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6 Organizing a Global System of Cooperation National, regional, and international programs to conserve, manage, and use forest genetic resources are critical activities. Despite a wide variety of activities, the need remains for global leadership to coordinate and promote actions in an effective way. The overall coal should be to conserve and maintain forest genetic resources presently unforeseen. There is a critical need for an organization with adequate and consistent funding and with the responsibility to provide scientific for both current and future needs, of which some may be overview to set global priorities and to foster the necessary activities at national, regional, and global levels. Multiple approaches must be used due to the significant gaps in the understanding of how to conserve forest genetic resources both in situ and ex situ, as well as the need to address immediately the high rate of loss for some species and regions. Coordination is needed to ensure excessive overlap in activities does not occur and important resources are not overlooked. No great simplification of the diverse collection of institutions and activities described here is envisioned. It is urgent, however, that key institutions be identified and that they be strengthened by charging them with specific responsibilities for conservation, man- agement, or research and providing funds where needed to enable them to participate in a global network of activities. COORDINATING AND EXPANDING EXISTING PROGRAMS The achievement of global cooperation in managing tree genetic resources should begin with the coordination of existing efforts. Coor 129

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130 / Forest Trees dination would help to reduce costs and duplication of effort, and to increase sharing of both tree genetic resources and information. In particular, existing programs should be reviewed and where necessary strengthened. The coordination of these various efforts should seek to Develop and apply in situ and ex situ methods for conserving tree genetic diversity, recognizing that these approaches are complementary and supplement each other. Establish in situ reserves and ex situ conservation stands for a broad range of species because of the long generation times usually needed to obtain reproductively mature trees. Particular emphasis should be placed on species from tropical and arid regions. Promote research to develop and apply methods of ex situ storage to those species for which current technologies are not suitable and, in particular, for those species endangered in their natural environments. In addition, efforts are needed to foster the application of ex situ technologies for seed, pollen, and tissue storage, including cryogenic storage. In some cases, technologies are currently available and easily adopted. Adaptation and testing may be needed for other species or The identification of tree genetic resources for use in agroforestry systems is gaining importance worldwide. Scientists at the Central Arid Research Institute, Jodhpur, India, conduct field trials with Acacia sp., Prosopis sp., and other woody species that may grow well in semiarid climates. Credit: Stanley Krugman.

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Organizing a Global System of Cooperation 1 131 methods. For still other techniques, such as cryogenic storage of tissues, further research and development will be necessary. Promote integration of conservation activities with testing and breeding programs. Assemble, analyze, and disseminate information about conserva- tion efforts and programs for use as a base on which to build further activities in tree germplasm conservation. A global system should strengthen the interaction among the various groups involved in managing forest genetic resources, coordinate ac- tions, and facilitate the establishment of common priorities. Through a coordinating body, a global effort could foster and finance scientific research and training and monitor the status of conservation programs. The coordinating body could also cooperate with conservation programs of such groups as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and the United Nations Environment Program, which could incorporate activities specifically designed to monitor and conserve tree germplasm of global concern. Research in a number of specific areas could enhance the knowledge base to support the conservation and management of forest genetic resources. The priority for these is likely to vary in different regions depending on local or regional needs, the information available, and funding or staff resources. Research is needed into the following: Reproductive biology and patterns of variation in priority species; Minimum population sizes necessary to maintain evolutionary flexibility of populations in nature reserves; Inventory of forest genetic resources at the regional and local level, particularly with respect to the distribution of natural populations; The size, design, and number of in situ reserves required to conserve a wide range of the genetic variation within a species, as well as the biological and ecological processes that affect species so conserved; Ex situ maintenance, evaluation, testing, and breeding technologies to enhance the preservation and use of conserved germplasm; and The effects of such processes as deforestation, acid rain, pollution, and global climatic change on the erosion of genetic variability and the integrity of in situ reserves and ex situ stands. Within existing institutions there is a need for experienced, trained junior staff. Senior professional staff are also few in number. This severely constrains the ability of the institutions to expand their efforts. Because it is the experience of these trained and experienced staff that will form the basis for expanded programs, any new or enlarged programs must expect that it may take as long as 10 years to develop

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132 / Forest Trees adequately prepared senior staff and proportionately less time to develop junior and field staff. DEVELOPING REGIONAL AND NATIONAL PROGRAMS Efforts must be made to develop comprehensive national capabilities for conserving forest tree genetic resources. Many countries already have organized units within forestry agencies or ministries to conduct various activities related to managing forests and forest genetic resources, including trees. It is within such programs that the management of forest genetic resources should occur. In many cases, for example, reserve and protected areas set aside as part of efforts to conserve pristine vegetation could also serve as in situ conservation stands for tree genetic resources. Forestry bureaus, departments, agencies, or ministries often operate in isolation, however, and do not interact with those concerned with natural resources or agriculture. Frequently their principal function is regulatory rather than research and conservation oriented. Comprehensive, coordinated national programs are needed to Develop national policies for the genetic conservation of trees and establish priority activities to accomplish that objective; Monitor the status of tree species that are of economic, ecological, or aesthetic importance; Develop programs for implementing in situ and ex situ manage- ment and conservation of tree germplasm to ensure that the genetic diversity that exists within and among tree species is not lost; Develop programs to promote the flow of conserved materials from storage programs to testing and breeding programs; Promote and support training and research for persons working in tree germplasm conservation at universities, colleges, experimental stations, and institutes and in the private sector; and Foster and support programs to maintain data related to forest genetic resources activities and promote the evaluation and use of tree germplasm to meet national needs. The first actions to institute national programs will likely be taken by those agencies or ministries concerned with forest resources. Many activities related to forest conservation are already in place and could support the management of tree genetic resources. Further, research applicable to tree germplasm management can most easily be developed within universities or existing national forestry institutions. Additionally, a number of activities could be conducted in cooperation with other

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Of ~ Gaff -~ ~ Afar / ?~ ~) Mean of ham bV~ gents tO It Muslin nave beg in place ~ marry years. This hillside near L~u~!co, Chicle, was part of ~ e~res~-n Begot in 197I in Ah the ~ovemment, through the Con for A~=dan Alarm, planted 68~ millions the seedling inducing Papas Ifs, a species that gushes urge pear co~ndi~hons~ Edit: Fug and A=~1~= ^ Lion. nabonalconserva~o!n p!h03~a~i!S. Lon@~te~n see~d~storage/~fo~rexanapl!e. mighstbe handl~edj~oint~l~y ~ith~nabonsla~ricuIt~nalgene bank.ln sibu conservation area.s~,foranother example, could be coordinated with a n~aJonalpa.~cksyste~m!Theexch.pn~ea~ndintroduc~on oftee~ermplasm cored bethel cooperative efforts offorestry ~nd~agdcultu~al interests. ~Re{~on<~1 programs are uniquely suited to a.ddres~s~i~ng the needs of and ~ ~itating~ OCR for page 129
134 / Forest Trees those of global programs. They are, however, focused more on the unique species, needs, and constraints of the region. Further, because the occurrence of trees is seldom restricted to a single nation, regional programs are better able than national programs to coordinate efforts over the entire range of a species. Regional programs should be developed to Assess the regional status of forest genetic resources and develop priorities for their conservation; Facilitate information and germplasm exchanges within the region and act as liaison to programs outside the region; Develop training programs that focus on the species and technical needs important to the region; and Foster cooperative research programs to address regionally specific problems by supplying funds and sponsoring meetings, workshops, or symposia. Regional organizations should facilitate interactions among national programs and promote or enhance cooperation with international groups and programs. By coordinating the activities of national programs, regional programs could enable work to proceed on a broad range of species in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Governments or pro- grams with limited resources would be able to focus on their highest priority needs, while being assured that species that are of concern, but for which resources may be scarce, are being addressed elsewhere in the region. DEVELOPING AN INTERNATIONAL FOREST TREE GENETIC RESOURCES PROGRAM A global institution charged with addressing global concerns for managing forest tree genetic resources would maintain an ongoing assessment of the status of forest genetic conservation worldwide and foster the study, collection, documentation, evaluation, and use of tree genetic resources. It would facilitate interaction among regional and national programs, support and encourage training at all levels, support research and its application to managing forest tree germplasm, act as a central source for assembling and disseminating data to national and regional programs, and where necessary, provide funding for conser- vation activities it identifies as having high priority. Specifically, an international body could Establish global priorities, by species, for genetic resource conser- vation and assess the extent to which those priorities are addressed by existing programs;

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0~^ ~ Gang Sack ~ afar / ~1~ ~i~i~i~i~i~i~ ~ Iii I ~i~ ~i~i~i~i~S~S~i~:~i~ ~i~i~i~ phi i~i~i~i~i~i~ i~i~i~i~i~i~i~S~i~S~i~ Ii ~ ~ iii I'd ~ ii fit Cattle gage ~nth~ Chin # ~1, which ted bycle~ingand gunning aporidh~ofthe/ii~ Wrest Cedit:JimesPl~E^ir~bnilECeog+ip~cS6dety. @ Encpurage find assistnsabonal~nd regigna~lprogr~n s!n~pla~nning, or3pni~n~/and managing Repast geneti~cresourc~s Foams: ~^ . ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ . encourage Id ~lln~rf Linen and re<~rcb be Abort find e~io<~1 p ~ ms; it.. ~ ^~sse~m,~ble and disseminate data relevant to managing gene banks . . . . . . and in Tutu reserved and . ~ ~Fadlit~e in~2rac~on annoy prog~a!n~sto e~ncpura~e the ex~bange of~l~rmabon tec~h~no~lo~v aunt He lawn through meetings con en~ces, and symposia. ~) . at- ~ ~ . Such an institution could most easily be developed alas pad of an ex~i~sti~n~i~nternationalage:ncy, or comet the exp~n.sion or~modiO- cadon ofan existing p~rog~~m. This globalbody should function a~uton- omo~usIy undera board,institu~onal~program, osrco~m mitten structure lt~sbould seekto develop relationships with o~t~herin~r~nationalconser- v~ati~on ac~vibes to promote coope~rabon and collaboration in areas of mutual interest. ~ ~imperadvethattheleade~hipofa~IobalinsEtuJonforconsering tree genetic resources be recognized by pa~ici~pab~ng counthes, ins~- I. ~ en ~) a ~ ~ in ~~#

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136 / Forest Trees nature require the participation of all governments as well as many private and public institutions. Several organizations could conceivably assume the global function of providing cohesiveness and direction to national, regional, and international efforts to conserve and use forest genetic resources. A global effort must be involved not only with seed and other ex situ storage, but also with in situ conservation and in networks of managed observation, test, and conservation stands. Coordination and continuous management of relationships among many national agencies are nec- essary. Thus, the most effective program might involve cooperation of two or more institutions with appropriate expertise. The committee has identified two organizations, the Food and Agri- culture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), that could serve this purpose. Other existing institutions might also participate. Discussions within the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) may lead to development of a global forestry program within that Organ~zahon. Coordination Trough He Food and Agriculture Organization The FAO could be a focal point for international planning and coordination based on its historical role in developing global forest management programs. It would, however, need substantially greater direct support to take on the responsibilities outlined herein. The agencies that are regionally active also would have to expand their testing and breeding programs. The FAO, independently or in coop- eration with the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, could promote scientific evaluations of the adequacy of all programs with the aim of enhancing those activities and fostering or encouraging new ones. All of this would require considerable increases in the FAO's funding and its technical staff. Coordination Through He International Board for Plant Genetic Resources At its organization in the early 1970s as an international agricultural research center, the IBPGR was expected to include attention to tree species in its activities. Lack of sufficient funds prevented this, however, and currently it does not deal with forest species. The IBPGR's mandate would need little change to incorporate forest tree resources in its program. It would have to develop an institutional structure, however,

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0~ ~ G!^1 #~ ~ ~Afar / 737 ^t fin elevation ~ adult 2,- ~ ~ ~ Green ~hish~nds Of Mayo, views v~ ~= ~ ~ ~~ #~- Id ~1 ~1~^ and as musts palace Non Kneels Big the needs of grange ~pula~ti~s. Credit: Ja~mes P. lair No Get Ha. toensuretbatfo~sitreeresourcesissues ~ereaddressed bvthose with apspropdate p~no~s~sionalexperbse.ThelBI<3R'ssde~ntib~c ~ dtechnical capabili~he~sarelargelyintbeareao~fagrkul~turalgen!eticresources Thus, it rogued haveto assemblseadditionalp~ro~ssi.o~nalexpe~rtise,res ~ ctu.re its board/ and obtain the additio~na~lfu~nds necessary to take on these addedres~ponsibilibes.Theexistin~ ~chn~oloyi~esandresourcesavailab~le fo~rcrop genetic ~eso~uroesco~u~l~d make ~eso~u~ use fore forest~enetic resources pan more efFJentan~d could creatl~viacilitatethei~m~le~ men~tion ofsuc~h a pro~g~an~. ~ -- ~ ~ f~f~~ffo~/ /~sf~f~f~ shops D~ I or If fo 7~>f Of, ~ Gaffe fir ~ ~/ Oaf Let's fag A ~ off I, A, ~ f~f~f3~1 Was. There ~ an obvious need~to expand programs in neck ensoul development for Audubon ~ Spat as Red as Tone ~r espy. ^ Mated need also exists Mar vast expansion of resea=h and ~eveJopm~ent pars far genetic conse~atlon and development off

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138 / Forest Trees nonproduction forests. No agency, however, has the financial or per- sonnel resources capable of organizing or managing such expansions. In fact, the number of trained personnel available for such expanded programs is inadequate, and scientific and managerial support is in critically short supply, especially in developing nations. A multifaceted, long-term global program must urgently be developed to manage the genetic resources of the world's forests. In view of current constraints, the committee considers a sharing of responsibilities by the FAO and a forestry body within the IBPGR (possibly as part of a larger CGIAR effort in forestry), augmented by expertise from other interna- tional, regional, and national programs, to be the most feasible approach.