1. Policymakers should continue to develop and enforce regulations prohibiting cigarette smoking on common carriers and in other public places.

  2. The establishment of a tax on cigarettes should be studied, that is, a tax sufficient to cover both the direct and indirect costs of cigarette smoking borne by local, state, and federal governments.

  3. State and federal legislation should be proposed to permit the smoking-risk rating of both life and health insurance.

  4. Federal subsidies to tobacco growers should be eliminated.

  5. All school health education programs should be required to include curriculum on the risk of smoking.

  6. Cigarette advertising should be prohibited.

  7. Research should continue to focus on effective means of smoking cessation. Research should also focus on eliminating the initiation of smoking.

Advocacy Groups

  1. Efforts should continue to pressure policymakers and legislatures to promote antismoking health measures.

  2. Formal smoking prevention and smoking cessation programs should be developed and promoted.

  3. Print, audio, and visual aids to prevent cigarette smoking initiation and promote cigarette smoking cessation should be made available to those who need them. In addition, industry should continue to develop products that can assist health professional and voluntary health agencies to prevent the initiation of cigarette smoking by those who have never smoked and encourage its cessation among those who do.


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2. Benowitz, N. L. Pharmacological aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. New England Journal of Medicine 1988; 319:1318.

3. Bonita, R., Scragg, R., Stewart, A., et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of premature stroke in men and women. British Medical Journal of Clinical Research 1986; 295:6-9.

4. Branch, L. G. Health practices and incident disability among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 1985; 75:1436-1439.

5. Branch, L. G., and Jette, A. M. Personal health practices and mortality among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 1984; 74:1126-1129.

6. Castelli, W. P., Garrison, R. J., Dawber, T. R., McNamara, P., Feinleib, M., and Kannel, W. B. The filter cigarette and coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Lancet 1981; 2(8238):109-113.

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