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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Support for this project was provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract No. N00014-89-J-1731. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Computers at risk: safe computing in the information age / System Security Study Committee, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-309-04388-3

1. Computer security. I. National Research Council (U.S.).

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board. System Security Study Committee.

QA76.9.A25C6663 1990

005.8—dc20 90-22329

CIP

Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, December 1990

Second Printing, March 1991

Third Printing, April 1992

Fourth Printing, January 1992

Fifth Printing, March 1994



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