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Headline News, Science Views Index

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Headline News, Science Views A Abortion availability of safe, 173 contraceptive use and, 147, 148 for HIV-infected women, 191 Accidents prevention of, 94-96 rate among elderly, 42, 43 Acid rain, 139 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See AIDS Addiction. See also Substance abuse to chewing tobacco, 85 treatment programs for drug, 117-119 Adolescents. See Teenagers Africa childbirth in, 172 hunger in, 4-5, 167-169 vaccines for, 4-5, 171 Age discrimination, 218 Agriculture alternative systems of, 67-69 Andean, 175, 177-178 effect of global warming and climatic change on, 138 and effect of irrigation, 67, 72-74 impact of biological advances on, 135 pesticide use in, 69-73 use of ocean resources for, 137 Ahearne, John, 14 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) behavioral changes to prevent, 96-98 drug abuse treatment and, 117 drug experiments for, 99-101 HIV screening and, 190-192 Air traffic, 30-33 Airbag technology, 95 Aircraft design, 32 Airport capacity, 30-33 Alberts, Bruce M., 144 Alcohol treatment programs, 86-88 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 87 Amaranth, 177 Andean aji, 177 Andean crops, 175-178 Anencephalic infants, 186-189 Animals, laboratory experiments on, 192-194 Antarctic Treaty, 62 Antarctica, 60-62 Archimedes, 3 Arracacha, 177

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Headline News, Science Views Arsenic, 73 Artificial intelligence, 141-143, 158 Astronomy advances in, 134 impact of light pollution on, 150 Athletes, as role models, 83-85 Audits, random, to detect scientific fraud, 196 Automobiles energy-efficient, 139 safety standards for, 95 and transportation improvements, 29 Ayala, Francisco J., 211 AZT (azidothymidine), 100, 191 See also AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) B Banneker, Benjamin, 219 Baseball players, 83-85 Bassuk, Ellen L., 110 Bayer, Ronald, 190 Beach erosion, 136 Becker, Marshall, 96 Benbrook, Charles M., 69 Bible, 211, 213 Biological diversity, 74-77 Biological testing, 183-186 Biology of forests, 128-129 revolution in study of, 133-135 and theory of evolution, 212 Black Americans. See also Minorities in mathematics-related areas, 210 in science, 219-221 status of, 107-109 Bookman, Charles A., 136 Boron, 73 Bounded rationality, 123 Brain-imaging technology, 184 Breeding, 63 Bulger, Roger J., 91 Bush, George, 123, 130, 137 Businesses, role in exposing children to science, 5, 6 C Cancer relationship between diet and, 82 use of chewing tobacco and, 84 Capron, Alexander Morgan, 186 Carbon dioxide forests and, 127-128 increases in air of, 49, 55-56, 139 Carver, George Washington, 219 Cesarean deliveries, 91-93 Chalk, Rosemary, 195 Chen, John, 160, 162 Chen, Kan, 27 Cherimoya, 177 Chewing tobacco, 83-85 Children. See also Infants; Teenagers educationally related stress in, 201-203 effect of child care on, 115-117 homelessness among, 110-112 immunization programs for, 170-172 latchkey, 116 malnutrition in, 168, 169 poverty among Black, 107 China population growth in, 173 reliance on coal, 57 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 55, 61 Cholesterol, 82 Chromosomes, human, 144-146 Cigarettes, chewing tobacco and, 84 Climate changes. See Greenhouse effect; Sea level changes Coastal deterioration, 49, 50

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Headline News, Science Views Coca crop, 175, 178 Cocaine, 175 College education foreign, 159 incentives to pursue advanced technical degrees needed during, 161 -162, 221 See also Doctoral degrees science courses for non-science majors, 12, 13 Commodity program in agriculture, 68 Communication risk, 14-16 system and terrorism, 33-35 use of ocean for, 137 Comparable worth, 112-114 Computer applications artificial intelligence and, 141-143 among elderly, 43 eliminating animals in research through, 192 Computer industry, U.S., 24-27 Computer software for digital switching, 34-35 international development of, 26 Congress, U.S. and budget decisions for science and technology, 152, 153 elimination of antitrust constraints on joint R&D by, 164 need for scientists in, 18 pesticide use issues and, 70, 71 and radioactive waste disposal, 66 Conservation. See Environmental protection Construction industry, home, 39-41 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 120 Contraception in developing countries, 173-174 options in, 146-149 Cooper, Theodore, 99 Cooperative research, 164. See also Research Copernicus, 141, 143 Coronary artery disease, 81-82 Cosby, Bill, 3 Court cases, statistical analyses used in, 120-122 Coyle, Susan, 214 Crawford, David L., 149 Crawshaw, Ralph, 181 Creationism, 211, 213 Criminals drug treatment for, 118, 119 genetic testing of suspected, 185 Czaja, Sara J., 41 D Dartmouth College, 223 Darwin, Charles, 141, 143 Data systems, Soviet, 166 DaVanzo, Julie, 172 Dean, Robert G., 48 Deep ecology, 74-77 Defense use of oceans for, 137 weapons production for, 37-38 Deforestation, 49, 55, 127 Diagnostic technology, 183-186 Diet, chronic illnesses and, 81-82 Digital switching technology, 34 Disasters natural, 44-46 technological, 14, 15 Discrimination age, 218 and comparable worth issue, 113 racial, 108, 109 sex, 218. See also Women Disease. See also Health genetic mapping and, 144-146 nutritional, 168

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Headline News, Science Views relationship between diet and, 81-83 scientific research on, 4-5 screening for, 190-192 sexually transmitted, 147-148. See also AIDS in trees, 129 tropical, 171 vaccines to combat, 170-172 DNA. See also Recombinant DNA technology explanation of, 144-145 sequencing, 145-146 structure of, 134 Doctoral degrees for Blacks, 219 difficulties in obtaining, 214-216 Downs, Hugh, 60 Drainage water, 67, 72-74 Driver education, 95 Drought global warming and, 55 hunger and, 169 Drug experiments, 99-101. See Substance abuse Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips, 26 E Earthquakes, 44-46 Ecology, deep, 74-77. See also Environmental protection Economic forecasts, 122, 124 Economy, impact of biological advances on, 134-135 Ecosystems, 64, 129 Edison, Thomas, 3 Education. See also College education; School; Universities artificial intelligence used in, 142-143 elementary, and science, 5 and kindergarten stress, 201-203 mathematics, 208-211 preparing and attracting American-born students to study science and mathematics, 161-162, 210 role in modern world of, 203-205 Educational testing, 201-203 Ehrenkrantz, Ezra, 39 Einstein, Albert advances in physics and, 134 as example of foreign-born scientist, 221 Elderly people environmental design for, 41-43 hip fractures in, 102 Electric automobiles, 139 Electricity, 140 Electronic fetal monitoring, 92, 93, 102 Elementary school. See also School exposure to science in, 5 testing and stress in, 201-203 Embryo transfers, 88, 91 Employees, environmental needs for elderly, 42-43 Employment of Black Americans, 109 civil service, 113 comparable worth issues in, 112-114 parental leave policies and, 116 and use of diagnostic technology, 183-186 Energy Department, U.S., 139, 140 Energy policy controversial nature of, 56-57 environmental issues and, 138-140 Energy production, use of seabed for, 137

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Headline News, Science Views Engineering research centers, 164 Engineering societies, 159 Engineering students in foreign universities, 159 humanities courses for, 223 lack of U.S., 161 studying for doctorate, 214-216 Engineers broadening role for, 222-224 foreign-born, 160-162, 219-220 media's distorted image of, 6-8 need for awareness of research and achievements by foreign, 158-160 Environmental design, for elderly, 41-43 Environmental protection. See also Greenhouse effect and alternative systems of agriculture, 67-69, 73-74 and Antarctica, 60-62 deep ecology movement of, 74-77 disposal of radioactive waste and, 65-67 energy usage and, 138-140 forests and, 127-128 genetic engineering and, 62-64 human needs and, 75-77 hunger and, 168 Environmental Protection Agency, 70-72 Equal-opportunity legislation, 113 Ervin, Robert D., 27 Ethics. See also Medical ethics of HIV testing, 190-192 involving experiments on animals, 192-194 scientific research and, 195-197 Ethiopia, 167, 168 Evolution, 211-213 Expanded Program on Immunization, 170, 171 Experimental drugs, for AIDS, 99-101 Expert witnesses. See Witnesses Exploration seabed, 136-138 space, 130-133 Extinction effect on biological research of, 135 guarding sea turtles against, 57-59 of species in tropical rain forests, 75 Extinction spasm, 75 F Family planning, 173-174. See also Contraception Famine, 167-169 Farming. See Agriculture Federal policies agricultural commodity program, 68-69 and responsible research, 196 Fedoroff, Nina, 62 Fertility in developing countries, 174 treating problems in, 88-91 Fertilizer residues, 73 Fetal research, 90 Fiber-optics technology, 34, 137 Fienberg, Stephen E., 120 Film industry, image of scientists, engineers, and technology given by, 6-8 Fires preparation for disaster from, 44-46 vulnerability of phone system in, 33-34 Fishing industry, 136 Florman, Samuel C., 222 Food Andean crops for, 175-178 eradication of shortages of, 168-169

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Headline News, Science Views and health, 81-83 residues of pesticides in, 67, 71 Food and Drug Administration evaluation of contraceptives by, 148 risk standards of, 71 Foreign-born individuals. See also Minorities dependence on, 221 in engineering, 161, 219-220 in science and technology community, 216, 219 in U.S. universities, 159 Forests biology of, 128-129 destruction of, 75-77 as environmental buffers, 127-128 research needs concerning, 129-130 Fossil fuels need to shift from use of, 56, 138 results of burning, 49, 55 Fractures, hip, 102 Fraud, scientific, 195-197 Freeman, Phyllis, 170 Fuller, Samuel H., 24 G Galileo Galilei, 3 Gallagher, Susan S., 94 Garcia, Eugene E., 201 Gas drilling, ocean, 136 Genetic factors diagnostic testing and, 184-186 health and, 82 Genetic mapping, 144-146 Genetically engineered microorganisms, 62-64 Gerstein, Dean R., 117 Global warming. See Greenhouse effect Goldman, Steven L., 6 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 130 Gordon, John C., 127 Government officials, risk communication by, 14-16 Grant, Ulysses S., 213 Greene, John C., 83 Greenhouse effect energy use contributing to, 138-140 federal studies regarding, 152-153 role of forests in, 127-128 and science literacy, 13 and sea level changes, 49 uncertainty surrounding, 55-57 Gynecologists, 91 H Hackerman, Norman, 192 Hallgren, Richard E., 44 Health. See also Accidents; AIDS; Disease decisions regarding, 181-183 diagnostic technology to predict, 183-186 family planning and, 173-174 and malpractice issues, 92, 93 relationship between diet and, 81-83 and use of chewing tobacco, 84-85 Health care evaluation of, 101-103 expenditures for, 181-183 for homeless and mentally ill people, 190-191 impact of biological advances on, 135 inequitability of, 191 Heaton, George R., Jr., 162 High blood pressure, 81-82 High school, 5. See also School Highway improvement, 27-29 Hip fractures, 102 Hispanic Americans, 210. See also Minorities

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Headline News, Science Views HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 190-192. See also AIDS Homeless people children as, 110-112 effect of screening for disease on, 190-191 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 160 Housing need for affordable, 39, 41, 111 technological advances in construction of, 39-41 Hubble Space Telescope, 150 Human behavior, economic forecasts and, 122 Human chromosomes, 144-146 Human reproduction in developing countries, 172-174 and infertility issues, 88-91 and obstetrical care system, 91-93 Humanities courses, 223 Hunger, 4-5, 167-169 Hurricanes, 44-46 Hussein, Saddam, 37, 138 I Iacocca, Lee, 223 Illness. See Disease; Health Immunization programs, 170-172 In vitro fertilization, 88, 91 Incas, crops of, 175, 177 Industrial production, of weapons, 37-38 Industry, Japanese vs. U.S., 158-159, 163, 164 Infants. See also Children anencephalic, 186-189 care of, 116 death of newborn, 174 of HIV-infected mothers, 191 Infertility, 88-91 Informed consent, HIV testing and, 191 Infrastructure effect of sea level changes on, 50 maintenance of, 46-48 Injury. See Accidents Insects development of trees that resist, 129 knowledge regarding, 128-129 pesticides against, 69-72 Insurance. See also Medical insurance impact of genetic testing on, 186 medical malpractice, 92, 93 International technology, 157-160. See also Technology Iodine deficiency, 168 Iraq, invasion of Kuwait by, 35 Irrigation agriculture, 67, 72-74 J Japan high school education in, 5 monitoring of U.S. research facilities by, 157 policies and industry in, 162-164 U.S. college students studying in, 159 Jaynes, Gerald David, 107 Jefferson, Thomas, 137 Job evaluation techniques, 112 John Paul II, Pope, 213 Jones, Howard W., Jr., 88 Jortberg, Robert F., 46 K Kahneman, Daniel, 123 Kates, Robert W., 167 Kean, Thomas H., x, 16

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Headline News, Science Views Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge, 72 Kindergarten stress, 201-203 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 219, 221 Koop, C. Everett, 96 Kurtz, Robert B., 35 Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of, 35 Kyoto University, 159 L Laboratories, random audits of, 196 Latchkey children, 116 Lead poisoning, 95 Lederman, Leon M., 11 Legislation equal-opportunity, 113 product-liability, 148 Lenie, Pieter, 60 Levi-Montalcini, Rita, 217 Levy, Eugene H., 130 Lewin, Lawrence S., 117 Liberal arts students, 12, 13 Light pollution, 149-151 Likins, Peter W., 160 M Madison, Bernard L., 208 Magnetic fusion, 140 Magnuson, John J., 57 Malnutrition, childhood, 168 Malpractice, medical, 92, 93 Management practices, 163-164 Mars, U.S. and Soviet missions to, 130-133 Mastroianni, Luigi, Jr., 146 Mathematics education, 208-211 McDonald, John C., 33 McNair, Ronald, 219 Medical care. See Health care Medical ethics and experimental treatment for AIDS, 99 choosing among health services and, 181-183 diagnostic technology and, 183-186 organ donations and, 187-189 regarding infertility treatment, 90 Medical insurance, 118, 191 Medical malpractice, 92, 93 Mentally ill people, 190-191 Merton, Robert, 217 Michael, Robert T., 112 Microbes, 129 Microchip industry, 24, 26 Microorganisms, genetically engineered, 62-64 Miller, Heather, 96 Mineral extraction, from ocean, 136 Minorities. See also Black Americans availability of medical services for, 191 needs assessment for Soviet, 165, 166 representation in engineering of, 161 in science and mathematics related areas, 161, 210, 215, 216, 220 Morrison, David L., 138 Morrison, Philip, 203 Morrison, Phylis, 203 Mortality rates, 172, 174 Motorcycle injuries, 95 Motulsky, Arno G., 81 N National Communications System, 34 National Science Week, 3, 6 National Security Council, 35 Nations, James D., 74 Natural disasters, preparation for, 44-46

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Headline News, Science Views Natural gas, 56 Nelkin, Dorothy, 183 Nicotine, 84 Nuclear power, 56 Nurse-midwives, 92 O Obesity, 81-82 Obstetrical care system, 91-93 Ocean, resources within, 136-138 Offshore drilling, 136 Oregon Health Decisions, 182 Organ donations, 187-189 Organisms, genetically engineered, 62-64 Osteoporosis, 81-82 P Palmer, John L., 115 Parents, role in exposure to science, 5 Parfit, Michael, 60 Parker, Frank L., 65 Patrusky, Ben, ix, 9 Pay equality, gender gap in, 112-114 Pearson, Willie, Jr., 219 Peer review, 195, 196 Penguins, 60, 61 Pepino, 177 Periodontal disease, 84 Persian Gulf crisis, 138 Pesek, John, 67 Pesticides and alternative systems of agriculture, 67-69 contradictions over use of, 69-72 in drainage water, 73 residues in food, 67, 71 Photosynthesis, 127 Physicians, malpractice issues for, 92, 93 Physics, 134 Political decisions, 13 Pollution air. See Greenhouse effect light, 149-151 water, 67, 72-74 Popenoe, Hugh, 175 Poverty among Black Americans, 107, 108 child care issues and, 115-117 and programs to combat hunger, 168, 169 Pregnancy dangers of, 172-173 HIV testing during, 190-191 teenage, 148 Press, Frank, ix, 151 Professional societies, 159 Public opinion research, Soviet, 166 Public school. See School Publishing standards, 196 R Rabi, I.I., 13 Race relations, 107-109 Radioactive waste disposal, 65-67 Raven, Peter H., 133 Rayman, Paula, 216 Reactor sites, 65-67 Recombinant DNA technology advances in use of, 134 genetic engineering with, 63, 64 and genetic structure and change in forest organisms, 129 Religious Fundamentalists, 211, 213 Replication, of experiments, 195 196 Research awareness and involvement in international, 157-160 cooperative, 164

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Headline News, Science Views federal support of, 152-154 involving experiments on animals, 192-194 medical effectiveness, 103 military vs. civilian, 153 misconduct or sloppy, 195-197 Research methods Japanese, 163-164 Soviet, 165, 166 Risk communication, 14-16 Rocoto, 177 Roebling, John, 223 Roebling, Washington, 223 Rubenstein, Arthur H., 195 S Saccocio, Damian M., 24 Safety belts, school bus, 21-23 Salaries, 112-114, 214 Saturated fat, 82 School. See also Education attendance of homeless children in, 111 contact with physical world in, 204-205 exposure and motivation for science study in, 5, 161 method of teaching science in, 10 readiness for, 202 teaching about evolution in, 211-213 volunteers in, 205-208 School bus safety, 21-23 Science careers in, 5, 215-218 federal budget decisions regarding, 152-154 impact of advances on historical developments, 134 integrity in, 195-197 minorities in, 161, 210, 215 misconceptions about, 3, 18 phobia in relating to, 9-11 politicians and, 18 products vs. process of, 9-10 women in, 161, 210, 215-218 Science communication enhancement of science literacy by, 11 image of scientists transmitted by, 10 sensationalism in, 15 Science students and decision to study for doctorate, 214-216 social sciences and humanities for, 12 Scientists assisting politicians in decision making, 16-18 black, 219-221 competition among, 217 human qualities of, 10 integrity among, 195-197 media's distorted image of, 6-8 misconceptions about, 3, 4 promotion of science literacy by, 11-13 role in educating public, 17 Sea level changes, 48-51, 138 Sea turtles, 57-59 Seabed resources, 136-138 Segregation, racial, 108, 109 Selenium, 72, 73 Sematech, 164 Semiconductor industry, 24, 26, 164 Sensationalism, in science communication, 15 Sewall, Gilbert T., 205 Sex discrimination, 218 Sexual behavior, and spread of AIDS, 96-98 Sexually transmitted diseases, 147-148. See also AIDS Shrimping industry, 58, 59 Shrubs, 128-129 Simon, Herbert A., 123, 141 Smokeless tobacco, 83-85 Smoking, chewing tobacco and, 84 Snuff, 84

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Headline News, Science Views Soviet Union mission to Mars planned by, 130-133 statistics and research method improvement for, 165-167 Space exploration, 130-133 Sparks, Robert D., 86 Stanford University, 159 Statistical analyses, courtroom, 120-122 Stern, Paul C., 165 Stever, H. Guyford, 157 Stock market trends, 123-124 Straf, Miron L., 120 Submarines, 137 Substance abuse alcohol 86-88 chewing tobacco, 83-85 drug treatment programs for, 117-119 and spread of AIDS, 96-98, 101 Sulfur dioxide emissions, 139 Sununu, John, 223 Superconductivity, 152 Supreme Court, U.S., on evolution, 211-213 Sussman, John M., 30 T Tamarillo, 177 Tancredi, Laurence, 183 Taylor, Michael R., 69 Technological development, U.S. vs. international, 157-160 Technological disasters, 14, 15 Technology federal budget decisions regarding, 152-154 international, 157-160 media's distorted image of, 6-8 Technology research associations, Japanese, 163 Teenagers. See also Children pregnancy in, 148, 173 sexual behavior of, 98 Telephone system, 33-35 Telescopes, 150 Temperature rise, due to greenhouse effect, 49, 55-56 Terrorism, 33-35 Thaler, Richard H., 122 Thier, Samuel O., 101 Tobacco, chewing, 83-85 Tourism in Antarctica, 60-61 to sea floor, 137 Transplantation programs, anencephalic infants and, 187-189 Transportation issues airport, 30-33 rising sea level and, 50 school bus safety, 21-23 traffic problems, 27-29 Trees, 127, 129. See also Forests Tropical disease, 171 Turtle excluder devices (TEDs), 59 Turtles, sea, 57-59 Tversky, Amos, 123 U Ulluco, 177 UNICEF, 170 United Nations food supply and food relief programs by, 169 immunization programs of, 170, 171 national disaster reduction programs of, 45 Universities. See also College education degress awarded in forestry and related fields in, 129 funding for black, 221 Japanese students in U.S., 159 publish or perish pressures in, 196 Ureaformaldehyde foam insulation, 120

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Headline News, Science Views V Vaccines, 170-172 Values, and view of risk, 15 Van Schilfgaarde, Jan, 72 Viking mission of 1976, 132 Vitamin A deficiency, 168 Volunteerism, educational, 205, 208 W Wage gap, gender, 112-114 Waste disposal radioactive, 65-67 use of seabed for, 137 Water quality impact of agriculture on, 67, 72-73 regulations, 74 Weapon production, 37-38 Weiss, Robin, 99 Welfare hotels, 110-111 West Antarctic Ice Sheet, 61 White, Robert M., 55 Wildlife, effects of irrigation agriculture on, 72, 73 Williams, Robin M., Jr., 107 Witnesses, expert, 120-122 Women dangers of pregnancy for, 172-173 in engineering, 161 equality of pay for, 112-114 families headed by, 110 HIV testing in pregnant, 190-192 impact of family planning on health of, 173-174 in science and mathematics related areas, 210, 215-218, 220 Wootan, Charley V., 21 World Health Organization, 170 Y Young, Frank, 17

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