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References Berkeley, D., and P. Humphreys 1982 Structunog decision problems and the "bias heunstic" Acta Psychologca 5~.201-252. Brokensha, D., D.M. Karen, and O. Werner 1980 Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Developrn~t. Baltimore: Associated Universities Press. Carley, KM. 1986a An approach for relating social structure to cognitive structure. Journal of Ma~madwl Sociolog'' 12(23:137-189. 1986b Knowledge acquisition as a social phenomenon. Ins~ional Science 13:381 438. 1988 Distributed information and organizational deasion-making models. In Andrew Sage, ea., Concise Encyclopedia of Inf'7r7na~ Processing in Systems and Or~g~mi~ions. New York: Pergamon Press. Chase, W.G., and HN Simon 1973 Perception in chess. Contrive P - ology 4:55~1. Chi, M.TH., R. Glaser, and MJ. Farr, eds. 1988 Me Nature Of Else. Hillsdale, NJ.: Erlbaum. Clarke, NB., and R.L Disney 1985 Probability and Tom Processes: A Fan Course win AppEcation. New York: J. Wiley. Dawes, R.~. 1979 The robust beauty of improper linear models in decision malting. American Psy~olo~st 34:571-58Z 1988 Rations Choice In An Unc~ World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Disney, R.L, and D. Konig 1985 Queueing networks: A survey of their random processes. Society for 1n~`smia1 and Applied Mathematics 27(3):335~03. Elstein, A, LS. Shulman, and SA. Sprafka 1978 Medical Problem Solving. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Ericsson, A., and H. Simon 1980 Verbal reports as data Psychological Review 87:215-251. 21
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22 DISTRIBUTED DECISION MAKING Fischho~, B. 1988 Judgment and decision making. Pp. 153-187 in RJ. Steinberg and E.E. Smith, eds., Die Psychology of Humm lhou~f. New York: Cambridge Univemi~ Press. Fischho~, B., and I). MacGregor 1986 Calibrating dat~ha.se~ Jot of He Socials for Infom~ Sciences ~ c, _ 37~4~:222-233. Fischho~, B., D. MacGregor, and ~ Blackshaw 1987 Creating categories for databases. Inhuman Joumal of Man-Machine Sysams 27:33 63. Fiske, S., and S. Taylor 1984 Foucalt, M. Social Cogninon. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley. 1980 Georges Canguilhem philosopher of error. Ideology and Consciousness 7:51~2. Furn ham, ~ 19 ~1 - Theories: Everyday Ur~anding of Problems ~ the Social Sciences. New York: Pergamon Press. Gentner, D., and ~ Stevens 1983 Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ.: Erlbaum. Goldberg, L.R. 1968 Simple models or simple processes? American Psychology 23:483496. Once, J. 1975 Logic and conversation. P. Cole and J.L Morgan, eds, S - ax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press. Hennon, M., and B. ~Ischho~ 1986 Assessing uncertainty in physical constants. America Joumal of Physics 54(9~:791-798. Hilton, D. ed. 1988 Con~nporary Science and Namral Explanation: Commodore Concepnons of Causally. New York: New York University Press. Hiltz, S.R. 1984 Hogarth, R. 1988 Jud~nent and Choice. New York: Wiley. Johnson-Idird, P. 1985 Mental Models. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kahneman, D., P. Slavic, and ~ Tversky, edit 1982 Aud~gmau Under Uncer~au~: Heunsucs and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kiesler, S., J. Siegel, and 1: McGuire 1984 Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication. American P-olog~st 3~.11~-1134. Online Comnu~nzaes. boxwood, NJ.: Ablex. Klein, G. 1986 Analogical Decision Makings. Interim Report MDA903 85-CO327, prepared for Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Klein Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Klein, G., R. Calderwood, and A. ainton-Cirocco 1986 Rapid Decmon Making (fin 17ze Fire Ground Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 30th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, Calif.: Human Factor Society.
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DISTRIBUTED DECISION MAKING 23 Impair, A, B. ~mchhoff, and S. Johnson 1988 Military risk taking: C3I and the cognitive functions of boldness in war. Journal of Strategic Stutlies 11~1~:96 114. I~Porte, I:R. 1984 Techwlo~ as Social Or~izaiian. Working paper No. 84-1. Berkeley: University of California, Institute of Governmental Studies. Lehner, P., and L Adelman, eds. 1987 Biases in Knowledge Engineenag. Special issue of IEEE Transacaans for Systans, Man, & Cy~s. New York IEEE. McCormick, N. 1981 Ridabi~ gmeeing. New York: Wiley. Meshkati, N. in press An integrative model for designing reliable technological organizations: The role of cultural variables. In J. Rasmussen and R Batstone, ads., Safety Control And Risk Managers. Washington, D.C World Bank Moray, N. 1986 1987a Modeling cognitive activities: Human limitations in relation to computer aide In ~ Hollaagel, G. Mancini and D.D. Woods, eds, Intel Decmon Support ~ Process Ezra Bedin: Spnuger-Verlag. Intelligent aids, mental models and the theory of machines. Iruanaion~ Jackal of Man-machine Swim 27:619~29. 1987b Monitoring behavior and supervisory control. In K Bod, L Kaufmann, and J. Thomas, edit, Handbook of Percepnon and Human Performance. New York: Volley. Moray, N., and I. Rotenberg in press Fault management in process control: Eye movements and action. Er ~nom`cs. Muir, B.~. 1988 lost between humans and machines, and the design of decision aide In E. Hollaagel, G. Mancini and D.D. Woods, ads., Cotpun~e Endowing In Complex ~rnic Warlds. New Yorlc Academic Press. Murphy, JEW., and R.W. W~nlcler 1984 Probability of precipitation forecasts Joumal of the Anglican Statistics A=ociai`on 79:391~00. Murphy, G.L, and D.L Medin 1985 The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review 92 316. National Research Council 1985 Search and Modekng of Supe~v~ory Control Behavior. Committee on Herman Factors. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. Nisbett, R.E., and 110. Wilson 1977 Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental process. Psycho logical Review 84:231-:359. Pate-Cornell, E.-M 1984 Fault trees vs. event trees in reliability analysis Risk Analysis 4~3):177-186. 1986 Warning systems in risk management. Ark Analogs 6(23:223 234. Pew, R. D.C Miller, and GE. Feeher 1981 Evaluation Of Proposed Control Room Impro~cmerus 17:rough Analysis Of Conical Operator Decision. EPRI NP-1982 Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute.
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24 DISTRIBUTED DECISION MAKING Polanyi, M. 1962 Personal Knowledge. London: Routledge ~ Kegan Paul. Rasmussen, J. 1983 Skills, rules & knowledge. IEEE Transacts for Systems, Man and Cyber netzcs SMC-13:257-266. 1986 Infarmmion Processmg and Hums Machine In~racuon. New York. North Holland. Reason, J. in press Human Eiror. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Rochlin, E. in press Technology, hierarchy, and organizational self-design: U.S. Naval flight operations as a case study. In J. Rasmussen and R. Batstone, eds., Safety Control and Risk Mana~rncra. Washington, D.C: World Bank. Roth, As, ed. 1987 ~72~ Shies of Economic Beh~r. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sheridan, 1: 1988 The system perspective. In E.L~ wiener and D.C Nagel, eds., Human Factors In Avzatwn. New York: Academic Press. Spencer, K, and P. Ekman, eds. 1986 Handbook of Nonverbal Behavior. New York: Cambridge Univemiy Press. Sproull, L~, and S. Kiesler 1986 Reducing social context cues in electronic mail in organizational communi cation. Mana~rnent Science 32:1492 1512. Swain, A., and H.C Gutman 1983 H~k of Hump risibility Analysis Wah Emphasis on Nuder Power Plants. NUREG/CR-1278. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Tetlock, P.E., J.L Husbands, R. Jervis, P. Stern, and C Tilly, eds. 1989 1990 Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, Vol. 1. Committee on Contributions of Behavioral and Social Science to the Prevention of Nuclear War. New York: Oxford University Press. Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, Vol. ~ Committee on Contributions of Behavioral and Social Science to the Prevention of Nuclear War. New York: Oxford University Press. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1983 Probabilistic Risk Analysis Procedures Guide NURE6/CR-2300. Washington, D.C: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. van W~nterfeldt, D., and E. Edwards 1986 Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. Watson, S. and D.H. Bllede 1988 Decision Sy?~`hms. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Williamson, O.K. 1981 The economics of organization: The transaction cost approach. American Journal of Soc~oba~;y &7~3~:548-574.
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