Click for next page ( 100


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 99
~ ~ ~:::E: ES ::? ~ ~ ~:~ ..' ':: :. :.: :,...: :.: : :,. ~ ~ ~ ~ E: ~ ~ ~ ~ : E: : .~ ::~ :: 7~?seRatio~n~o~f~#s!~#neic~resour~s~#as lad ~tha~!t Of ~ ~ law spies. ~ ~or~in#~)io#~ef~to~ OCR for page 99
/ to~sr ~ ~ A ~e~ mower fin Weston pappies seeded far plan^# is part Offs Resin pat. A Me Bay of tag go essays to emit vad~bus ~ Ian ~ ~ -~^^ am ~ Id. Cody: as A~n~ Or lnte~~0na1 De~l~~n~t. Int>~a~o~1 eggs to con Mast Meant sons am papacy those of gove^~n~1 Eddies or i~^n6. Tbe most active organic moons are the Oxford Forest lapsed (0~) in the [nixed Adorn Remedy ~ Co~o~n~eblth Foresaw lnshtu~; ~ Cents Iethniqu~e to~rJ~p~1 <~ ~ Fang; tag 92#o~ ~ Poesy and Forest Fret Research of the Co~mOn~^lib Went and l~s~a~1 Re ~h Onion (CSlRO) in Austin; and Me Banish Forest Seed Center (~SC), which is pan of the Banish lnte~atio~1 Development Amens ~nA\TC^~. The i~n~rnatio~I Divides of these o~ani~tions / and many others' are supported and coo~db~ated by the Fig O's Forest Resources [ivision. guidance in planning international act>'it~s is ^ ~ . ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _ . provided by-the FA O's Panelof Experts on Forest Gene Resources.

OCR for page 99
J~s7~fi~s l~>Z~d fir #)lz~f~ ~ GO Bomb / Seve=I Oven agencies/ esoec~lIv in the developed world. are also active in conserving forest genetic resources Within their national poundages. The Swedish National Forest Cane Bank, Air Ampler a nuder of 1~ ~ ~ in ~p-er~ OCR for page 99
1021 Forest Trees IN SITU CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES The extent of in situ conservation of forests worldwide is very difficult to estimate. Very few natural areas have been set aside specifically for genetic conservation, but areas set aside for other conservation needs can serve that purpose. In the United States, for instance, the National Park system, the National Forest Service's wilderness areas, various state parks, and private reserves protect forest ecosystems, which in turn, protect portions of the genetic resources of the contained species. Similar areas have been preserved in many other countries. Most are in the temperate zone, but a growing number of natural areas are being set aside in the tropics. Conserving, managing, or increasing the genetic diversity within species is rarely a direct objective of the programs, however, and thus their adequacy for such purposes is seldom evaluated. Many of the activities affecting in situ conservation of forest genetic resources have been initiated by the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and the FAO. The FAO's Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources has been instrumental in identifying the need for in situ conservation of species used for the production of wood and wood products (Food and Agriculture Orga- nization, 1969~. The Panel of Experts has recommended the development of guidelines for in situ conservation (Food and Agriculture Organiza- tion, 1972, 1974) and has drawn up operational priorities (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1977, 1985c). To encourage and stimulate more field projects on in situ conservation, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the FAO orga- nized an expert consultation on in situ conservation of forest genetic resources in 1980 (Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Program, 1981~. The purpose of the group was to provide advice on guidelines for the selection and management of in situ genetic conservation areas, the possibilities of combining general conservation with other management objectives (such as ecosystem conservation and production forestry), and needed international actions. One of the recommendations of the group was a project for the preparation of a practical manual on in situ conservation of within- species genetic diversity. This led to the publication of A Guide to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources for Tropical Woody Species (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1984b). Several international agencies, such as the FAO, IUCN, UNEP, and UNESCO, have also carried out studies aimed at outlining a methodology

OCR for page 99
ibSf!f~f2~S 1~~Z~ {) #~^ TO ~ ~ / Te situ conservation and at drawing up tentative guidelines or action In~d~dib~on tithe sn~nual~nen~honed~above~>t~o m~o~e~an~uaIs _ ~ ~ _ Sc>~f<~ ~< T~!Ibs<(Food and ~,dh~C{garizit~n, 1984a) and 1< S/f~ O~SS^1~, C/ B)~ #~1 [serfs ha: ~ SONS ~' / ~c~f~ ~ seafood find Agriculture 0r~an~2S~n' 1984C). STAR imbrue na~nua~Issum~ar~e gratis known of~in situ Eqre~s~vcon.se~r~ation and describe many ofthe elementsth.ata~re necessary 6~7success~fulconse~ ~ ~ T~anse~t~geneconservabon~u~ecountbes--Ca~neroon (food and ^gdcult~re~Org~ni<~tio~1983d), Siala~ysias~ ~=e~ntl~.~seed~st~nd~s~h~ve~beeb sra~pll~sn~eq<s~v. but no p fins of ~ojecion or Using also 1or teem. homier Or gut economically useful savers exist; ~_ been sampled by the C>FFT are considered useful Or some purposes and may besui~ Me for p~n~donforesby,betno gene~lconservabon program exists for them Because further research and development ...

OCR for page 99
: :: I/ work should be required to verify the economic use of these species, the~pdvate sector ca~nnotbeexpectedio develop conservation programs/ and because na-tio~na1 govern Tenets cannot afford the expend ~ re' i~te~nabon~ eEkuis are needed to conserve then. in the United Stags' About6/000 baa ofes~blished seed orchards and done banks provide extensive ex situ conservation o~fso~me of tie most valuable do meshc species Us. Forest Service/ 19S2~. The tio~usan~ds of hectares of provenance and progeny test gelds and many co~m~nerda~l. plantains couki also be irapor~nt cow pcnents of any coordinated ~- ~. co> OCR for page 99
~S~f~f-S ~ aft ~ GO S~ (Food and ^gricul~~ O~in~abon, 1931~. Many tropical counties are now e~syb~lis~hin~ proven an trials far Sting plantain sp~ies, and a lease proportion of throat plantings will p~ro~bly wolves ink seedling seed orbs or p~venan!ce connation stands Len this may, He Pant of ~ sib contain ^~ ~ TV expands. Torts at forest ax sir conse~adon~ also Clad seed storage St interna~onal and national centers. Appendix C co~nta~i..ns a partial fist of such centers. Very ~ of the Citifies are for lon~g~te~ presera~o~n of e~,l~s=; meanly are ~.~ril~ designed ~sho~r~ storage to a< establish provenance trials an!d ex situ consera~tibn strands and to distribute high~quali~ seed. Most Nominal centers are intereste~d~ph- ~madly in genotypes of flock importance; conservation off all possible genes is mom point to in~rnadso~al ~i~ns~dfu~hons One conclusion truant is ines^~a~e is that lone seed stooge of gee spades gently plays a very mmor rote an ~nseratlon efforts. This must ~ recbRed . , , ^ '2~1 . Bump . . . llie~FA O has begun a projecito assist counthes optic Sa~heli<~n and north Sudani~n regionsininitiahn~reseprch and dev~lop~rie~n~t~ct)>it~s in the geld oigen~eti~re~so~rceso~f ~ooUvs~edes Most Sells. the aim is to enhance~o~r create n~t~ni1 . . . . .. , ~ - ~ -I ~ ~ - -a at ~ - ,, demands Iffy dusted materials bv de~l~6omen~t Trisects. TO . . .. ,. ~a, ~... ~, ~ -~ ~ Ton, and im~p~vesme~nt~o~f the most ~isi6~ specks. Each Ret , ,~ s , , pantingly \~n~!/i11 be able ~ Data o!n pa b~va~il~!~1e ge!n~ebc va~r~bili~ fogged ~itb.i~n~ the species it (i~shes~to i~=p~dve. Thins impOes~!j!ot3~t exploration sand the or~ni>.tio) of fleer Chants between coyotes #~ Hick thy ~ spedes~ ~ Panda. 1 his second preset 1.n~lq,mat~on on selected 1n~ OCR for page 99
I/ examina~Son,a task beyond the scope ofibis~po~. The coveragei~s intended to provide a glotal~ove~ OCR for page 99
l/5fZf~f2775 /~- /~ ~~ ~ If IS / T~7 participates as a member of UNESCO's Sciences Advisory Panel for IFospbere R~-serves(Palniberg and E~squinas'^lcizar, 19903. The~I?~na~on~to Amber counties. The pang has~mets~ ti~es~(T~968/ ~1971~1974,1977~1981~1985jin~17 veals to~revie~ die cu ~ n!t~extentof the demon offorestgeneCc~reso~rces to ~ake~reco~n~endations R Nets con~servad~on/ and to establish p~odie~s~for action and intennadonals~pport. At file recomn~endabon fifths Panel of~Experts,~the FA O began to pubb~sh a ne~sledey F)n~1 Gruff!< ~ lo inE1973. The ~ , , ~_~ coDec~on~handltng/storage~, ~stin~,and cerdOca~bon~;tb~e orb n ~ ties and results of~inte~nabonal provenance trifles; arid vacua a.spects~of the conservation and use of~orest~geneti~cre~souroes The ne~s~le-ueris pubb~shedin English,Fre~nch,an~d Spanish and dis~bibu~d E~eo~fchar~ze to state forest services, forest research institutes, indi~dual~den~hs~t~s Who have expressed anin~re~stin the publication. The FA O (1986) has also produced a foot ~ E~ TO ~i Spray S ~ )~ ~) a. Eighty-one spe~es,endan Bred Thereat the species or provenance level, are the focus oftbe book Its main purpose into drag the attention of decision makers, sdentists, and inte~nabonal and national organizations to the need to con serve the speciesin question.

OCR for page 99
1081 Forest Trees Another major activity of the FAO is the support of seed collection and the handling, seed storage, and evaluation of seedlots. The DFSC, among other seed centers, assists the FAO by providing short-term seed storage and distribution facilities for international use. It was originally created at the recommendation of the FAO Panel of Experts. With the Forest Resources Development Branch, the FAO's core program in forest genetics has limited but constant funding, which annually is about 6 percent, or $100,000, of the branch's overall budget. This does not include salaries or funds to support extrabudgetary and field projects. Genetic resources activities are also conducted by other FAO entities, such as the Forest Wildlands and Conservation Branch and the Plant Production and Protection Division. The division of labor among the various FAO entities with responsibility for forests and trees seems to be well defined and to minimize overlap. The FAO's recently established Commission on Plant Genetic Re- sources is intended to provide policy guidelines for FAO activities in the general area of plant genetic resources, including forestry. The Forestry Resources Division would then implement recommendations of the commission regarding forestry. Another FAO activity that includes a forest genetics component is the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) (Food and Agriculture Orga- nization, 1985c). The program, which is intended to provide a framework for global action in tropical forestry, specifies five broad priority areas: forestry in land use, forest-based industrial development, fuelwood and energy, conservation of tropical forest ecosystems, and institutions. The plan for conserving tropical forest ecosystems outlines the desirable actions and funding required for ecosystem conservation and the conservation in situ of inter- and intraspecific variation of genetic resources of target species. In particular, the TFAP calls for (1) carrying out botanical surveys of plant diversity and distribution, (2) developing methods to protect plant diversity and species variation, (3) developing conservation data and increasing awareness of the values of genetic conservation, and (4) increasing research on species of potential eco- nomic value. It is still too early to evaluate the impact of this program on global conservation of forest genetic resources. The TFAP has, however, provided a framework within which international donor agencies can focus activities, and at a November 1988 meeting, orga- nizational plans were advanced for research and development programs. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) is an international, scientific center of the Consultative Group on International

OCR for page 99
{,zsff~z~f3~z~s Zing 7~ ~& #, Goof? R^~ / 709 ~g~cuItu:~1 Research (CC1^~. lit is autonomousand governed by independent bard of trustees late gas Funded in 19^ Ad its h~ead- quarte~rs I~tio~ ~ pried ~ Me FAT in bone up its move to separate ounces In mat CltV in 1~. For a number of gears the FAO provided some staff and.\ubsidi.zed office space to the 1~BPCR/ and doting mat pedod tie EGO p moon ~ ~ ~eneLc Sours was coterminous ~iththatof ~elBPOR. Whenit ~screa~'th~elBPGR ha~dabo~ut~s~ixnabonal~p~ro~rams Witch ~hichto ~ork~;cur~ntlyit~orks ~ith~ll~Oscoun~tries.lth.a~ybeeninst~ume~ntalin thein~itiaLo~ of many nabonalprogra~msan~d the e~bli~h~en-t ~! bane bongs. and it all t~inin~andre~ssearch. The o~ OCR for page 99
^ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~a~~ ^~ Comas A Isle ~ fain It ~ ~Le~ Gaff is fig clea~d~ind~b~ed. Ed Sap ma ~^n~sr~b~ss~~st loamy aged ~sto~de~ded asps Octet: lames UP. BY Nodal !~G~~ic Ha, ~ a. psalm. Ace L's pawn covers redesign/ production systems ~'~ ^ Ions ~ larch age o~~es Is find training Cares and Nippon ~ lOP~O7s ~~ ko~hops. Of in Flesh egg is demoed to Age a quaker to Ban ~2a' and a -~f ~ Ash, . . . . estibIish~nent off a fadlityin~llkai~bd by the Assod~bon of Southeast gas Nabobs(/~SIVAl<)i~d the Canada Tree Seed~Center to bassist Shea ASH me ^ s in develop ~ beed~technology age ant td forest rene%val~lb sou~beast 73ii.~Cdnt _ for genetic resources and their m ^ tenance in situ and ax Mu are radical components of the seed centers pot. The l[JUC~i~n general does not caky out pa s; rather~itp~o~d~essuppo~ tosden~stsi~n developing counties to car By out pried thafxna~h dbe awns offs foes~by development prc~;am. The DD~RC's projected budget R~ 1988-1939 ~asabout$120 milIion'93 percen~tof ~ldcb alas ~ grant ham the Canadian government

OCR for page 99
I~6f~f~f3~6 ~- fit ^~- ~ GO as / !~9 The C{PT~i!S:~a de~pa~men!t ofthe Fre~nch~ ~-f0~s(~k)~, G~!~stuse~d~r~!~^t~in~t~p~ics)' Cod (~(est~slndia~n~or Spanish cedir)~,~CJ~s)~)o~,~a~nd 3.~c~,~ fin, Ail. mu Andy. ~! The~ClFT'~s actKid~s wi~t~be~se~e!in~n~s~e;!~yd~!!~bith!~I~I?~s of~fo~s~try o~pe=~!ti~o~n~s>~cm~deve10pment~s~ot~bs~ed~i~g~a~nd n~urserv techies to primaTyconvesion and u~iza.~tio~n.~ Sped ! esp~bb~esss~var~idelv~!~O^~the~ ! ~ ~ ~ p ~ ~ : J~cdJ~bbies~ith~hi~ch . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ th~esETPT ha~bl~te~l a~)reem~h~.~s~l~n~de~ne~l. spades Ado , ~. so~rcesi~s based on use. ~Some~s.hort-~=n conservabonS~o}~ecives.a~ metLy ~ ~CTFI'ss~s~d~3ge~men~t~p^~(ct,~an~d~s~ode~meds meteor o~D~ectlv~sare metbv~its~d~c~lecti~n act hits but~esClTT~iA~!not , . . enz~zedin anv~10~e~n~situ area Asia Reacts . ~, ~ The LILT has deVe10ped~ seldom stodgy' re~.=h~s Wanda ~dlit~s Air supplyinG~seedsof~hi3~Iy~vaJuabIespedes~r~eva)~hon~.p~bunGsa~nd other~nseedsin nations with I chit hascoope~bveEproi~cts~ltalso heisted plantings of~its ~gget~s~ped~sin~Ve~Jcou~nt~es Although . . ~ . ~ ., tine s1~1~l~sa~ 01 m~e~neediose~ns~u~ thecontinue~d existence ofat le~as~ta ~ mple-ofthe~sepl~n!tingsa~nda~lsotoes~blishinsituston~servab~on s~nds~it~ha~sno~long~te~n genetic con _ titan purge. The CTFrs 1988-19e budget for genetic resources So 5825.7 milhon. Ante ~S~0.2 Lion of that amount was Red airs poplar poem ca~tegodes: Election and eva~luabon of tropic Crest Neck !res~urces (~6 ~million), co~nse~abon~ in the ~p~1~1 zone (~3.4 million), and labo~to~ research and studies (S68.S million). The funds age provided by the French government and European communities. ~~ . ~.

OCR for page 99
1201 Forest Trees Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization In Australia, forest genetics work is conducted through CSIRO's Division of Forestry and Forest Products Research, Program on Austra- lian Tree Resources, Canberra. About 75 percent of the CSIRO's funds are appropriated by the Australian Parliament; contributions by industry and other groups account for most of the remainder. Total research expenditures by the CSIRO in 1988 amounted to roughly $362.6 million, of which nearly 23 percent ($82.8 million) was allocated to plant production and processing, the category into which forest genetics activities likely fall. The committee was not able, however, to obtain a more precise estimate of CSIRO's expenditures related to forest genetic resources. The Tree Seed Center, a key unit of the Program on Australian Tree Resources, is a focal point for many projects that require access to Australian forest genetic resources for use in other countries. The center collects and distributes high-quality, source-identified seed of commer- cially promising Australian woody plants for research purposes, provides professional advice on the choice of species and seed supply, and provides technical information on species of value and makes the materials widely available. During 1982-1985, the center undertook 45 major collecting programs, about half of which involved the collection of Eucalyptus seed. The major activity focused on individual tree collections from superior provenances of proven species for tree breeding purposes. One project, Australian Trees and Shrubs for Fuelwood and Agroforestry, funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), has meant a new direction for the center. This project involves the exploration and collection of seed of lesser known Australian trees and shrubs with potential for use in agroforestry and fuelwood plantings in developing countries. The program supports conservation of species both directly through seed storage and ex situ plantings and indirectly by drawing attention to their potential for utilization. It also provides a stimulus to sample genetic resources of non-Eucalyptus species. The center's work in this area has concentrated mainly on nitrogen-fixing Acacia and Casuarina (she oak) species. The center collaborates with Australian and international donor organizations in arranging and distributing the seed for international provenance trials of important species. Trials of Acacia mangium and A. aneura, for example, have been established with the participation of 40 organizations and 11 countries. The CSIRO and the Queensland Forestry

OCR for page 99
ifs !~~Z~ a ~^ #~ ~!~!L F~ / 727 Oepa~rt=~e-nt' fifth support 6= the ACIAR, are developing a~da~t<-~se system for siding and selectively Ens the result of geld dials, especially~th~o~ -using ~e~ll~doc~n~ted seed Jo provided byte TO Am. ~ -~_ the Management p~ctice~s~used gas aIso~cJuded. ~ The C~S~lRO~ hasSn~oted~at-th~e~ is~l~ess~pres~su~ on naO=l~standssof o!no~i~lly im~~rta~nt~.spede in Austria Man in ct~r~counides~,~but ~ sip Amps am s!~l~est~is~hed as partsofla~e-~ unsexes managed by the ~abo~ni1 P~rk~Seri~s. The CSIRO bag also noted that Bags Or constraint to the most eaves co~nse~adon Andre of Asian genedc esoures~in~sothe!r coun~t~es~s.~e~. the lances off a roped i~temationa~1~ ~r~suth activities Ih~e pities of the~DESC~, ! a ~s~t) deve~lop~men~t~assis~nce toga= ni~^n Glanced by O~1~D^> ~i3ha~d.~in lags under~the~p~isect name Da~sh/F^O ~Fbres-t~! Reseed Center The ~OPSC is. bond in H~=lebae!~. Denmark. ` - - - - - . . .~altio~gh~ nostrils activifies~.~tzk~ place ~devel~ping~!~co~unid~es,~ph mildly t~sou~the~st~^sia and Can ~ I ^ media. Procreant of~large q~andties off high~quaL~ty~seed~!i~ssb~ne~o~its again Eves. He Manly gags been~f0=si3~g~ on three i.mbo~nt Spies: ~ ~, Pi~s~,k~s~ff, find !G!~~ J~ ^ # OCR for page 99
122 / Forest Trees Oxford Forestry Institute The OFI is a world center for forest research and development. The need for adequate supplies of correctly named, site-identified seed trees grown for industrial and nonindustrial purposes led the OFI to establish international provenance testing projects for some 50 species in Central America and parts of Africa. The projects cover exploration, taxonomy, collection, seed storage and distribution, field trials, establishment of conservation stands, evaluation, and conservation and development of genetic improvement strategies for a number of tropical species. Since 1963, the OFI has made collections in the entire Central American region for provenance and progeny trials, especially of pines. Since 1980, it has also made collections of tropical broadleaf trees from arid and semiarid zones in Central America. Seed from OFI collections are distributed free of charge for trials all over the world. The evaluation of such trials has already provided a great deal of information about genetic variation within the collected species. The emphasis in all OFI genetic projects is on breeding for use in the tropics. The species OFI initially worked on were largely tropical pines, Pinus caribaea, P. oocarpa, and P. tecunumanii. Recently, it has expanded its work to include P. patula, P. kesiya, P. merkusii, and P. greggii, among the pines, and to a lesser extent, other gymnosperms, including Agathis (kauri), Cupressus (cypress), and Widdringtonia (African cypress) species and Abies guatemalensis. Among the hardwood species with industrial uses, projects are being developed for Cedrela (Chinese cedar) species, Cordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel), and Liquidambar styraciflua (species of sweet gum) from Central America. For agroforestry use, Gliricidia septum and several species of Leucaena and Prosopis are included in initial species assays, and in east Africa several species of Acacia (A. albida, A. tortilis, A. senegalensis, and A. nilotica) are being collected in various cooperative projects. Some 25 tree species from the Central American dry zone, mainly legumes, are also being studied. For all of the above species, a two- or three-stage sequence of projects is followed. The first stage begins with initial collection of materials for identification and study of phenotypic variation. A second stage is a more formal ecogeographic study using rangewide collections and widely distributed trial plantations to establish initial provenance trials. A third stage is sometimes necessary for more intensive sampling of selected individuals or populations. Selections from the initial prove- nance trials are also used with materials from the third stage to establish local breeding populations.

OCR for page 99
l~5f/~f~s /~ Off !~7 Tab Gregg R~s/?e The models~o~fthe OF~l/soperptio~ngls~l~ar~itstrq~Ricq~l~pine projects {Pica> amp an, P I and P. - ^ ~ ~ ~ at, Pay ~ ~ ~nded~plo~,sof~!~hich bbout15 sites age consi~dered~representpuve and getable ~rde~iled data analysis over several environments. about one id of the ~odginal~soun~s mere considered useful~+~resa~/in~> and with ~subs~nbaI in!t~popu~tiona1 neck vacation and at least 25 ages Pled par po^Iad~/ a su~cien!t breeding gases is On sided ~^ arm. ~ a, The impact offs these cr~e~s~ on the s~enedc;. rehouse base fist mixed. Intoned above -l-he .. . ~ , PI ~hs~ been ~411~ gamble and ~exiAts~.in~ Enough sdivetse test for breeding populations that its ~ne~c vadition~is~ currently ~e11 conserved. . Past If ~ P. I; And APE. ~&~ All ply rebut a ~ ~p~pula~bon~s are missing Am col~lechons~. Bead Be Mae Gaps All Pus Bogy and in most of Be come ha;rd~~d ~colle~ons/ e~spedal\~of populations at ~eed~s of spices ~here~s~many local variants ~ being lost Portage ~uncglle~bl~e~. The 0 ~ hags Usov~n~i~n~h~ousetedEn~sy~(and~otherpro~ssionals on outside~fundt~g) but~tie~ instate lb~gelys!~d~ependsss'~on~sho~$etm Gra~ntsand~ben~e,fu~ndingheco=~sicon~i~ton~pbog~ar1~con~ndi?. There ~ 11 pro~ssion~Isinthe Ce~e~tics~s~d~liee~Breedi~ELnk~salJ on non>~un~esi~nded~ ("ma") probes ~e~ unlit is respond floor all prompts anon Neck Issue development ~ it Opted with Only nati~onaJ governments and in~=abonal avenges, ibis ~1 Sups! seed center ~ deve1~opi!n~ ~u!n~e-s' Is used otiose seed cent= in its Tepee= croi~ects. and has Econ~n~v made all mated Ion freely available to all sConsidedng To sit costs rawly $1 elision to es~bEsh the pine Pals by its standard procedure' and that its Ending cycle is ~ ~ ~ >>r pawn He ~ ~ a ^^ in ~ view of prospect pd~odties. BuilSi~g~ ~i~n~st#~e and- d~e~I~opi~ng perk so~nneI in the counties Them it Form is not a mai~orscomp~e~nt of a paroled and hence> Be SOFT does its own seed coon Laid di~s~but~n. One off its other Mentions is, hoppers academic; inns partings' ~ OF1 offers intensive courses Sign Oxen and abroad ~ a wide And of subjects. [-S. Dam of dreg ~ ~ ~ ~ APE Hi. I: TO advises of the U.S. Department of ^~#ul~e's Foist Seam delude esearh and ~nedc imp~# pawns endued ~ national Blasts. Rewash is proudly aimed at secedes of Thigh amp

OCR for page 99
124 / Forest Trees mercial value, but there is a growing emphasis on maintaining diversity in forests. The Forest Service also provides international assistance in forestry to USAID's overseas missions. The Forest Service has collected and maintained varieties of Pinus tueda (loblolly pine) since 1943. Storage facilities for tree germplasm are located at its laboratories. These are not long-term storage facilities, however, and there is no national inventory of what tree germplasm is in storage. When the Forest Service identifies endangered populations of forest tree species, it collects germplasm and, when possible, grows it at a site with similar environmental conditions. Most U.S. national parks have set aside land as genetic management areas. Individual states also have independent conservation programs, and several states have a tree improvement program that includes genetic resources components. State activities generally do not have an inter- national aspect, but they can serve as models for larger efforts. California, for example, has an innovative project to conserve conifer genetic resources. The Conifer Germplasm Conservation Project is designed to provide information and resources needed for long-term protection of the diversity of California's forests. As part of this program a major effort will be to complete seed collections in California from the range of Pseudotsuga (Douglas fir) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine). Intensive seed collection also will be made for Picea brewerana (Brewer's spruce), a rare and little known species found in a few locations in northern California. Related aspects of the project will include research on the geographic patterns of genetic variation in the above-mentioned fir, pine, and spruce species, restoration of several ongoing gene conservation collections that have fallen into disrepair, and a computer- based catalog of lands dedicated to forest gene conservation. CONCLUSIONS l Funding levels for forest tree genetic resources programs around the world are inadequate to ensure the continuation of even the current level of activity. Base program funding is being reduced in some organizations and was never adequate in others. Support for tree genetic resources is, therefore, often the product of the personal interests of individual scientists. The situation is exacerbated by the frequent lack of defined policies and programs designed specifically to prevent the loss of valuable genetic resources. It has been roughly estimated (S. Krugman, U.S. Forest Service Timber Management, personal commu- nication, 1989) that the total expenditure worldwide specifically for forest germplasm conservation activities is $5 million annually. If the

OCR for page 99
7~!f~ff~s I~1~ ~ +~# ~ ~ ~ / ~ You s lands (~ cams madly Tab ~~ she at Pall ala ~ Dames pubic. ~o~h~ 95~ ~d of sprain has ~ dart, so flue to ~ ~~ data tar wand wand gad Is ~~ OCR for page 99
126 / Forest Trees priorities for and methods of conserving forest genetic resources on a global scale. This situation is due, in part, to the lack of a well-supported international institution that is specifically mandated to coordinate and facilitate the conservation and management of forest genetic resources. The FAO and the IUFRO are serving important functions in this regard, but a greater effort is needed. The pressures on forest genetic resources in industrialized and nonindustrialized countries differ in many respects, but the stability of future forest genetic resources for both could be enhanced through greater international leadership and coordination. For the industrialized countries of the temperate and boreal regions, there are well-established species of widespread commercial use, pop- ulations of some of which have been widely sampled in parks, test stands, and in breeding and production stands. Many of those species are still incompletely sampled for conservation purposes, however, and for virtually all of them clear programs still do not exist for using genotypes or populations as introductions or substitutes for their current breeding populations. The number of supporting populations for those species could profitably be at least doubled within existing national and international programs, and systems for testing and breeding enhanced alternatives could also be profitably established. In that regard, the number of species with clear potential for future use that could be managed in breeding or prebreeding operations is at least twice the number of species currently used, and their inclusion would quadruple the number of populations used. The flow of genetic materials from conserved status into advanced breeding populations would also have to be clearly established for this second set of species if they are to be used effectively. Hence, those species also may be justifiably conserved. A third set of species, equal in number to the second set, could also be tested and conserved for future production forestry. The attention of the IUFRO and national agencies (with some interregional coopera- tion) is focused primarily on the first set, somewhat on the second, but little on the third. Largely independent interest groups also exist for nonproduction forestry species, which overlap with the third set of species. They focus on ecosystem conservation, however; very little research attention is given to the genetics of conservation or to amelio- rative interventions. In the nonindustrialized world, pressure is growing for production forestry, especially for fuelwood in dry areas but also for timber and other wood products. Breeding is largely just beginning (with a few exceptions, such as for Eucalyptus), and the structure of breeding populations has not yet been clearly defined. Hence, a need exists for founding a structure of primary and alternative breeding populations

OCR for page 99
l~Si~ff~f~S Z)~# Off ~- ~ Game S~ / 12~7 . ~ ^ ~n~dida~s far Pro dun ~~s<, such gal those~th~at are beings in~i~a~d ~bv the SCORE, CS1~, Am, FOLIO. and OFI.~ Bomber/ many of Bose activates am staff fund on Beg deveJospm~ent off test Plantings ~r pdme>~ Potentially Seal spedes>~pnd tb~a~t Equips a lame collection and testings alkyd. Stopover' seven hundred species off pond value' espeoa11y in the abbe anal tier ~~ and Maoists- pi^1areas' are notincl~ud~ed. Those s~pedes ae~at~sh~[ d~s~k off median loss and bothin mu Andrea situ efforts by nau~na - ~, ~.. ... c~ ms~are needed to p~rotecithem Steven greater dsk,~h ~ evermore t~ose~s~pecffo~ ofi~sf~f~f/~1s fief ~ fad its of fag fat ~ If ~ . ~ ~ -- --- - as -- ~ ~ - ~ <- lo increase Crest tam resources Sian national and inte~abo~na1 programs for biological diversity conservation or resource development will ~qqire new and expanded programs and increased levels of Ending Lon~- term content of lands is nece~ssa~ to assure He continuance off efforts that can extend over many years Encased sctivi~^ will create need far more trained pro~ssiona~l,technical.and support staff. -e ~} ~ ~f/~Z ~ ~7 i~sf~f~f~s fig ~\ fat /~f? En, Bind /~ Aces ~,f lags ~ s ^ 3~ ~) pus ~ Elf ~ {~ ~ ~i~&d~ ~.F~n~f ~ ~e~f<~z pan S>O~) ~ >~ZSza) ~) f~) S~ ~f~o~Z >~ Or #muff, h/~!o&~Zifre~fiy/~ offer ~r~.,s ~ &~fi~&~f With the cant crisisin the availability of genetic ~natedal at alI

OCR for page 99
1281 Forest Trees these levels of use and management, a more secure global system is needed to ensure future access to the extant genetic resource. Nationally based organizations must take responsibility for any populations that originate entirely within the country's borders and for which the uses and benefits are also contained therein. They may require support and assistance to do so, but for their own local benefit. If the benefits and uses extend beyond national boundaries, however, then international interest in conserving and using those resources exists, and direct cooperative support is warranted. The benefits may be realized in terms of global health and ecosystem support, and more direct products and services, in which case the assistance of international agencies as well as cooperation may be needed to ensure that all appropriate technologies are used.