women, Vol. 1. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)81-1177. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Besteman, KJ. (1978) The NARA program. Pp. 274-280 in W.R. Martin and H. Isbell, eds., Drug Add~'ction and the US. Public Health Service. Proceedings of a Symposium Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Addiction Research Center at Lexington, Kentucky. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Besteman, KJ. (1990) Federal leadership in building the national drug treatment system. In D.R. Gerstein and H.J. Ha~wood, eds., Treating Dn~g Abuse. Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Blaine, J.D., D.B. Thomas, G. Barnett, J.A. Whysner, and P.F. Renault (1981) Levo-alpha acetylmethadol (LAAM): clinical utility and pharmaceutical development. Pp. 360-388 in J.H. Lowinson and P. Ruiz, eds., Substance Abuse: Cl~'nical Problems and Perspectives. Baltimore: Williams and W~lkins. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association (1983) Substance Abuse Treatment Benefits: A Guide for Plans. Chicago: Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Brotman, R., and A. Freedman (1968) A Community Mental Health Approach to Drug Addiction. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Brown, B.S., S.K Gauvey, M.B. Meyers, and S.D. Stark (1971) In their own words: addicts' reasons for initiating and withdrawing from heroin. The International Joumal of the Addictions 6(~4~:635-645. Brown, S., ed. (1988) Prenatal Care: Reaching Mothers, Reaching Infants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Bureau of Justice Assistance (1989) Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC): Resource Catalog. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1987) Employee Benefi~ in Medium and Large Firms, 1986. Bulletin 2281. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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REFERENCES 303 Bureau of Labor Statistics (1988) Employee Benefits in State and Local Govemments, 1987. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2309. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1989a) Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms, 1988. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1989b3 Survey of Employer Anti-drug Programs. Report 760. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Bush, G. (1990) State of the Union Message. Congressional Record, January 31:S632-S634. Butynski, W., and D. Canova (1988) State Resources and Services Related to Alcohol and Doug Abuse Problems, Fiscal Year 1987. Washington, D.C: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors. Butynski, W., and D. Canova (1989) State Resources and Services Related to Alcohol and Drug Abuse Problems, Fiscal Year 1988. Washington, D.C: National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors. Chaiken, M.R. (1989) Prison Programs for Drug-Involved Offenders. National Institute of Justice Research in Action, NCJ 118316. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Chasnoff, IJ. (1989) Press release, August 28. National Association for Perinatal Addiction Research and Education, Chicago. Chasnoff, I.J., D.R. Griffith, S. MacGregor, K. Kirkes, and MA. Burns (1989) Temporal patterns of cocaine use in pregnancy. Journal of the American Medical Association 261~12~:1741-1744. Chasnoff, IJ., JJ. Landress, and M.E. Barrett (1990) The prevalence of illicit-drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Flonda. The New England Journal of Medicine 322~17~:1202-1206. Chavez, G.F., J. Mulinare, and J.F. Cordero (1989) Maternal cocaine use during early pregnancy as a risk factor for congenital urogenital anomalies. Joumal of the American Medical Association 262~6~:795-798. Chollet, D. (1988) Uninsured in the United States: The Nonelderly Population Without Health Insurance, 1986. Washington, D.C.: Employee Benefit Research Institute. Cole, S.G., WE. Lehman, E.A. Cole, and A. Jones (1981) Inpatient vs outpatient treatment of alcohol and drug abusers. American Journal of Doug and Alcohol Abuse 8~33:329-345. Collins, J.J., and M. Allison (1983) Legal coercion and retention in drug abuse treatment. Hospital and Community Psychiany 34~123:1145-1149. Comprehensive Care Corporation (1988) Evaluation of Treatment Outcome. Irvine, Calif.: Comprehensive Care Corporation. Cook, C.C.H. (1988a) The Minnesota Model in the management of drug and alcohol dependency: miracle, method or myth? Part I. The philosophy and the programme. Bntzsh Journal of Addiction 83:625-634. Cook, C.CH. (1988b) The Minnesota Model in the management of drug and alcohol dependency: miracle, method or myth? Part II. Evidence and conclusions. British Journal of Addiction 83:735-748. Cook, L.F., B.A. Weinman, et al. (1988) Treatment alternatives to street crime. Pp. 99-105 in C.G. Leukefeld and F.M. dims, eds., Compulsory Treatment of Drug Abuse: Research and Clinical Practice. NIDA Research Monograph 86. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cooper, J.R., F. Altman, B.S. Brown, and D. Czechowicz (1983) Research on the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction: State of the Art. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)83-1281. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cooper, P., and D. Rice (1976) The economic costs of illness revisited. Social Security Bulletin 39:21-36. Courtwright, D.T. (19823 Dark Paradise: Opiate Addiction in America Before 1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Courtwright, D.T. (1990) A century of American narcotic policy. In D.R. Gerstein and HJ. Harwood,eds.,TreatzngD~ugAbuse. Volume2. Washington,D.C.: NationalAcademy Press.

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304 TREATING DRUG PROBLEMS Cruze, A., H. Hardwood, P. Christensen, J. Collins, and D. Jones (1981) Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Illness1977. Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Dackis, C, M.S. Gold, D. Sweeney et al. (1987) Single dose bromocriptine reverses cocaine craving. Psychiatry Research 20:261-264. De Leon, G. (1986) The therapeutic community for substance abuse: perspective and approach. Pp. 5-18 in G. De Leon and J.T. Ziegenfuss, Jr., eds., Therapeutic Communities for Addictions. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. De Leon, G., H.K. Wexler, and N. Jainchill (1982) The therapeutic community success and improvement rates 5 years after treatment. The International Journal of the Addictions 17(4):703-747. Dole, V.P. (1971) Methadone maintenance treatment for 25,000 heroin addicts. Joumal of the American Medical Association 215~7~:1131-1134. Dole, V.P. (1988) Implications of methadone maintenance for theories of narcotic addiction. Journal of the American Medical Association 260~20~:3025-3029. Dole, V.P. (1989) Methadone treatment and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. Joumal of the American Medical Association 262~12~:1681-1682. Dole, V.P., and H. Joseph (1978) Long-term outcome of patients treated with methadone maintenance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 311:181-189. Dole, V.P., and M. Nyswander (1965) A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction: a clinical trial with methadone hydrochloride. Joumal of the American Medical Association 193(8):80-84. Dole, V.P., and M. Nyswander (1967) Rehabilitation of the street addict. Archives of Environmental Health 14:477480. Dole, V.P., and M.E. Nyswander (1976) Methadone maintenance treatment: a ten-year perspective. Joumal of the American Medical Association 235~19~:2117-2119. Dole, V.P., M.E. Nyswander and M.J. Kreek (1966) Narcotic blockage. Archives of Internal Medicine 118:304-309. Dole, V.P., M.E. Nyswander, and A. Warner (1968) Successful treatment of 750 criminal addicts. Joumal of the American Medical Association 206~12~:2708-2711. Dole, V.P., J.W. Robinson, J. Orraga, E. Towns, P. Searcy, and E. Caine (1969) Methadone treatment of randomly selected criminal addicts. The New England Journal of Medicine 280~25~: 1372-1375. Eldred, CA., and M.N. Washington (1976) Interpersonal relationships in heroin use by men and women and their role in treatment outcome. The International Journal of the Addictions 11(1):117-130. Falkin, G.P., H.K. Wexler, and D.S. Lipton (1990) Drug treatment in state prisons. In D.R. Gerstein and H.J. Hardwood, eds., Treating Drug Abuse. Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Field, G. (1984) The Cornerstone program: a client outcome study. Federal Probation 5~55. Field, G. (1989) The effects of intensive treatment on reducing the criminal recidivism of addicted offenders. Federal Probation 53(~4~:51-72. Flanagan, TO., and KM. Jamieson, eds. (1988) Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ-111612. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Friedman, A.S., N.W. Glickman, and M.R. Morrissey (1986) Prediction to successful treatment outcome by client characteristics and retention in treatment in adolescent drug treatment programs: a large-scale cross validation study. Joumal of Drug Education 16~2~:149-165. Frohling, R. (1989) Promising Approaches to Drug Treatment in Correctional Settings. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Conference of State Legislatures. Fuchs, V.R. (1988) The "competition revolution" in health care. Health Affairs Sum- mer~special issue):5-24. Gallup, G.H. (1989) Surveys on the Doug Crisis. Princeton, N.J.: George H. Gallup International Foundation.

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REFERENCES 305 Gardiner, L.K, and R.C. Shreckengost (1987) A systems dynamics model for estimating heroin imports into the United States. System Dynamics Review 3~1~:8-27. Gawin, F.H., H.D. Kleber, R. Byck, B. Rounsaville, TR. Kosten, P. Jatlow, and C. Morgan (1989a) Desipramine facilitation of initial cocaine abstinence. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:117-121. Gawin, F.H., D. Allen, and B. Humblestone (1989b) Outpatient treatment of "crack" cocaine smoking with flupenthixol decanoate: a preliminary report. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:322-325. Gearing, F.R. (1970) Evaluation of methadone maintenance treatment program. The Intemational Journal of the Addictions 5~33:517-543. Gearing, F.R. (1974) Methadone maintenance treatment five years laterwhere are they now? American Journal of Public Health, Supplement, 64:44-50. Gerstein, D.R., L.L~ Judd, and S.A. Rovner (1979) Career dynamics of female heroin addicts. American Joumal on Drug and Alcohol Abuse 6~1~:1-23. Gilmore, K.M. (1985) Hazelden Primary Residential Treatment Program: 1985. Profile and Patient Outcome. Center City, Minn.: Hazelden. Godshaw, G., R. Koppel, and R. Pancoast (1987) Anti-Drug Law Enforcement Efforts and Their Impacts. Prepared at Wharton Econometrics Forecasting Associates for the U.S. Customs Service. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Goldschmidt, P.G. (1976) A cost-effectiveness model for evaluating health care programs: application to drug abuse treatment. Inquay 13~1~:29~7. Goldstein, A. (1976) A clinical experience with LAAM. Pp. 115-117 in J.D. Blaine and P.F. Renault, eds., R'c LAAM: 3x/Week. I~AM Alternative to Methadone. NIDA Research Monograph 8. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Goldstein, A., and B. Judson (1974) Three critical issues in the management of methadone programs. Critical issue 3: can the community be protected against the hazards of take-home methadone? Pp. 140-148 in G. Bourne, ea., Addiciion. New York: Academic Press. Grant, M., M. Plant, and A. W~lliams, eds. (1983) Economics and Alcohol: Consumption and Controls. New York: Gardner Press. Gray, B.H., and MJ. Field, eds. (1989) Controlling Costs and Changing Patient Care? The RDIe of Utilization Management. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Greenfeld, L^A. (1989) Pnsoners in 1988. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, NCJ-116315. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Griffin, KS. (1983) The Therapeutic Communay: A Cost-Benefit Ana1ysis. Philadelphia.: Gaudenzia. Gunne, L^, and L. Gronbladh (1984) The Swedish methadone maintenance program. Pp. 205-213 in G. Serban, ea., The Social and Medical Aspects of Drug Abuse. Jamaica, N.Y.: Spectrum Publications. Gust, S.W., and J.M. Walsh (1989) Research on the prevalence, impact, and treatment of drug abuse in the workplace. Pp. 3-13 in S.W. Gust and J.M. Walsh, eds., D,ugs in the Workplace: Research and Eva1~ation Data. NIDA Research Monograph 91. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hargreaves, W.A. (1983) Methadone dose and duration for maintenance treatment. Pp. 19-79 in J.R. Cooper et al., eds., Research on the Treatment of Narcotic Add~ction: State of the Art. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)8~1281. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Harrison, P.A., and N.G. Hoffmann (1988) Ad!~lt Outpatient Treatment: Perspectives on Admission and Outcome. CATOR Report. St. Paul, Minn.: Chemical Abuse/Addiction lLeatment Outcome Regist~y, Ramsey Clinic. Hartunian, N.S., C.N. Smart, and M.S. Thompson (1980) The incidence and economic costs of cancer, motor vehicle injuries, corona~y heart disease, and stroke: a comparative analysis. American Jou~nal of Public Health 70~12~:1249-1260. Hatwood, H., D.M. Napolitano, P.L~ Christensen, and JJ. Collins (1984) Economic Costs to Society of Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Mental Illness: 1980. Report to Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Research lliangle Institute, Research ltiangle Park, N.C.

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306 TREATING DRUG PROBLEMS Harwood, HJ., J.U Rachal, and E. Cavanaugh (1985) Length of Stay in Treatment for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: National Estimates for Short-Term Hospitals' 1983. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Research Triangle Institute. Harwood, HJ., R.L~ Hubbard, J.J. Collins, and J.V. Rachal (1988) The costs of crime and the benefits of drug abuse treatment: a cost-benefit analysis using TOPS data. Pp. 209-235 in C.G. Leukefeld and F.M. Tims, eds., Compulsory Treatment of Drug Abuse: Research and Clinical Practice. NIDA Research Monograph 86. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hawks, R.L, and C.N. Chiang, eds. (1986) Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph 73. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Health Care Advisory Board (1988) Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: Marketing to Employers: Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Health Care Advisory Board. Health Insurance Association of America (1989) Source Book of Health Insurance Data. Washington, D.C.: Health Insurance Association of America. Hester, T. (1988) Probation and Parole 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, NCJ- 113948. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Hodgson, T., and N. Meiners (1979) Guidelines for Cost~f-Illness Studies in the Public Health Service. Public Health Task Force on the Cost of Illness Studies. Public Health Service, Bethesda, Md. Hoffmann, N.G., and P.A. Harrison (19883 Treatment Outcome: Adult Inpatients Two Years Later. CATOR Report. St. Paul, Minn.: Chemical Abuse/Addiction Treatment Outcome Registry, Ramsey Clinic. Holder, H.D., and J.O. Those (1986) Alcoholism treatment and total health care utilization and costs: a four year longitudinal analysis of federal employees. Joumal of the American Medical Association 256:1456-1460. Holder, H.D., and J.B. Hallan (1986) Impact of alcoholism on total health care costs: a six year study. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 6~1~:1-15. Homer, J.D., with the UCLA Drug Abuse Research Group (19883 A Systems Dynamics Simulation Model of Cocaine Prevalence. Westwood, Calif.: UCLA Drug Abuse Research Group. Hubbard, R.L~, M.E. Marsden, J.V Rachal, HJ. Harwood, E.R. Cavanaugh, and H.M. Ginzburg (1989) Log Abuse Treatment: A National Study of Effectiveness. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Hunt, L^G., and C.D. Chambers (1976) The Heroin Epidemics. Holliswood, N.Y.: Spectrum Publications. Hunt, G.H., and M.E. Odoroff (19623 Follow-up study of narcotic drug addicts after hospitalization. Public Health Reports 77:41-54. ICE Incorporated (1987) Analysis of Treatment for Alcoholism and Drug Dependency. Irvine, Calif.: National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers. Inciardi, JA. (1988) Some considerations on the clinical efficacy of compulsory treatment: reviewing the New York experience. Pp. 126-138 in C.G. Leukefeld and EM. Tims, eds., Compulsory Treatment of thug Abuse: Research and Clinical Practice. NIDA Research Monograph 86. Rockville, Md.: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Innes, C.A. (1988) State Pnson Inmate Survey, 1986: Dog Use and Crime. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ-111940. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Institute of Medicine (198&) The Future of Public Health. Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine (1988b) Homelesmess, Health, and Human Needs. Committee on Health Care for Homeless People. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine (1990) Broadenmg the Base of Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Report of a Study by a Committee of the Institute of Medicine, Division of Mental Heals and Behavioral Medicine. Committee for the Study of Treatment and Rehabilitation Services for Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences (1988) Confronting AIDS: Update 1988. Committee for the Oversight of AIDS Activities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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