Index

A

Administration of NPGS

advisory structure changes, 112–114

barriers to consolidation and centralization, 4–5, 88, 107, 108–112

budget authority, 89, 107, 108

crop advisory committees, 8, 49, 57, 79, 103–104, 114, 115

crop curators, 13, 120

elevation of NPGS within ARS, 11, 111–112

funding for, 9–10, 114

national collections, 13, 119

National Plant Genetic Resources Board, 7–8, 10–12, 16–17, 102, 109, 112–113

National Plant Germplasm Committee, 8, 12, 102–103, 112–113

personnel classification and promotion, 97–98, 133–134

Plant Germplasm Operations Committee, 8, 104–105, 114

reorganization outside ARS, 3, 10–11, 109–111

technical committees and technical advisory committees, 8, 104

in USDA, 1–2, 87–101;

see also Agricultural Research Service;

Cooperative State Research Service

see also Recommendations

Aegilops species, 5, 45, 58

Agency for International Development, 39, 77, 128, 131

Agricultural experiment stations,

see State agricultural experiment stations

Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 4, 40, 41

Agricultural Research Service (ARS)

administrative role in NPGS, 2, 7, 9, 43, 47, 49, 52, 57, 88–98, 108



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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Index A Administration of NPGS advisory structure changes, 112–114 barriers to consolidation and centralization, 4–5, 88, 107, 108–112 budget authority, 89, 107, 108 crop advisory committees, 8, 49, 57, 79, 103–104, 114, 115 crop curators, 13, 120 elevation of NPGS within ARS, 11, 111–112 funding for, 9–10, 114 national collections, 13, 119 National Plant Genetic Resources Board, 7–8, 10–12, 16–17, 102, 109, 112–113 National Plant Germplasm Committee, 8, 12, 102–103, 112–113 personnel classification and promotion, 97–98, 133–134 Plant Germplasm Operations Committee, 8, 104–105, 114 reorganization outside ARS, 3, 10–11, 109–111 technical committees and technical advisory committees, 8, 104 in USDA, 1–2, 87–101; see also Agricultural Research Service; Cooperative State Research Service see also Recommendations Aegilops species, 5, 45, 58 Agency for International Development, 39, 77, 128, 131 Agricultural experiment stations, see State agricultural experiment stations Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, 4, 40, 41 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) administrative role in NPGS, 2, 7, 9, 43, 47, 49, 52, 57, 88–98, 108

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System administrative structure and lines of authority, 90 elevation of NPGS within, 11, 111–112 funding for germplasm-related activities, 6, 9, 53, 92–96, 108 Germplasm Matrix Team, 7, 8, 11, 91, 108, 111, 115 National Program Staff, 7, 11, 47, 49, 89–91, 109, 111, 112, 113 New Crops Research Branch, 43, 89 personnel classification and promotion system, 97–98 Research Position Evaluation System, 97–98 Alfalfa, 40, 45, 79 Anderson, E., 81–82 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 6, 50, 101, 116–118, 127 Apple, 40, 45, 57 Arachis hypogaea L., 38–39 Arboreta, 49, 84, 126 Avena sterilis, 32–33 B Bacterial wilt, 40 Bamboo, 45, 53, 59 Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935, 40 Barley, 5, 35, 45, 58, 59, 68, 81, 123, 124, 126, 128 Beans, 15, 33, 37, 45, 70, 75, 118, 126, 131, 138 Beattie, R. Kent, 40 Blakeslee, A. F., 67, 81 Botanical gardens, 49, 84, 126 Bradford pear, 22 Broad bean, 75 Brooks, Erwin, 27 Budwood/dormant buds, 66, 72 Bureau of International Organization Affairs, 137 Bureau of Land Management, 41, 104 Bureau of Plant Industry, 89 C Canada, 17–18, 27, 35, 68, 76, 86, 139 North American cooperative program, 17–18, 139 Cell and tissue culture, 21, 25, 30, 58, 72, 119; see also In vitro storage Center for Plant Conservation, 84, 126 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, 118, 138 Centro Internacional de la Papa, 28 Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, 37, 138 Charles M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center, 62, 122 Chestnuts, 40, 45 Chickpea, 45, 75, 138 Cleland, R. E., 81 Clonal germplasm crops requiring preservation as, 25 maintenance of, 30, 66, 76 repositories, see National clonal germplasm repositories virus-free, 50

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Cocoa, 24, 37, 45 Coffee, 37, 45 Collections active, 29, 30 base, 29, 51 breeders', 22, 31 characterization, evaluation, and documentation, 30 composition of, 3, 22–23, 25–26, 28, 31 core, 30 genetic stocks, 23–24, 62, 123 germination rates and number of seeds for accessions, 73–74 international exchange of, 37 private and nongovernmental, 47, 51, 80, 84–86, 126–127 reasons for assembling, 21, 27 sites for regeneration/replenishment, 28 utilization of, 30–31, 46 see also Clonal germplasm; Germplasm management; Seed Collections of NPGS active, 51–65 back-up, 5, 14, 16, 37, 44, 51, 67–68, 70, 92 base, 4, 13, 14–15, 37, 51, 65–72, 120–121 changes proposed in, 13–14, 115–128 cooperation with private collections, 4, 5–6, 126–127 core subsets, 14, 31, 124–126 crop curators, 13, 79, 120 distribution of samples, 4, 37, 42, 76–78, 107 external review of, 14–15, 129–130, 143 facilities and personnel, 14–15, 17, 129–134 genetic stocks, 46, 62–64, 122–124 importance of, 92 in situ conservation, 127–128 National Arboretum, 64–65 size and scope of, 2, 5, 9, 15–16, 42, 44, 48, 72–73, 86 small grains, 32–33, 58–59 special collections, 13–14, 51, 59–62, 122 at state and federal facilities, 59–62 utilization by breeders, 6, 48, 80–84 vegetatively propagated germplasm, 57–58, 69–72 see also Interregional Research Project-1; National clonal germplasm repositories; National Seed Storage Laboratory; National Small Grains Collection; Regionalplant introduction stations Colleges and universities collection vulnerability, 24 importance of collections, 51 utilization of NPGS, 5–6, 46, 61–62, 80, 81–83 Collins, G. N., 82 Commodity collections, 79, 80 Conservation, see Germplasm management Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 4, 109, 118, 138–139 Cooperative State Research Service administrative role in NPGS, 2, 41, 52, 88, 99–100, 109

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Committee of Nine, 99 funding for germplasm-related activities, 6–8, 9, 53, 93–96, 99 Corn, 15, 33, 35, 81, 117, 124; see also Maize Corn blight, 102 Cotton, 5, 15, 17, 34, 40, 45, 55, 61, 68, 95, 122, 123 Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne), 65, 66–67 Creech, John, 66–67 Crop advisory committees changes proposed in, 11, 12–13, 114, 115 management of, 92 role in NPGS, 8, 49, 57, 79, 103–104 Crop Science Society of America, 67, 123 Crop vulnerability, see Vulnerability Crops cultivar replacement rates, 36 gene mapping, 24 improvement in U.S., 1, 21, 33–35 Cryopreservation, 21, 25, 30, 66, 72, 110, 121 Cutler, H. C., 81–82 D Database Management Unit, 139, 141–142 DNA, isolated, storage of, 25, 64; see also Genetic stocks Documentation of accessions, 79–80 international sharing of data, 138 passport and descriptor data, 28, 44, 72, 78–79, 140–141 responsibility for, 30, 44, 47 see also Germplasm Resources Information Network E Eastern filbert blight, 28, 130 Egolf, Donald, 67 Environment, importance of genetic resources to, 35–37 Erlanson, C. O., 40 Evening Primrose collection, 81 Experiment stations, see State agricultural experiment stations F Fairchild, David, 40 Forest Service, 41 Fruit crops, virus free clones, 50–51 G Gene mapping, 24, 76 Genetic drift, 75, 76, 120 Genetic research, and crop yields, 1, 3 Genetic resources, see Plant genetic resources Genetic stocks characteristics of, 23–24, 62, 123 maintenance of, 24, 48, 62, 122–124 NPGS collections, 46, 62–64, 67 uses of, 24, 78, 123

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Germplasm, see Collections; Plant germplasm Germplasm management acquisition activities, 13–14, 26–27, 28–29, 115–119 challenges of, 25–28 characterization and evaluation, 28, 30, 78–79 collection diversity and size and, 31 conservation, 29–30 distribution, 76–78 documentation, 6, 28, 30, 72, 79–80 federal-state cooperation in, 40 global responsibility, 3–4, 31–32 as live plants, 28, 69–72 preservation methods, 24–25, 28 regeneration and multiplication, 75–76, 86 research, 18–19, 142–144 screening for intracellular organisms, 119 seed viability testing, 72–75 structure of program, 28–32 utilization of collections, 29, 30–31 see also Collections; Seed Germplasm Resources Information Network accessibility of data, 141–142 characteristics of, 80 completion of database, 140 kinds of information, 80 management of, 6, 92, 139–142 passport and descriptor data, 80, 140–141 recommended changes in, 18, 128, 140 responsibilities of, 46, 79–80 Gossypium species, 34 Grasses, 45, 59, 61, 70, 81 Greenbug, 82 H Harrison, Ross G., 40 Hatch Act, 7, 99 I In situ conservation, 16, 127–128 In vitro storage, 30, 66, 71–72; see also Cell and tissue culture Information management, 6, 18, 28, 31, 139–142; see also Germplasm Resources Information Network International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 4, 37, 50, 67, 70, 72–73, 92, 115–116, 131 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 39, 138 International issues exchange of collections, 4, 37, 46, 77, 116 North American cooperative program, 17–18, 139 policy development and cooperation, 4, 12, 16–18, 32, 50, 131, 135–139 responsibility for germplasm protection and conservation, 16, 31–32, 135 trade embargoes and germplasm exchanges, 116 International Rice Research Institute, 4, 37, 6-8, 69

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 84 Interregional Research Project-1, 5, 6, 45, 46, 54, 58, 95, 100 Interregional Research Project-2, 50–51 J Jimson weed, 67, 81 K Kempton, J. H., 82 Klose, Nelson, 144 L Landraces, importance of, 3, 17, 23, 28, 31, 33–34, 127 Late leafspot (of peanuts), 39 Latin American Maize Project, 6, 127 Lentils, 45, 75 Lettuce, 45, 59, 72 Living Historical Farms, 86 Lycopersicon species, 3, 34, 63–64 M MacMillan, H. G., 40 Maize, 6, 17, 23, 33, 37, 45, 59, 70, 81–82, 92, 122, 127, 137; see also Corn Management, see Germplasm management Manglesdorf, P. C., 81–82, 122 Melon, 40, 45 Mexico, 17–18, 35, 138, 139 North American cooperative program, 17–18, 138, 139 Meyer, Frank N., 22, 40 Millets, 37, 45, 70 Morse, W. J., 40 N National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Plant and Animal Stocks, 40 National Arboretum, 45, 46, 64–65, 93, 127 National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 7–8, 102, 113 National clonal germplasm repositories backup of collections, 58, 69–70 facilities and personnel, 5, 45, 132 holdings, 28, 45, 53, 56, 57 management difficulties, 58 and quarantine, 118 research appropriations for, 93–96 responsibilities of, 5, 45, 46, 51, 57, 79 National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, 6, 49, 91–92, 96, 103, 104 National Herbarium of the Smithsonian Institution, 64 National Plant Gene Conservation Center, 68 National Plant Genetic Resources Board changes proposed in, 10–12, 16–17, 109, 112–113 composition of, 112 role in NPGS, 7–8, 102

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System National Plant Germplasm Committee changes proposed in, 12, 112–113 role in NPGS, 8, 102–103 National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center, 6, 50, 94, 101, 117–118 National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) acquisition activities, 6, 44–47; see also Plant Introduction Office administration of, see Administration of NPGS advisers to, 7–8, 101–105 collections, see Collections of NPGS college/university utilization of, 81–83 conservation activities, 9, 46, 51–72; see also Germplasm management costs of, 6, 9, 92–97 crop-related responsibilities, 45 distribution activities, 4, 37, 42, 76–78, 107 emergence of, 41–42 exploration for plants, 44, 47, 49–50, 92, 115–116 external review of facilities and programs, 14–15, 129–130 facilities and personnel, 5–6, 41, 44, 129–134; see also National clonal germplasm repositories; National Seed Storage Laboratory information management, 6, 139–142 international role of, 2, 6–7, 37, 42, 50 Interregional Research Project-2, 50–51 management of collections, 9, 46, 72–80; see also Collections of NPGS; Germplasm management mission of, 1, 15–18, 37–38, 43–44, 107, 134–139 origins of, 37–42, 43 plant introduction numbers, 40, 47–48 private industry support of, 6, 83–84 quarantine facilities, 6, 37, 44, 50, 116–119 short-day-length facilities, 15, 44, 130–131 site locations, 15, 130 staffing, 131–132 structure of, 2, 4–5, 22, 41, 46; see also Recommendations training scientists and technicians, 132–133 National Science Foundation, 49, 123 National Seed Storage Laboratory administration of, 89–90 back-up storage at, 14, 67–68, 122 deficiencies in, 14 facilities and personnel, 14, 55 genetic stock maintenance at, 122–123 holdings, 120–121 origin of, 41, 55 proposed expansion of, 14, 69, 120, 129 research appropriations for, 93

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System responsibilities of, 4–5, 44, 46, 51, 55, 66–69, 72, 78, 110 standards for seed viability, 72–73 National Small Grains Collection, 58–59 backup of accessions, 68 distribution of samples, 58–59 facilities and personnel, 54 holdings, 28, 32–33, 37, 45, 54, 58, 66–67 responsibilities, 5, 37, 45, 46, 66 Native Seeds/SEARCH, 85, 128 New Crops Coordinating Committee, 102 North American Fruit Explorers, 85 O Oats, 5, 32–33, 45, 58, 68 Onion, 45, 72 Orr, John, 40 P Peach, 40 Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), 38–39, 45, 59 Peanut rust, 39 Pecan (Carya illinoinensis), 45, 98–99 Phaseolus species, 37, 70 Pineapple, 45, 71 Pistachio, 43, 45 Plant genetic resources collections at state agricultural experiment stations, 60–61 crop improvement and development of, 1, 21, 33–35 importance to society and environment, 1, 35–37 in the United States, 21, 32–37, 43–44 Plant Genetics and Germplasm Institute, 94 Plant germplasm activities outside national system, 84–86 defined, 21–22 exploration for, 49–50 management of, see Germplasm management need for, 2, 21–25 preservation of, 21, 24–25 sources of, 22–23 technologies for preservation and use of, 21 uses of, 2, 22 vegetatively propagated, 69–72, 78 see also Collections; Collections of NPGS Plant Germplasm Operations Committee changes proposed in, 113, 114, 130 composition of, 104 role in NPGS, 8, 91, 104–105 Plant Introduction Office changes proposed in, 116 creation of, 4, 39–40 responsibilities of, 6, 39–40, 41, 44, 46, 47–48, 76, 78, 92 Plant Sciences Institute of Beltsville Area, 92 Plant Variety Protection Act, 67 Pollen storage, 30, 66 Potatoes, 5, 23, 28, 33, 40, 41, 45, 54, 58, 76, 100 Powdery mildew fungus, 65, 67 Private industry, support of

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System NPGS, 83–84 Prunus species, 116, 119 Public Law 733, 40; see also Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 Q Quarantine facilities, 6, 53, 127, 129; see also National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center international cooperation by U.S., 37 offshore facilities, 118 recommended policy changes, 116–119, 127 screening procedures, 119 R Recombinant DNA technology, 21 Recommendations acquisition activities, 13, 115–119 administration, 9–13, 107–117 advisory groups, 11–13, 112–114, 130 base collections, 13, 14–15, 120–121 classification and promotion of personnel, 133–134 collection management, 13–14, 119–128 collection priorities, 15–16, 134–135 cooperation with private collections, 13–14, 126–127 core subsets, 14, 124–126 crop advisory committees, 11, 12–13, 114, 115 crop curators, 13, 120 elevation within ARS, 11, 111–112 external review of collections, 14–15, 129–130 facilities and personnel, 14–15, 17, 130–131 funding for research, 18–19, 143–144 genetic stock management, 122–124 in situ conservation, 16, 127–129 information management, 18, 139–142 international policies and cooperation, 16–18, 131, 135–139 mission of NPGS, 15–18, 134–139 national clonal germplasm repositories, 13, 130 national collections, 13, 119 National Plant Genetic Resources Board, 10–12, 16–17, 109, 112–113 National Plant Germplasm Committee, 12, 112–113 National Seed Storage Laboratory expansion, 14, 120, 129 organization outside ARS, 10–11, 109–111 Plant Introduction Office, 116 program review, 14–15, 129–130, 143 quarantine arrangements, 116–119, 127 regeneration of seed, 13, 120–121 regional plant introduction stations, 13, 119 research advisory committee, 18, 142–143

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System special collections, 13–14, 122 staffing, 131–132 training of personnel, 132–133 Regional plant introduction stations administration of, 13, 52, 88 facilities and personnel, 5, 41, 45, 52–54 holdings, 45, 51, 52, 54, 73 recommended changes in, 13, 119 research appropriations for, 93–95, 99–100 responsibilities of, 5, 46, 51, 52–53, 73, 79 Research agenda, 142–143 external peer review, 18, 143 funding for, 7, 18–19, 40, 143–144 promotion of, 143–144 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 76 Rice, 5, 35, 37, 45, 58, 68, 70, 124 Risien, Edmond, 98–99 Rosa xanthina, 22 Rubber, 24, 37 Russian wheat aphid, 80–81 Rye, 5, 45, 49, 58, 81 S Seed desiccation-sensitive, 24–25, 27 germination rates and number of seeds for accessions, 73–74 regeneration/replenishment, 13, 24–25, 28, 30, 120–121, 137–138 storage, 24–25, 29, 66, 110 viability testing, 30, 44, 69, 72–75 Seed Savers Exchange, 47, 85–86, 127 Soil Conservation Service, 41, 79, 101 Solanum species, 23, 63–64 Sorghum, 37, 45, 70, 81, 82, 117 Soybeans, 6, 35, 37, 40, 45, 55, 61, 70, 81, 94, 124 Special crop germplasm collections, 13–14, 51, 59–62, 94–95, 122 State agricultural experiment stations administrative role in NPGS, 41, 52, 87, 100–101 collections, 100 funding for research by, 99, 100 genetic resource collections at, 59–61, 80 State facilities with collections, 59–61 Strawberry, 45, 72 Sugarcane, 36, 45, 70 Sweet potato, 45, 53, 70 T Technical committees and technical advisory committees, roles in NPGS, 8, 57, 104 Timothy, David, 38 Tissue culture, see Cell and tissue culture Tomatoes, 3, 34, 45, 59, 62, 70, 122, 123 resistance to diseases, 62–64 Triticale, 5, 45, 58

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System U United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, 17, 136–137 definition of genetic stocks, 62 International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, 137 NPGS cooperation with, 16–17, 37, 109, 115–116, 135–137 United States agricultural production in, 1, 3, 33–34 crop improvement in, 1, 21, 33–35 development of germplasm activities in, 21, 38–41; see also National Plant Germplasm System international exchange of collections, 37 plant genetic resources in, 32–37 U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 6, 50, 101, 116–118, 127 Competitive Research Grants Office, 18–19, 143 Foreign Plant Introduction Office, 40 management of NPGS, 88–101 Office of Experiment Stations, 89 Office of Science and Education, 3, 10, 109 Seed and Plant Introduction Section, 40 seed distribution by, 39 see also Agricultural Research Service; Cooperative State Research Service U.S. Patent Office, seed distribution by, 39 V Vegetatively propagated germplasm, 28, 69–72, 116 Vulnerability, 24, 35, 80, 102 W Westover, C., 40 Wheat, 3, 5, 17–18, 33–37, 38, 45, 58, 59, 70, 81, 123, 124, 126, 128 Whitaker Cucurbita species collection, 122 Whitehouse, W. E., 40 Wild oat (Avena sterilis L.), 32–33, 128 Wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.), 24–27 Y Yagyu, Paul, 27 Z Zizania aquatica, 24–25

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MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture Policy and Resources Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9. Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03987-8; ISBN 0-309-03985-1 (pbk). Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3. Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk). Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5. Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4. Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X. Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X. Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8. More information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, (202) 334-3313 (information only); (800) 624-6242 (orders only).