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Index A Association of Official Analytical Chemists, food analysis methods, 112-113, 115-118, 140, 178 Advertising expenditures on, 90 regulation of, 47-49, 51 B American Association of Cereal Chemists, 114 B vitamins, see specific B v~a~runs American Heart Association, 56, 146 Baby foods, labeling of, 12, 56, 133-134 161, 163 Bioevailabilityof nutrients, 110, 136 American C)il Chemists' Society, 114 Analytical considerations . in expansion of nutrition labeling, 115-118 laboratory accommodation of expanded labeling, 118-119 overview of, 10-11, 1()9-110 produce and muscle-based foods, 109, 135-136 see also Food analysis for nutrition labeling; and specific nutrients Armed Services, see Military Installations; U.S. Department of Defense C Calcium food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 85-86 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 21, 187-188 infonnation currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 priority status as public health issue, 197 Calories descriptors of caloric content and body weight, 62, 233-234, 240 343

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344 food sources and intakes by Americans, 1, 7, 77-78 health relevance of calories, 15, 159 information currently provided on labels, 15, 62, 159-160 Cancer, fat and cholesterol and, 16, 166 Carbohydrates analytical problems, 10, 65, 115-116 complex, 17, 65, 172-173 deficiencies in label requirements, 65 descriptors, 17, 175 food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 80 health relevance of, 17-18, 172-174 information currently provided on labels, 17, 62, 175 in ingredient lists, 17, 67, 175 simple, 17, 65, 173-174 Carotene, see Vitamin ~ and carotene Child Care F6od Program, 151 Child nutrition programs, 151-152 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 1989, 152 Cholesterol analysis for, 10, 1 16-1 17 consumer confusion about, 104 deficiencies in label requirements, 40, 65 descriptors, 170-171, 240-241, 232, 235-236 dietary recommendations for, 16~161 food sources and intakes by Americans, 1, 78-79 health claims on labels, 56, 59 health effects of, 16, 165-166 health relevance of, 1S-17, 160-167 information currently provided on labels, 167-171 priority status as public health issue, 197 role in the body, 162 Claims, see Descriptors; Nutrient contentlhealth claims Codes` Alimentarius rules, 315-316 College and university food services, 153 INDEX Commercial food service industry, see Restaurant foods Committee on the Nutrition Components of Food Labeling, charge to, 2-3, 41-42 Commodity Distribution Reform Act of 1987, 134 Congregate meals, see Noncommercial food services Consumer education health promotion through informational campaigns, 29, 26~267 obstacles to effecting dietary change, 30, 267 strategies for promoting dietary change, 29, 265-266 on use of food labels to make food choices, 30, 268 Consumers attention to nutrition information, 40, 100-102 attitudes and behavior, 8, 93-94, 144-145 audiences for nutrition labeling, 47 comprehension of nutrition information, 8, 60, 102-106 decisionmaking by, 8, 107-108 eating trends and attitudes of restaurant customers, 144 145 exposure to nutrition information, 98 frequency and prevalence of label reading, 100 importance of dietary recommendations to, 9 information processing and behavioral change, 97-108 knowledge of nutrition, 9~9S motivation and receptiveness to label information, 8-9, 93, 101 retention and retrieval of nutrition information, 10~107 sources of nutrition information for, 47-48, 95-96 see also Dietary patterns of Americans

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INDEX Content of nutrition labels exceptions from mandatory labeling, 298 FDA regulation of, 2B~285 labeling of constituents, 297-298 required components, 46, 294-295 USDA policies, 5, 62 see also Descriptors; Nutrient content/health claims; Serving size; and specific nuirieras Coronary heart disease dietary fat and cholesterol and, 16, 162-163 health claims on labels, 56, 59 Correctional institutions, food services, 152-153 Costs of nutrition labeling reform to consumers, 91, 105 for foods currently labeled, 271 for foods not yet labeled, 273 for fresh foods, 31, 272-273 to manufacturers and retailers, 30, 27(}271 for restaurant foods, 31, 273-274 timing of requirements and, 31 Council of the European Community, 8, 313-315 D Data bases, see food composition data bases Deficiencies in food label requirements claims about nutrient content, 2, 40, 71 foods not covered by or exempted from regulations, 2, 6, 40, 63-64 format of nutrition 1abeL 6-7, 68-71 ingredient information, 2, 6, 66 nutrient content information, 6, 40, 64-66 serving size information, 6, 67-68 U.S. RDAs, 6, 67~8 see also specific nutrients 345 Descriptors calcium, 234 caloric content and body weight, 233-234, 240 carbohydrate, 17, 175, 234 cholesterol 71, 17~171, 232, 235-236, 240-241 comparative, 27, 28, 252, 254 current use of, 248, 250 deceptive use of, 232-233 defining, framework for, 27, 69-70, 71, 250-253 dietary fiber, 178, 232, 237 excelled, good, fair, 69, 239 fat, 46, 71, 170-171, 232, 236-237, 241-242 high, medium, low, 69, 71, 252, 253 international use of, 247, 249 lean, 46 legislative reforms, 34, 296 lite and light, 26, 46, 71, 232-233, 237, 242-243 low calorie, 71, 232 no or negative, 28, 71, 247-248 organic, Pulpal, and fresh, 27, 71, 232, 237, 238, 243-244, 250 principal display panel, 231-254 prohibition of, 297 protein, 18~181 quantitative, 27 regulation of (current), 26, 53, 233-247 for shelf labeling in grocery stores, 247-248 sodium, 19, 71, 185, 238, 245-246, 251 source of, 17B, 18(}181, 22() 224, 234, 252, 253 Dietary fiber analytical problems, 10, 115 deficiencies in label requirements, 40, 64 descriptors, 178, 232, 237 food sources and intakes by Americans, 80 health relevance of, 18, 17~178

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346 information currently provided on labels, 18, 178 priority status as public health issue, 197 Dietary patterns of Americans and chronic diseases, 40, 42-44 conclusions from survey data, 87 data sources and interpretation, 75 87 Party acids factors influencing future changes in, 87-88 food consumption behavior, determinants of, 93-94 food sources and intakes, 7, 77-87; see also specific nutrients recommendations of expert groups, 43-44, 45 role of food labels in implementing changes in, 44 46 see also Consumers Elderly individuals, feeding programs for, 152 European Community, food labeling rules,8, 313-315 F Fat INDEX priority status as public heals issue, 197 reduced-fat and low-fat substitutes, 25 role in the body, 161-162 see also Fatty acids; Omega-3 fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids; Tram fatty acids components on food labels, 59, 64, 168 regulatory definitions of, 169-170 see also Monounsaturated fatty "ids; Omega-3 fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids; Trans fatty acids; Unsaturated fatty acids FDA regulation of nutrition labeling analytical problems, 10, 116-117 consumer confusion about, 104 deficiencies in label requirements for, 25, 40, 64 descriptors, 16, 46, 71, 170-171, 236-237, 241-242 dietary recommendations for, 16~161 expression of content, 69 food sources and intakes by Americans, 1, 7, 7~79 health effects of, 16, 162-167; see also specific diseases health relevance of, 15-17, 16~167 information currently provided on labels, 59, 62, 167-171 ingredient listing, 67, 167-168 action in absence of new legislation, 305 on baby food, 133 claims about nutrition and health, 4, 56-57, 59, 282 consistency win USDA requirements, 34, 30~301, 302-303 contents of food labels, 4, 284-285 current policy, 32~329 deficiencies in, 2, 53 descriptors for shelf labeling in grocery stores, 247-248 enforcement of, 53, 6~61, 64, 112 evolution of, 1, 4-5, 39~0, 55-61, 326-328 food analysis requirements, 111-112 format and sequence of nutrition label information, 5, 31, 584Q, 282, 284-285 of fresh fruits and vegetables, 31, 141-142, 285-287 health claims, 56-57, 59 implementation of, 5-6, 323-334 ingredient lists, 4, 40, 225, 304 legal authority to mandate labeling, 31, 57, 60~1, 281-287 marketing of substrate foods, 4, 324-326

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INDEX of meat and poultry products, 31-32, 287-289 overview of, 52-55 proposed revisions of nutrition labeling regulations, 284 of restaurant foods, 31-32, 285-28? scope of jurisdiction, 54 of seafood, 31-32, 285-287 statutory authority, 55, 61; see also Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act withdrawal of authority from, 57 see also Standards of identity Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) contents of food labels, 4, 55, 56-57, 281 deficiencies in, 3-4, 52 definition of labeling, 48, 54 false or misleading statements, 4 FDA authority under, 52, 53-54, 228, 281 foods covered by, 53 ingredient lists, 4, 55, 58, 66, 224, 225 prohibition against false and misleading statements, 55-56, 61, 281-282, 283, 287-288 recommended amendment of, 226, 230-231, 279-280 standards of identity, 322-323 USDA authority under, 280 withdrawal of authority from FDA, 57 Federal Meat Inspection Act deficiencies in, 3-4, 52 foods covered by, 53-54 labeling requirements, 32, 52, 224, 287 prohibition against false and misleading information, 287-288 recommended amendment of, 226, 279-280 USDA authority under, 228, 280, 288 Fiber, see Dietary fiber Finfish, see Seafood 347 Fish, see Seafood Fluoride, health relevance of labeling recommendations, 195 Fed Act, see Federal Meat Inspection Act Folate food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 84485 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 22, 194 information currency provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 Food analysis for nutrition labeling AOAC and other official methods, 10, 110-1 13 difficulties in, 10, 109, 113-114, 135 FDA requirements, 10, 111-112 precision of methods, 109, 111 selection and validation of methods, 113-114 USDA requirements, 10, 110-111 see also Analytical considerations Food composition data bases adequacy of, as a source of nutrient information, 10-11, 119, 137-140 for fruits and vegetables, 139-140 for meats and poultry, 138 for seafood, 138-139 USDA National Nutrition Data Bank, 1~11, 13, 119, 137-138 Food and Drug Administration, see FDA regulation of nutrition labeling Food energy, see Calories Food labeling reforms adopted in 1970s, 39~0 contextual factors affecting, see Consumers; Dietary patterns of Americans; Food marketing fruits and vegetables, 33, 293 implementation if Congress fails to act, 304 306 meats and poultry, 33, 293-294 noncommercial food services, 151-153 restaurant foods, 33, 294

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348 seafood, 294 see also Costs of nutrition labeling reform; Legislative reforms Food marketing food processing, 89-90 food retailing, 9~91 food standards and, 334-336 nutrition and labeling considerations, 91-92 world trade, 8, 89 Food Marketing Institute, 93-94, 100 Food processing industry, 89-90 Food service operations FDA regulatory authority over, 60-61 see also Noncommercial food services; Restaurant foods Food standards, see Standards of identity Format of nutrition information/labels basic design, 298 clarity of information, 60, 102-106, 256 compatibility with existing labeling practices, 259 consistency in, 258 consumer preferences, 101-106 content information, 256; see also specific nutrients deficiencies in, 6-7, 71 descriptive (adjectival) display, 69-70; see also Descriptors experience with alternatives, 255-256 and food purchase decisionmaking, 96-108 graphic display, 70, 101, 102, 105-106, 224, 257-258 groupings and sequences, 70, 257 information processing and behavioral change, 97-108 modifications of standard format, 299 numeric displays, 5, 6-7, 28, 60, 69, 101, 102, 105, 224 process for adopting a standard format, 299-300 regulatory requirements for, 5, 31, 58-60, 62, 284-285 INDEX revised nutrition label information, 256-259 samples, 260, 262-263 selection of current format, 25~255 space requirements, 258-259 symbolic display, 60, 70 testing of, 29, 34, 105, 260, 264 typography and color, 70-71 verbal, 60, 105 see also Nutrition information panel Fortified foods, labeling of, 56-57 Fresh foods costs of labeling, 272-273 effects of storage, preparation, and cooking, 13~137 enforcement issues in labeling of, 142 food composition data bases as alternative to analysis of, 12, 137-140 heterogeneity of, and analytical problems, 12, 135 legislation on labeling, 293 overview of labeling issues, 12-13, 135 point-of-purchase nutrition information programs, 12, 14~141 practical problems in nutrition labeling, 285 regulatory jurisdiction over labeling of, 52 see also Fruits and vegetables; Meats and poultry; Seafood Fruits and vegetables costs of labeling, 272 data bases for, 139-140 effects of storage, preparation, and cooking, 136-137 FDA guidelines for labeling of, 141-142, 285-287 practical problems in nutrition labeling, 285 G Gallbladder disease, fat and cholesterol and, 16, 166-177

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INDEX H Health care facilities, food services, 153-154 Health claims, see Nutrient contentlhealth claims Home delivered meals, see Noncommercial food services Hospitals, see Noncommercial food services I Imitation foods, 57, 229-230, 231, 324-326 Ingredient information `'andlor" labeling, 6, 16, 66~7, 167-168 carbohydrates, 17, 67, 175, 226 consumer confusion by, 104 deficiencies in, 6, 66-67 exception to requirements for, 55; see also Standards of identity fats and oils, 167-168 format of, 24, 224-227 percent labeling, 6, 66 purpose of, 66 reforms in, 304 regulation of, 24, 46, 55, 58 on restaurant foods, 286 by weight, 4, 24, 226 Intermediate care facilities, see Health care facilities International food labeling Canadian criteria for descnptors, 249 Codex Alimentarius Commission, 315-316 descriptor use of, 247, 249 European Community, 8, 313-315 observations on, 316, 319 survey of provisions in other countries, 316, 317-318 Iron 349 information currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 J Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 153-154 L Labeling coverage, see Fresh foods; Mandatory nutrition labeling; Noncommercial food services; Restaurant foods Legislative reforms advantages of, 33, 291-292 consolidation of labeling authority, 301 food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 85~6 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 21, 188-189 content of labels, 34, 294-298 design of, 33-35, 292-306 disadvantages of, 32-33, 290-291 FDA and USDA authority to mandate nutrition labeling, 31-34, 293 format issues, 298-300 goals of, 292-293 implementing regulations, choice of, 301-302 ingredient labeling, 34, 304 institutional issues, 30~303 standards of identity, 304 state participation in standards setting, 303 timing of implementation, 303-304 uniformity of requirements, 34, 30~301, 302-303 see also Food labeling reforms Long-term-care facilities, see Health care facilities M Mandatory nutrition labeling baby food, 12, 56, 133-134 commodity foods, 134 exemptions from, 12, 132, 285; see also Standards of identity institutional packages, 134

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350 no nutritional significance and, 132 package size and, 132 Marketing, see Food marketing Meat Nutri-Facts program, 9, 141 Meats and poultry costs of labeling, 272 data bases for, 138 effects of storage, preparation, and cooking, 137 expand nutrition labeling of meat and poultry products, 287-289 legislation on labeling, 52, 293-294 INDEX National Restaurant Association, recipe evaluation service, 14~147 National School Breakfast Program, 151 National School Lunch Program, 151 National School Mild Program, 151 Niacin food sources and intakes by Americans, 83 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 193 information currency provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 overlap in regulatory jurisdiction over, No nutritional significance, 132 53-54 Noncommercial food services Medicare and Medicaid, 154 Micronutnents current nutrition labeling, 40, 19~197 '~source of" listings of, 220-224 see also Minerals; Vitamins; and specific vitamins and minerals Military installations, food services, 152-153 Minerals analytical problems, 10, 109, 117 information currently provided on labels, 20, 68, 196-197 priority status as public health issue, 197 see also specific minerals Minimum Daily Requirements, 216 Minnesota Heart Health Program, 9 Monounsaturated fatty acids, 161-164 N National Advisory Council on Commodity Distribution, 134 National Food Processors Association, 96, 101-102, 103 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 114 National Research Council dietary recommendations, 43, 44 food labeling recommendations, 45-46 child nutrition programs, 14, 151-152 at colleges and universities, 14, 153 at correctional institutions, 14, 153 for elderly individuals, 152 growth of, 151 at health care facilities, 14, 153-154 at military installations, 14, 152-153 Nonpackaged foods, nutrition labeling of food composition ~ bases applied to, 1~11, 119-121 see also Fresh foods Nutrient conten~health claims deficiencies in regulation of, 48~9, 65, 71 FDA opposition to 4 56-57, 59, 282 ~ .. . USDA policies, 5, 62 see also Descriptors Nutrition information attention to, 10~102 comprehension of, 102-106 exposure to, 98 and food purchase decisions, 9~108; see also Format of nutrition informationllabels frequency and prevalence of label reading, 100 retention and retrieval of, 106-107 sources of, 95-96 Nutrition information panel clarity of, 256 fat declaration requirements (current), 168-170

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INDEX format of, 58 - in, 69, 256 sample, 60 units of measurement, 257 o Older Americans Act, 152 Omega-3 fatty acids, health effects of, 117, 16~165 p Package size, and exemption from labeling requirements, 132 Point-of-purchase nutrition information FDA descriptors for shelf labeling in grocery stores, 247-248 legislative reforms in, 31-32 programs, 9,, 12-13, 46, 14~141 regulation of, 54, 285-286, 289 see also Fresh foods; Fruits and vegetables; Meats and poultry; Seafood Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 59, 161-163, 164-165 Potassium deficiencies in label requirements, 65 food sources and intakes by Americans, 81 health relevance of, 20, 185-186 information currently provided on labels, 186 Poultry, see Meats and poultry Poultry Products Inspection Act deficiencies in, 3-4, 52 foods covered by, 53-54 ingredient lists, 224 recommended amendment of, 226, 279-280 USDA authority under, 52, 228, 280, 288 PPI Act, see Poultry Products Inspection Act Presentation of nutrition information criteria for, 203 descriptors on principal display panel, 231-254 351 ingredient labeling, 22~227 reference units for declaring nutrient content, see Serving size standards of identity, 228-231 see also Descriptors; Format of nutrition information/labels; U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances Prevalence of nutrition labeling, 1, 6, 63, 283 Principal display panel descriptor presentation on, 231-254 nutrition information on, 59 sales promotion on, 8, 92 see also specific nutrients Produce, see Fruits and vegetables; Seafood Produce Marketing Association Nutrition Labeling Program, 140 Protein analytical problems, 117 descriptors, 180-181 food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 81 health relevance of, 19, 179-180 information currently provided on labels, 19, 59, 68, 180 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 321 R Recommendations analytical verification, 11, 121-122 "and/or" labeling, 16-17, 18, 176 baby foods, 12, 133-134 calcium information, 21, 199 caloric content, 15-17, 19-20, 176, 181 carbohydrate information, 17-18, 175-176 cholesterol information, 16-17, 171 commodity foods, 12, 134 comparison with dietary recommendations, 260 data bases, 11, 13, 14, 121, 122, 143

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352 descriptor definitions, 14-16, 18-21, 24, 171, 176, 179, 181, 185, 199 dietary fiber information, 18, 178-179 education of consumers, 30, 269 exemptions from mandatory requirements, 12, 132, 179 fat information, 16-17, 171 fatty acid information, 16, 17, 171 food analysis, 11 format of labels, 13, 29, 142, 171, 259, 261, 264 fresh foods, 12-13, 142-143 ingredient listing, 17-18, 25, 171, 176, 227 institutional packages, 12, 134 iron information, 21, 199 mandatory nutrition labeling requirements, 132 meat, 12-13, 142-143 micronutrient information, 199 noncommercial food service operations, 14, 154 placement and prominence of food components, 28, 259 point-of-purchase information, 12-13, 14, 142 potassium information, 20, 186-187 poultry, 12-13, 142-143 "as prepared" nutrient declaration, 259 produce (fruits and vegetables), 12-13, 142-143 protein information, 19, 181 restaurant foods, 13-14, 15~151 seafood, 12-13, 142-143 serving size, 22-23, 28, 214-216, 259 sodium information, 19, 185 source definitions, 24, 199, 224 standards of identity, 231 testing of label formats, 25, 29, 261, 264 units of measurement, 28, 259 U.S. RDAs, 24, 224 voluntary nutrition labeling, 14, 154 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RI)As) INDEX as basis for U.S. RDAs, 5, 23, 45, 58, 68, 216 comparison with U.S. RDAs, 218 nutrients in standard serving of food ranked by, 222-223 Reforms, see Food labeling reforms; Recommendations Regulation of food labeling authority to expand nutrition labeling, 280-289; see also FDA regulation of nutrition labeling; USDA regulation of nutrition labeling in commercial food service industry, 147-150 enforcement issues, 142 overlap in FDA and USDA jurisdictions, 53-54 overview of U.S. system, 1-2, 3 - , 39-40, 51-55 statutory authorities, see Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; Federal Meat Inspection Act; Poultry Products Inspection Act uniformity in, 54, 64 see also Deficiencies in food label requirements; Legislative reforms; Mandatory nutrition labeling Restaurant foods attention to dietary recommendations, 13, 14~147 computation of nutrient information, 13, 14~147 costs of labeling, 273-274 dissemination of nutrition and ingredient information by food chain operators, 147 eating trends and attitudes of consumers, 144-145 FDA regulatory authority over, 6() 61, 285-287 industry characteristics, 13, 143-144 ingredient labeling of, 147-148, 2%6 legislation on labeling, 294

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INDEX limited-menu restaurants, 13, 90, 143, Serving size 148-150, 285, 286, 288, 289 lunchrooms, 143 nutrition or dietary modifications to, 146 practical problems in nutrition labeling, 285 refreshment places, 13, 143 regulatory requirements (current) for nutrition labeling, 5, 147-149, 285-287 retail sales of, 90, 143 serving sizes, 13, 150 status of nutrition labeling of, 14~150 USDA regulatory authority over, 288 Riboflavin food sources and intakes by Americans, 83 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 20-21, 192 information currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 S Saturated fatty acids descriptors, 241 disclosure on labels, 59, 64, 116, 262-263 health claims on labels, 56 health effects of, 161, 163-164 sources of, 162 Seafood costs of labeling, 272 data bases for, 138-139 effects of storage, preparation, and cooking, 137 FDA authority to require labeling of, 28~287 legislation on labeling, 294 practical problems in nutrition labeling, 285 regulatory jurisdiction over labeling of, 52 353 alternatives to specifications, 22, 213-214 concept of serving, 20~204 from consumer surveys, 22, 208 209 definitions, 22, 67, 204 disparities in, 6, 67-68, 204 209 in dietary guidance materials, 22, 205-208 on food labels, 22, 210-212 legislative reforms, 33-34, 67, 296 manipulation by manufacturers, 67 in nutrient composition data bases, 22, 208 research on portion size estimation, 209 of restaurant foods, 13, 150 units of measurement, 68 Shelf labeling in grocery stores, 247 Sodium deficiencies in label requirements, 65 descriptors, 19, 71, 185, 245-246 food sources and intakes by Americans, 1, 81 health relevance of, 19, 181 -184 information currently provided on labels, 184-185 optional listing on labels, 59 priority status as public health issue, 197 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 151-152 Standards of identity deficiencies in, 4, 57, 228, 23~231 definition of, 6, 228, 320 FDA authority to establish, 228 FDA implementation of, 323-334 history of, 229, 321-323 imitation foods, 57, 229-230, 231, 32~326 industry views on, 229, 329-334 legislative mandate, 321-322 market impact of, 229-230, 334-336 options for change, 337-339

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354 procedural requirements, 228-229, 322-323 purpose and scope of, 25, 229 substitute foods, 57, 229-230, 231, 324-326 use to improve nutritional quality of food, 336-337 State regulation of food labeling, 64, 302-303 Stearic acid, 163 Substitute foods, 57, 229-230, 231, 324-326 Summer Food Program, 151 Surgeon General dietary recommendations, 43, 44 food labeling recommendations, 45 T Thiamin food sources and intakes by Americans, 82-83 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 2(}21, 191-192 information currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 Trans fatty "ids, 116-117, 165 U United Stst~s~anada Free Trade Agreement, 8 Unsaturated fatty acids, 64, 116, 262-263; see also Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids U.S. Army, nutrition guidelines, 153 USDA regulation of nutrition labeling action in absence of new legislation, 305-306 authority to require information, 32, 62, 284, 287-289 consistency with FDA requirements, 34, 30~301, 302-303 enforcement capacity, 52-53 INDEX evolution of, 1, 6-7, 3900, 61-63 exemptions from, 54 expansion of nutrition labeling to meat and poultry products, 32, 287-289 food analysis requirements, 110-111 format of nutrition information, 62 health claims regulation, 62 ingredient lists, 225 National Nutrient Data Bank, 1~11, 13, 119, 137-138 Nutrition Label Verification program, 10, 12, 111 overview of, 3-4, 52-55 philosophy and implementation, 5-6, 61-62 prior label approval, 4, 26, 52-53, 61-63, 111, 280, 288 sources of policies, 53 U.S. Department of Agriculture, see USDA regulation of nutrition labeling U.S. Department of Defense Food Planning Board policies, 152-153 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, see FDA regulation of nutrition labeling U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances (U.S. RDAs) basis for, 5, 23, 45, 58, 68 comparison with RDAs, 218 deficiencies in, 6, 67-68 information currently provided on labels, 23, 21~220 presentation on labels, 59, 216-224 "source of" listings of micronutrients, 22~224 V Vegetables, see Fruits and vegetables Vitamin and mineral supplements, labeling of, 56, 57 Vitamin A and carotene food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 82

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INDEX health relevance of labeling recommendations, 20, 190 information currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 Vitamin B6 food sources and intakes by Americans, 83-84 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 20-21, 193-194 information currently provided on labels, 20, 196, 197 Vitamin Big, 219-220 Vitamin C food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 84 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 22, 191 Vitamins analytical problems, 10, 109, 117 355 information currency provided on labels, 20, 68, 19~197 priority status as public heals issue, 197 see also specific vitamins W White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health, 57, 326 z Zinc food sources and intakes by Americans, 7, 86 87 health relevance of labeling recommendations, 195-196

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