Index

A

Acute pain, 136, 138–141

Advertising, 114–115

Anxiety, 16, 123, 124, 126

athletic performance and, 208, 209

deception and, 164

exercise and, 225, 227

measurement of, 194

pain and, 134, 136, 138–139, 143

see also Relaxation

Army Research Institute, 3, 125

Army War College, 81, 90–91, 93, 95–

Articulation, cognition, 62, 75

Athletics, see Sports and athletics

Attention and distraction, 19

athletic performance and, 209, 217, 228, 232

automaticity, 27–28, 48, 67, 151, 224

deception detection, 159

exercise and, 227

meditation and, 126

pain and, 137, 140, 143

Audience behavior, 251–252, 253

Audiotapes, 5, 8, 16, 105, 107–117, 208, 209, 211

Automaticity, 27–28, 48, 224

deception and, 151

expertise and, 67

B

Biofeedback, 124, 125

athletic performance, 206

pain and, 9, 141

Blood pressure, 122, 124, 125, 131

Body movements, deception, 151–153, 154, 159, 164, 165, 172

posture, 152, 160

see also Facial expressions

Brain, 4, 222–224, 228–229

athletic performance, 222–224, 228–

exercise, 227

hemispheric factors, 4, 19, 129, 222–224, 228

imaging and modeling, 228–229

meditation, 126, 129

pain, 134–135



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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Index A Acute pain, 136, 138–141 Advertising, 114–115 Anxiety, 16, 123, 124, 126 athletic performance and, 208, 209 deception and, 164 exercise and, 225, 227 measurement of, 194 pain and, 134, 136, 138–139, 143 see also Relaxation Army Research Institute, 3, 125 Army War College, 81, 90–91, 93, 95– Articulation, cognition, 62, 75 Athletics, see Sports and athletics Attention and distraction, 19 athletic performance and, 209, 217, 228, 232 automaticity, 27–28, 48, 67, 151, 224 deception detection, 159 exercise and, 227 meditation and, 126 pain and, 137, 140, 143 Audience behavior, 251–252, 253 Audiotapes, 5, 8, 16, 105, 107–117, 208, 209, 211 Automaticity, 27–28, 48, 224 deception and, 151 expertise and, 67 B Biofeedback, 124, 125 athletic performance, 206 pain and, 9, 141 Blood pressure, 122, 124, 125, 131 Body movements, deception, 151–153, 154, 159, 164, 165, 172 posture, 152, 160 see also Facial expressions Brain, 4, 222–224, 228–229 athletic performance, 222–224, 228– exercise, 227 hemispheric factors, 4, 19, 129, 222–224, 228 imaging and modeling, 228–229 meditation, 126, 129 pain, 134–135

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Brainstorming, 254 Breathing, 123, 129, 131, 139 Buddhism, 120–121, 127, 128 c Campbell work orientation survey, 91 Cardiac acceleration/deceleration, 220–222 Chi-gong, 128 Children deception by, 173 subliminal training of, 109 China, 128, 163 Chronic pain, 17, 136, 141–144 Classification, of deception, 159–160, 173–176, 177–184 Classroom instruction, teaching of expertise, 72–73 Coaching, 61–62 career development, 87, 88 defined, 59 Cognitive apprenticeship, 58, 59–63, 74–75 Cognitive-behavioral interventions, 19, 193, 203–224, 232, 233 athletics, 193, 203–224, 228, 233 pain management, 17 preperformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232, 233 Cognitive processes, 6, 19 analogies, 67–68 articulation, 62, 75 athletic, 193, 203–224, 228, 233 brain hemisphere aspects, 228 deception and, 160 knowledge aspects, 65–67, 69, 70– pain and, 9, 17, 137, 140–141, 142 peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234 reflection, 62–63, 75, 94 retention and transfer of training, general, 23, 24 understanding and retention, 31–33 see also Attention and distraction; Decision making; Learning processes; Memory; Problem solving Combat effectiveness, 5 group performance, 20, 257, 258–259 imagery and mental practice, 213–215 meditation and, 129–130 pain, 137 Computers and computer science athletic performance enhancement, 213 expert systems, 14, 70, 71, 73–74 instruction, assisted by, 14, 73–74, 213 nuclear reactor control rooms, 260– Concentration, see Attention and distraction Consensus, 254–257 Contextual factors deception and, 160–164 frame breaking, careers, 83–84 interference, 40–43 psychological tests, false answers, 198 Cooperative learning, 33–34 Cost effectiveness career development techniques, 15 training, 48 Creativity, 90 Cues, 34, 37, 216 see also Nonverbal behavior Cultural factors deception and, 155, 160–165, 166, 171, 172, 180, 184, 185, 188–189 definitions, meaning, 181 peak experiences, 230–231 D Decision making careers, 84–85, 86, 90 group, 248, 249, 254–257, 260–261 interactive, 5, 20, 249 leaders, 80 subliminal assistance, 109, 111–112 Decomposition, problem solving, 68 Delphi technique, 256–257, 266 Depression, 136–137, 195, 197 Depression Adjective Checklist, 195 Diseases and disorders meditation, 126, 127, 129

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE psychopathology and athletic performance, 193–203 wounds, 137 Dissociation, pain, 140 Distraction, see Attention and distraction Drugs, pain control, 139, 142 E Eating habits, subliminal suggestion, 113, 114–115 Electrophysiology, 19, 142, 193, 219, 220, 222–224, 23 Epistemology, 130 Error analysis, 74 Evaluation brainstorming, 254 career development techniques, 8, 15, 81, 87, 95–99 deception detection, 153–160, 188–189 enhancement approaches, previously studied, 4, 6 exercise and stress, 225–227 expertise, self-evaluation, 64–65 group performance, 247–257, 263– individualvs group, 250 meditation, 12, 121–127, 130–131 pain control, 138–144 reflection and problem solving, 62–63 sports performance enhancement, 202–203, 208–212, 218–219, 231–232 subliminal self-help, 110–113, 116 see also Field tests; Laboratory tasks; Self-assessment techniques; Testing and measurement Examples, as training method, 44, 72–73 Exercise anxiety and, 225, 227 stress and, 19, 193, 225–227, 234 see also Sports and athletics Expectancy effects, 114, 115 placebo effects, 16, 113–114, 138, 141 Experience sampling method, 231 Expert systems, 14, 70, 71, 73–74 Exploratory behavior, 63, 75 Extraversion, 97–98, 100 see also Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extroversion, 195 Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 194–195, 196 F Facial expressions, 151, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161–164, 165, 186–187 Fear, 136 see also Anxiety Feedback, 61–62, 75 athletic performance enhancement, 212–213, 223–224 biofeedback, 9, 124, 125, 141, 206 career development, 91 coaching, 59, 61–62, 87, 88 deception detection, 17, 155, 165, 187 pain and, 9, 141 and transfer of training, 40, 45–47 video techniques, 46, 212–213 Field tests group performance, 20, 248, 257–265, 265 pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125 sports events as, 193 Fort Bliss, 92 Fort Knox, 4 Fort Leavenworth, 92–93 Frame breaking, 83–84 G Gateways Institute, 107–108, 109, 113 Generation effects, 34 Group processes, 3, 5, 10–11, 19–20, 192, 247–266, 275 audience behavior, 251–252, 253 combat effectiveness, 20, 257, 258–259 consensus, 254–257 cooperative learning, 33–34 decision making, 248, 249, 254–257, 260–261 evaluation of techniques, 247–257, 263–265

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE field tests, 20, 248, 257–265, 265 individual performance and, 11, 249–251, 253–254, 258–259, 262 laboratory studies, 247–249, 257 leadership, 80, 82, 86, 87–88, 90–94 longitudinal studies, 192 military applications, 20, 257, 258– motivation and, 252–253 organizational factors, 4, 20 problem solving, 5, 20, 253–254, 266 psychological factors, general, 247–266 research recommendations, 192, 263–265 time factors, 10–11, 20, 252, 262, 266 training of groups, 20, 261–263 H Hemispheric lateralization, brain, 4, 19, 129, 222–224, 228 Hypertension, 122, 124, 125, 131 Hypnosis, 9, 141, 143, 206 I Images and image processing athletic performance, 203, 204, 206, 208–209, 211–212, 216–217 brain, 228–229 individual performance, 213–215 military applications, 213–215 pain control, 140 subliminal, 109 visualization, 109 India, 122–123, 128 Industrial College of the Aimed Forces, 92 Insight, 94 Isolation, 130 Instruction, direct, 72–73 Intelligence agencies, deception and, 176, 187–188 Interference during training, 40–43 frame breaking, careers, 83–84 Interpersonal processes, 185–188 bargaining, gender differences, 252 competence, 3 decision making, 5, 20, 249 generation effects, 34 leadership, 80, 82, 86, 87–88, 90–94 mentors, career development, 82, 87, 88 peer influence, teaching and, 33–34 Interviewing, experts, 71 Introversion, 97–98, 100 see also Myers-Briggs Type Indicator J Jokes, 183 Justification effects, 114 K Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory, 90, 91, 94 Knowledge career planning, 84, 85–86 expert, 65–67, 69, 70–71, 75–76 see also Understanding Knowledge-based systems, see Expert systems Kundalini yoga, 17, 127, 128–130 L Laboratory tasks, 63–65 deception, 18, 149–153, 155–160, 164, 166, 171, 172, 177–178, 189 expertise, 63–65, 70–71 group, 247–249, 257 motor function performance, 204–206 subliminal perception, 110–111 Leadership, 86, 90–94 decision making, 80 longitudinal studies, 87–88 mentors, 82, 87, 88 Leadership Assessment and Development Program, 92–93, 94 Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description, 90, 91

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Learning processes, general, 5, 7, 26–29, 100 accelerated, 3 articulation, 62 behavior-learning approaches, general, 17 coaching and scaffolding, 59, 61–62, 87, 88 cognitive apprenticeship, 58, 59–63, 74–75 cooperative, 33–34 exploration, 63 mastery criteria, 13, 26–27, 28, 47, 48 mathematical learning theory, 36 measurement of, 13 original learning and, 26–29, 37–38 overlearning, 26, 28–29 pain, coping with, 137–138 participatory, 33–35, 75 reflection, 62–63, 75, 94 testing of, 13, 34–35, 47–48 time factors, 3, 31 see also Retention of training; Subliminal processes; Transfer of training; Training Longitudinal studies career development, 87–88 group performance, 192 sports and athletics, 199–200 Lying, 17, 106, 148–156, 161–166 M Mathematical learning theory, 36 MBTI, see Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Measurement, see Testing and measurement Memory, 93–94 expertise and, 64, 69 MBTI, 93–94 subliminal self-help, 115 see also Retention of training; Transfer of training Mental health meditation, 127 and sports performance, 18, 193– Mental practice athletic performance, 203, 204–206, 211, 233 military applications, 213–215 motor skills and, 10, 204–206 Mentors, career development, 82, 87, 88 Military applications, 4, 5 Army Research Institute, 3, 125 Army War College, 81, 90–91, 93, 95–96 career development, 80, 81, 90–96, 82, 85–96 deception, 173, 176, 187–188 group performance, 20, 257, 258– imagery and mental practice, 213–215 meditation, 126–127, 129–130, 131 National Defense University, 91–92 pain control, 137 Rangers, U.S. Army, 257, 259 Special Forces, U.S. Army, 257, 258–259, 262 see also Combat effectiveness Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 195 Modeling brain, 228–229 deception, 155, 173–185, 188 individual performance, 210–213 mental, as aid to retention, 32, 36 motor functions, 210–213 nuclear reactor control rooms, 260–261 sport performance, 18, 193–203, 210–213, 231–232, 233 Moods, 104, 195, 196, 197–198, 200–202 depression, 136–137, 195, 197 peak experiences, 230–231 see also Anxiety; Relaxation techniques Motivation career development, 82–83, 88, 90 deception, 17, 153–154, 165, 172 group behavior, 252–253 meditation, 124 Motor functions and skills, 3, 6, 204–205, 275

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE cognitive-behavioral interventions, 193, 204–206, 215 cohesion and organization, 29–30 expertise, 22, 57 laboratory tasks, 204–206 meditation and, 124 mental practice, 10, 204–206 modeling of, 210–213 organizational schema, 44–45 practice, general, 44–45 prepreformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232 retention and transfer, general, 23, 24 see also Body movements; Sports and athletics Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 8, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102 N National Defense University, 91–92 Neuroscience, 4 exercise, 227 meditation, 129–130 pain, 134–135, 142–143 peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234 see also Brain Nonverbal behavior, deception, 9–10, 17, 148–154, 156, 159–164, 171 coding systems, 159–160 see also specific behaviors Nuclear reactor, control room behavior, 257, 259–261 O Officers, see Leadership Organizational factors career development, 7–8, 80, 81–82, 85, 90 deception, 173, 187 expertise, 65–67, 69, 70 motor skill schema, 44–45 order of presentation, 44 retention and transfer of training, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48 similarity of tasks, 37, 38–40 Organizational Values Survey, 90 Original learning retention of training and, 26–29 transfer of training and, 37–38 Overlearning, 26, 28–29 Overtraining, sports, 199, 201 P Participatory learning, 33–35, 75 Parapsychology, 3, 4 deception and, 173 Patriotism, 123 Peak performance, 19, 227–233, 234 Peer influence, teaching and, 33–34 Personality traits extroversion, 195 introversion-extraversion, 97–98, 100 MBTI, 8, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102 see also Moods Physiological processes athletes, 201, 219–224 biofeedback, 9, 124, 125, 141, 206 blood pressure, 122, 124, 125, 131 breathing, 123, 129, 131, 139 electrophysiology, 19, 142, 193, 219, 220, 222–224, 23 exercise, 227 individual performance, 191 meditation and, 8, 9, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128–129, 131 pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125 preperformance preparation and, 19 Picnic, Pilgrim's Progress, Pit burial studies, 9, 122–123, 125 Placebo effects pain, 16, 138, 141 subliminal self-help, 113–114 Posttraining interventions, 35–37 Postural cues, deception, 152, 160 Potentials Unlimited, 108–109 Practice, 18, 30–31, 34, 40–41, 204–206, 233 automaticity and, 28, 224 expert systems, 73–74

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE mental, 10, 18–19, 203, 204–206, 233 motor skill schema, 44–45 physical timing factors, 18–19, 30–31, 199 Preperformance preparation, 19, 191, 193, 215–219, 224, 232 Problem solving career development, 90 error analysis, 74 evaluation of techniques, 62–63 examples, as training method, 44, 72–73 expertise and, 60–61, 65, 67–69, 70, 73–74, 75 group, 5, 20, 253–254, 266 Procedural tasks, general, 13, 23–24, 29, 34, 36 examples, as training method, 44, 72–73 expertise and, 66–67, 68, 69, 70–71 meditation, 120 pain and, 138–139 retention and transfer of training, 23 Profile of Mood States (POMS), 104, 195, 196, 197–198, 200, 202 Psychodymanics Research Institute, 109 Psychological factors deception, 148–156, 157, 165, 171–185 (passim), 188 expertise, 69 group, 247–266 justification, 114 meditation, 126 motivation, 17, 82–83, 88, 90, 124, 153–154, 165, 172, 252–253 pain, 5, 9, 17, 135–138, 142, 143–144 sports, 5, 10, 18, 191, 193–219, 230–233 see also Moods; Personality traits; Stress, human environments Psychological tests, false answers, 198 R Rangers, U.S. Army, 257, 259 Reaction time, 220–221 Reasoning, expertise and, 67–69 Red Badge of Courage, Reflection, 62–63, 75 insight, 94 see also Self-assessment techniques Refresher training, 35–37, 48 Relaxation techniques, 9, 16, 122, 124– athletic performance, 203, 206, 208, 209, 212, 216, 217 pain and, 17, 139, 143 Religious experience, 120–122, 123, 124 Buddhism, 120–121, 127, 128 God, 121, 124 Repetition, 19 feedback, 46–47 see also Practice Retention of training, 7, 12, 13–14, 21, 24–37, 48, 274 defined, 23 motor skills, 23, 24 organizational factors, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48 original learning and, 26–29 practice, 18–19, 30–31 see also Transfer of training Retraining, 13–14, 35–37, 48 Rokeach inventories, 90, 91, 94 S Scaffolding, 59, 62 Schema knowledge structures, 65–67, 70 motor skills, 44–45 Self-assessment techniques career development, 14–15, 80, 83, 84–85, 88, 89–92, 96 expertise, 64–65 Self-concept and self-control athletics and, 232 career development, 8, 84–85, 89–90 commercial products, 107–108, 109, 112, 113 deception, 151, 152, 165 exercise and, 226–227 meditation, 131 pain, control over, 137, 139–140, 142

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE stress reduction and, 4, 131 subliminal suggestions, 8, 15–16, 107–110, 112, 113, 115 Self-report instruments see Testing and measurement Sex differences, intergroup bargaining, 252 Sleep, 4, 122 Social factors, 175, 184–185 see alsoCultural factors; Interpersonal processes Somatic Perception Questionnaire, 195 Special Forces, U.S. Army, 257, 258– Speech patterns, deception cues, 151, 152, 163 Sports and athletics, 18–19, 206–210, 215–224 anxiety and, 208, 209 attention levels, 209, 217, 228, 232 biofeedback, 206 brain, 222–224, 228–229 cognitive-behavioral interventions, 193, 203–219, 232, 233 computer-aided enhancement, 213 evaluation of enhancement techniques, 202–203, 208–212, 218–219, 231–232 feedback, 212–213, 223–224 field tests, sports events as, 193 historical perspectives, 120–121 images, use of, 203, 204, 206, 208–209, 211–212, 216–217 longitudinal studies, 199–200 meditation, 208 mental health and, 18, 193–203, 231–232, 233 mental practice, 203, 204–206, 211, 233 modeling, 18, 193–203, 210–213, 231–232, 233 overtraining, 199, 201 physiological processes, general, 201, 219–224 psychological aspects, 5, 10, 18, 191, 193–219, 230–233 relaxation techniques, 203, 206, 208, 209, 212, 216, 217 self-concept, 232 stress and, 193, 197, 199–202 testing and measurement, 18, 194–203 time factors, 199, 220–221 video techniques, 211–213 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, 194 Stress, human environments, 3, 191, 275 career development and, 83, 92 deception and, 152–153 exercise and, 19, 193, 225–227, 234 fear, 136 inoculation training, 9, 17, 140–141, 208 isolation, 130 meditation and, 9, 16, 123–124, 125, 128, 129–130, 131 nuclear reactor control rooms, 257, 259–261 pain and, 9, 17, 140–141 performance under extreme, 231–232 self-control and, 4, 131 sports and athletics, 193, 197, 199– time factors, learning, 31 see also Anxiety; Combat effectiveness Stress, physiological, 140–141 see also Exercise; Sports and athletics Success, 82 Suffering, 135–136 Sybervision, 211–212 T Tasks and task analysis concept listing, 70 cohesion and organization, 29–30 mental models, as aids to retention, 32 similarity and transfer of training, 37, 38–40 static dynamic, vs time factors, 69 see also Laboratory tasks; Procedural tasks Terminal and Instrumental Values Surveys, 90, 91, 94

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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Testing and measurement anxiety, 194 career development and, 15, 81, 85–86, 87–90, 93–95, 96–101 learning and performance, general, 13, 34–35, 47–48 mastery learning, criteria, 13, 26–27, 28, 47, 48 MBTI, 7, 15, 22, 81, 89–90, 91, 92, 93–102 meditation effects, 121–130 psychological tests, false answers, 198 sports performance, 18, 194–203 subliminal perception, 110–113, 116 see also Evaluation; Field tests; Laboratory tasks Think-aloud protocols, 71 Time factors career development, 82, 84, 86, 87–88 deception, 172 experts' time on task, 69 generation effects, 34 group behavior, 10–11, 20, 252, 262, 266 peak experiences, 230, 231 practice, 18–19, 30–31, 199 reaction time, 220–221 sports and athletics, 199, 220–221 subliminal perception, 111 tests as learning events, 34–35 see also Retention of training; Transfer of training Training cues used in, 34, 37 deception, detection of, 156–158, 189 examples, use of, 44, 72–73 group, 20, 261–263 inoculation training, stress, 9, 17, 140–141, 208 interference of, 40–43 original learning, 26–29, 37–38 overlearning, 26, 28–29 overtraining, sports, 199, 201 posttraining interventions, 35–37 retraining, 13–14, 35–37, 48 variety and, 40–45 see also specific training methods and instruments see also Retention of training Transfer of training, 12, 13, 14, 21, 24–25, 37–47, 49 defined, 23 feedback and, 40, 45–47 meditation techniques, generalization, 123–125 motor functions, 23, 24 negative, 38 organizational factors, 25, 29–30, 31–32, 36, 38–43, 44, 48 original learning and, 37–38 similarity of tasks, 37, 38–40 Transition, career frame breaking, 83–84 U Understanding, 31–33 of novice, 57–58 see also Knowledge V Variety in careers, 83–84 in training, 40–45 Video techniques of deceptive behavior, 18, 149–151, 158, 159–160, 164, 166, 189 feedback via, 46, 212–213 sports performance enhancement, 211–213 subliminal, 109, 114–115 Visualization, 109 Visual training exercises, 4 Voice, see Speech patterns W Wounds, 137 Y Yoga, 16–17, 121, 122–123, 127, 128–