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References Ahrens, E.H., Ir. 1985. The diet-heart question in 1985: Has it really been settled? The Lancet i:1085-1087. Andreasen, P.B. 1988. Consensus conferences in different coun- tries: Aims and perspectives. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 4:305-30X. Asch, S.M., and C.U. Lowe. 1984. The consensus development program: Theory, process, and critique. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 5~3~:369-385. Buipitt, Cal. 1988. Meta-analysis. The Lancet i:93-94. Calito~p, I. 1988. Consensus development conferences in Sweden: Effects on health policy and administration. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 4:75-~. Dalkey, N.C. 1969. The Delphi Method: An Experimental Study of Group Opinion. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation. Delbecq, A., A.H. Van de yen, and D.H. Gustafson. 1975. Group Techniques for Program Planning. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Fores- man. Elliott, I. 1989. Office of Medical Applications of Research, com- munication to committee. Fink, A., J. Kosecoff, M. Chassin, and R.H. Brook. 1984. Consen- sus methods: Characteristics and guidelines for use. The Ameri- can Journal of Public Health 749:979-9X3. 34

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REFERENCES 35 Gleicher, N. 19X4. Cesarean section rates in the United States: The short-term failure of the national consensus development confer- ence in 1980. Journal of the American Medical Association 252(23):3273-3276. Goldbloom, R., R.N. Battista, and I. Haggerty. 1989. The periodic health examination. Canadian Medical Association Journal 141:205- 208. Goodman, C., ed. 1988. Medical Technology Assessment Direc- tory. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Harris, S.S., C.~. Caspersen, G.H. Defriese, and E.H. Estes. 1989. U.S. preventive services task force. Journal of the American Medical Association 261:3588-3589. Hunter, I. 1982. Meta-analysis: Cumulating Research Findings Across Studies. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, Inc. Institute of Medicine. 1985. Assessing Medical Technologies. Washington,-D.C.: National Academy Press. Jacoby, I. 1985. The consensus development program of the Na- tional Institutes of Health: Current practices and historical per- spectives. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2:420-432. lacoby, I. 1988. Evidence and consensus. Journal of the American Medical Association 259~20~:3039. Janis,1.L~.1971. Groupthink. Psychology Today(November). Kanouse, D.E., R.H. Brook, I.D. Winkler, I. Kosecoff, S.H. Berry, G.M. Carter, I.P. Kahan, L. McCloskey, W.H. Rogers, C.M. Winslow, G.M. Anderson, L. Brodsiey, A. Fink, and L. Meredith. 1989. Changing Medical Practice Through Technology Assess- ment: An Evaluation of the National Institutes of Health Consen- sus Development Program. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation. Linstone, H., and M. Turoff, eds. 1975. The Delphi Method: Tech- niques and Applications. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. Lomas, I. 1986. The consensus process and evidence dissemina- tion. Canadian Medical Association Journal 134: 1340-1341. Louis, T.A., H.V. Fineberg, and F. Mosteller. 1985. Findings for public health from meta-analyses. Annual Review of Public Health 6:1-20. McNeil, By., and S.G. Pauker. 1984. Decision analysis for public health: Principles and illustrations. Annual Review of Public Health 5: 135-161.

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36 REFEREZVCES MulIan, F., and I. lacoby. 1985. The town meeting for technology. Journal of the American Medical Association 254~:1068-1072. National Institutes of Health. 1989. Fiscal Year 1991 Justification of Appropriation Estimates for Committee on Appropriations: National Institutes of Health. Volume ITI. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Publication No. 1989-252-073. Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health. Undated. Office of Medical Applications of Research. Bethesda, Md. Pamphlet. Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health. 1988. Guidelines for the Selection and Management of Consensus Development Conferences. Bethesda, Md. Pamphlet. Oliver, M.F. 1985. Consensus or consensus conferences on coro- nary heart disease. The Lancet i: 1087-1089. Olsen, S.A. 19X2. Group Planning and Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pauker, S. 1986. Decision analysis as a synthetic too} for achieving consensus in technological assessment. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2~:83-97. Perry, S. 19X7. The NIH consensus development program: A dec- ade later. New England Journal of Medicine 317:485-488. PiBemer, D.B. and R.~. Light. 1980. Synthesizing outcomes: How to use research evidence from many sources. Harvard Educa- tional Review 50~2~:176-195. Policy Research Incorporated. 1977. A Comprehensive Study of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Advances in Bi- omedical and Behavioral Research and Technology: Summary of the Final Report. Baltimore. Porter, Am., F.A. Rossini, S.R. Carpenter, and A.T. Roper. 1980. A Guidebook for Technology Assessment and Impact Analysis. New York: North-HoBand. Public Health Service. 1989. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. Report of the Public Health Service Expert Pane} on the Content of Prenatal Care. Washington, D.C: U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services. Sackett, D.~. 1989. Rules of evidence and clinical recommenda- tions on the use of antithrombotic agents. Chest 95:2S-4S. Sacks, H.S., I. Berrier, D. Reitman, V.A. Ancona-Berk, and T.C. Chalmers. 1987. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. New England loumal of Medicine 316~:450-455.

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REFERENCES 37 Thacker, S.B. 1988. Meta-analysis: A quantitative approach to re- search integration. Journal of the American Medical Association 259~11~:1685-1689. U.S. Congress. 1989. P.~. 101-239. The Omnibus Budget Recon- ciliation Act of 1989. Wortm an, P.M., and A. Vinokur. 1982. Evaluation of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Process, Phase I: Final Report. Ann Arbor: The Institute for Social Research, The Uni- versity of Michigan.

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