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ADVANCES I N PHOTORECEPTION Proceedings of a Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science Committee on Vision Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington? D.C. 1990
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The menders of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. L^C. card no. 90-60934 ISBN 0-309-04240-2 Available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 S134 Printed in the United States of America
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COMMITTEE ON VISION SUZANNE MCKEE (Chair), Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation, San Francisco ROBERT BOYNTON (NAS), Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego LYNN COOPER, Department of Psychology, Columbia University RUSSELL LEE DEVALOIS (NAS), Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley MERTON CLYDE FLOM, College of Optometry, University of Houston DAVID L. GUYTON, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University DONALD HOOD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University JAMES LACKNER, Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation Laboratory, Brandeis University ROBERT SHAPLEY, Department of Psychology, New York University LOUIS SILVERSTEIN, Honeywell, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz. KENT ~ STEVENS, Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon ANDREW B. WATSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. PAMELA EBERT FLATTAU, Study Director JOANNE ALBANES, Research Assistant CAROL METCALF, Administrative Secretary ROSE WHITE, Secretary . . .
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SYMPOSIUM PARTICIPANTS ANTHONY J. ADAMS, School of Optometry? University of California, Berkeley JAMES K. BOWMAKER, School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary College, University of London DONALD C. HOOD, Department of Psychology, Columbia University WALTER MAKOUS, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester WILLIAM MILLER, School of Medicine, Yale University HUGH PERRY, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford EDWARD N. PUGH, Jr., Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT SHAPLEY, Department of Psychology, New York University JULIE L. SCHNAPF, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco DAVID R. WILLIAMS, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester JOHN I. YELLOWS, Cognitive Science Department, University of California, Irvine 1V
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Preface The Committee on Vision is a standing committee of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The committee provides analysis and advice on scientific issues and applied problems involving vision. It also attempts to stimulate the development of visual science and to provide a forum in which basic and applied scientists, engineers, and clinicians can interact. Working groups of the committee study questions that may involve engineering and equip- ment, physiological and physical optics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, perception, environmental effects on vision, and visual disorders. From time to time, the committee sponsors public meetings that feature papers on advances in vision research. The meetings are designed to aid the newcomer in reaching a preliminary understanding of the utility of the latest approaches to vision research and to challenge more experienced scientists, engineers, and clinicians alike to consider the appropriate role for these findings in the advancement of vision research and its application to practical problems. In March 1988 the committee sponsored a Symposium on Frontiers of Visual Science at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The committee brought together 10 leading investigators in vision research to discuss advances in photoreception. Speakers included visual physiol- ogists and psychophysicists, who discussed wavelength specificity of visual pigments, receptor transduction in health and disease, adaptation of pho- toreceptors to light, variations of the photoreceptor lattice across the retina, and photoreceptor sampling of visual images and aliasing. Comparisons of human and animal retinas also were discussed. Funds for the symposium were provided from the general budget of the committee, which receives support from the departments of the Army, the v
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Navy, and the Air Force; the National Eye Institute; the National Institute on Aging; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the National Science Foundation, the Veterans Administration; the American Academy of Ophthalmology; and the American Academy of Optometry. The committee gratefully acknowledges the efforts of the vision scien- tists who took time from their demanding schedules to participate in the symposium. The committee also thanks its staff officer, Pamela Ebert Flat- tau, for organizing the meeting and preparing the final report. Production of the report was effectively assisted by Carol Metcalf of the committee staff. Freelance editor Barbara ~ Bodling helped improve the style and clarity of the report. To all these, we express our gratitude. Suzanne McKee, Chair Committee on Vision V1
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Contents Introduction, 1 Robert Shapley Optical and Molecular Design of Rods, 2 William H. Miller COLOR AND WAVELENGTH SPECIFICITY OF RECEPTORS ............................. Cone Visual Pigments in Monkeys and Humans, 19 James K. Bowmaker Photosensitivity of Primate Photoreceptors, 31 Julie ~ Schnapf TRANSDUCTION, ADAPTATION, AND DISEASE PROCESSES ........................................ The ERG and Sites and Mechanisms of Retinal Disease, Adaptation, and Development, 41 Donald C. Hood Phototransduction in Vertebrate Rods: The Electrophysiological Approach to the cGMP Cascade TheoIy, 59 Edward At Pugh, Jr.' OH. Cobbs, and J.D. Tanner Partitioning Visual Processes, 78 Walter Makous . . V11 . . .39
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SPATIAL EFFECTS OF PHOTORECEPTOR MOSAIC The Distribution of Cones in the Primate Retina, 105 ~ Hugh Peny . . .. . . The Photoreceptor Mosaic as an Image Sampling Device, 117 John I. Yellott The Invisible Cone Mosaic, 135 David R Williams . . . vail . . . ....103