7. Fielding, J. E. Medical progress: Smoking. Health effects and control, Part I. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313(8):491-498.

8. Fielding, J. E. Medical progress: Smoking. Health effects and control, Part II. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313(9):555-561.

9. Gersh, B. J., Kronmal, R. A., Frye, R. L., Schaff, H. V., Ryan, T. J., Gosselin, A. J., Kaiser, G. C., and Killip, T. Coronary artery and coronary artery bypass surgery: Morbidity and mortality in patients ages 65 and older. A report from the Coronary Artery Surgery Study. Circulation 1983; 67:483-491.

10. Gordon, T., Kannel, W. B., Dawber, T. R., and McGee, D. Changes associated with quitting cigarette smoking: The Framingham study. American Heart Journal 1975; 90:322-328.

11. Health Consequences of Smoking. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1984.

12. Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Publ. No. 79-55071A. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1979.

13. Hermanson, B., Omenn, G. S., Kronmal, R. A., and Gersh, B. J. Beneficial six-year outcome of smoking cessation in older men and women with coronary artery disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1988; 319:1365-1369.

14. Himmelmann, A., Hansson, L., Svensson, A., Harmsen, P., Holmgren, C., and Svanborg, A. Predictors of stroke in the elderly. Acta Medica Scandinavia 1988; 224:439-443.

15. Jajich, C. L., Ostfeld, A. M., and Freeman, D. H., Jr. Smoking and coronary heart disease mortality in the elderly. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984; 252:2831-2834.

16. Khaw, K. T., Barrett-Connor, E., Suarez, L., and Criqui, M. H. Predictors of stroke-associated mortality in the elderly. Stroke 1984; 15:244-248.

17. McKeown, T., and Lowe, C. R. An Introduction to Social Medicine, 2nd ed. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford University Press, 1966.

18. Multiple risk factor intervention trial: Risk factor changes in mortality results. Journal of the American Medical Association 1982; 248:1465-1477.

19. Ockene, J. K., Quirk, M. E., Goldberg, R. J., et al. A residents' training program for the development of smoking intervention skills. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988; 148:1039-1045.

20. Orleans, C. T. Understanding and promoting smoking cessation: Overview and guidelines for physician intervention. Annual Review of Medicine 1985; 36:51-61. Shipley, R. H., and Orleans, C. S. Treatment of cigarette smoking. In: P. A. Boudewyns and F. T. Keefe (eds.), Behavioral Medicine in General Medical Practice. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1982.

21. Palmore, E. Health practices and illness among the aged. Gerontologist 1970; 10:313-316.

22. Pershagen, G., Hrubec, Z., and Suensson, C. Passive smoking and lung cancer in Swedish women. American Journal of Epidemiology 1987; 125:17-24.

23. Raw, M. Does nicotine chewing gum work? British Medical Journal 1985; 290:1231-1232.

24. Rigotti, N. A., and Tesar, G. E. Smoking cessation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular Clinics 1985; 3:245-257.

25. Rundgren, A., and Mellstrom, D. The effect of tobacco smoking on the bone

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement