FIGURE 2-11 Estimated value of disability expenditures for 1970 and for 1975-1986. Expenditures in 1986 were more than $169.4 billion. Source: Berkowitz and Greene, 1989.

Rice and LaPlante (1988a) also analyzed the 1980 National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, focusing on the costs of chronic comorbidity (i.e., more than one condition existing at the same time) for all ages. They estimated that total expenditures for medical care for persons limited in activity amounted to $63 billion in 1980, more than two-fifths of the total medical care expenditures for noninstitutionalized persons (Table 2-8). Persons limited in activity due to one condition incurred medical expenditures of $49.4 billion; for those with two or more conditions, expenditures amounted to $13.6 billion. Sixteen percent of the total noninstitutionalized population with a limiting chronic condition incurred 41 percent of total medical care expenditures (Figure 2-12). On a per capita basis, medical spending amounted to $1,620 per person for those individuals limited by one condition and $2,456 for those persons limited by two or more conditions, compared with $486 for those not limited in activity (Table 2-8). The distribution by age showed that per capita spending for medical care increases with age for those with and without disability. However, there are higher relative differentials in per capita spending between those with limiting conditions and those with none for the under-65 population.

Rice and LaPlante (1988b) inflated the 1980 costs of disability to 1987 dollars by the increase in per capita national health expenditures over the 7-year



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