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I APPENDIX A Global Status of Livestock and Poultry Species Jan 7~. Mason and Roy D. Crawford Ux~like endangered wild species, none of the 40 or so animal species that have been domesticated for agricultural use is in serious jeopardy of extinction. Major species, such as cattle and pigs, are actually increasing in number as the food needs of a growing human population expand (Table A-1. Even those species of little importance on a global scale, such as reindeer and camel, are reasonably secure as long as people continue to live and maintain animals in the often inhospitable environments to which those spe- cies have adapted. Breeds and native populations are the reservoirs of genetic diver- sity within species. Although livestock and poultry species are not at risk of extinction, a substantial and, for some species, growing- number of breeds within those species are declining in population and size. Losses generally occur because the breeds no longer com- pete effectively within their respective production-market environ- mer~tal niche. The extent to which the losses will actually reduce genetic variation within the species is not known nor easily mea- sured. Among the developed regions, considerable knowledge has been gained about the status and trends of livestock breeds in Europe, Ian L. Mason is an animal breeding consultant and was, until recently, an animal produc- tion officer with the Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organiza- tion of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Roy D. Crawford is professor emeritus of animal and poultry genetics at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. 141

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Appendix A / 143 where a large number of local breeds were established and docu- mented in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Both livestock producers and animal scientists have been concerned about the loss of breeds and have made concerted efforts to measure trends (Maijala et al., 1984) and to conserve minor breeds (Bowman, 1974~. North America and Oceania have no indigenous mammalian livestock breeds. Thus, if the numbers of imported breeds are small and de- clining, there is little cause for concern as long as the parent popula- tion from which they were drawn remains viable. However, popula- tions can be identified as unique to these regions, and they merit consideration for conservation efforts. Developing regions tend to have neither well-characterized breeds nor census data from which to derive population trends. Generally, little is known about the effective population sizes for most breeds, much less the degree of genetic diversity within and among breeds. It is in the developing regions that many of the more unusual and, perhaps, useful breeds are found. Unfortunately, they are the breeds that may be in greatest danger of genetic erosion. This appendix provides an overview of the major livestock and poultry species in terms of total population sizes, global distribu- tions, and transitional patterns in the structure of subpopulations. It is not intended to provide a thorough or exhaustive list of breeds, nor can it fully describe the extent of ongoing changes in distribution or losses. Rather, it is intended to provide a sense of (1) the overall diversity in terms of breeds or types of stocks in different regions of the world and (2) the impact on this diversity of such factors as the international movement of germplasm, increased popularity or effi- ciency of certain breeds, and the synthesis of new breeds. The dis- cussion is largely based on reports by Ian Mason (1984, 1988) about cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, and buffalo and by Roy Crawford (1984, 1990) about poultry. CATTLE Two major types of cattle humpless and humped-comprise the world cattle population. They were originally named as separate species, Bos Taurus and Bos indices, but they are interfertile and now generally regarded as a single species. The former evolved and to- day predominates in temperate regions around the Mediterranean, in Europe, and across northern Asia to Japan. They were taken to the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa by European colonists. Bos indices, noted for their thoracic hump, are commonly called zebu. They predominate in southern Asia, from Saudi Arabia -

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144 / Appendix A through southern and central China and Indonesia, and in tropical Africa. Intermating among humped and humpless cattle along the extended borders of their range has produced cervicothoracic humped types, such as the Sanga breeds of eastern and southern Africa. Europe The Friesian (Black Pied Lowland) is the dominant breed in west- ern Europe. (Friesian is used here as a shorthand term for the Black Pied dairy breeds, including the Holstein.) Major populations of Simmental, Swiss Brown, and Red Pied Lowland also exist. Never- theless, many of the original native breeds are still maintained, al- though many are rare or nearly extinct (Table Am. In most of west- ern Europe, private or governmental bodies operate conservation programs for rare breeds. In Scandinavia, imported Friesians and Jerseys and derivatives of the Shorthorn and Ayrshire have all but eliminated the local breeds. Only the Danish Red and the Icelandic remain as major breeds; the Faroes and Finnish as minor breeds; and the Swedish Mountain, Blacksided Trondheim, and Telemark (both the latter in Norway) as rare breeds. A conservation program is monitoring these breeds. In central Europe, the Swiss Brown and Simmental from Switzer- land, the Red Pied Lowland (in Germany and Poland), and the Frie- sian have supplanted most of the local breeds. However, there still remain major populations of Pinzgauer and Tyrol Grey in Austria TABLE A-2 Number and Status of Cattle Breeds in Western Europe Status Region or Nearly Recently Country Major Minor Rare Extinct Extinct Belgium British Isles France Italy Malta Netherlands Portugal Spain Total (excluding overlaps) 36 0 4 7 3 8 6 8 6 9 2 3 6 8 26 30 2 3 5 3 1 2 2 2 14 9 NOTE: Excludes Friesian, Brown, Simmental, Red Pied Lowland, and their deriva- tives.

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Appendix A / 145 and of Angler and Gelbvieh in Germany, and minor populations re- main of Polish Red in Poland and of Herens in Switzerland. In Czecho- slovakia' all the native red (or color-sided) breeds have disappeared since World War II. In southeastern Europe, the Simmental and Swiss Brown, to a small extent the Pinzgauer, and, more recently, the Danish Red and the Friesian have almost completely replaced the local breeds. The Simmental has given rise to the several national pied or red pied breeds. The Grey Steppe is nearly extinct in Romania and Yugosla- via, and it is rare in Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Hungary. The native brachyceros (shorthorn type of Bos taurus) breeds are nearly extinct in Romania and rare in Bulgaria and Greece; only in Albania and Yugoslavia are there sizable populations of breeds whose origins are traceable to the shorthorn type. The former Soviet Union (now the Commonwealth of Indepen- dent States) has more recognized cattle breeds than any other coun- try in the world (Dmitriev and Ernst, 1989~. With the specific excep- tion of the Kalmyk in central Asia, however, the 30 major breeds are derivatives of black pied, brown, red, red pied (Simmental), or white- headed breeds of western and central Europe. Native breeds of mi- nor importance include Azerbaijan Zebu, Central Asian Zebu, Geor- gian Mountain, and Mingrelian Red; rare and declining breeds include Dagestan Mountain, Estonian Native, Goryn of Byelorussia, Kazakh, Siberian White, Ukrainian Grey, and Yakut. Conservation herds have been formed for three breeds of the latter group. Several other breeds have recently become extinct. Asia In most of the Arab countries of southwest Asia, cattle are not of major importance. In Turkey, however, there are large populations of three local humpless breeds and smaller numbers of the imported Grey Steppe and Brown breeds. Syria also has its local humpless breed, as well as the declining Damascus zebu x humpless breed, which is similar to breeds in Cyprus, Egypt, and Lebanon. In Iraq four local breeds are of zebu or zebu x humpless origin. In Iran interest is reviving in the local breeds, and conservation programs are being developed for five local breeds that vary from zebu in the east to humpless in the west. As for the Indian subcontinent, there are 23 major and 6 minor recognized zebu breeds in India, 6 major and 2 minor in Pakistan, and 1 each in Bhutan and Sri Lanka. Only about 20 percent of cattle in the subcontinent can be classified into recognized breeds; the rest

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146 / Appendix A are desi that is, local, village, or unimproved cattle. Two breeds in India are categorized as rare (Umblachery and Punganur of Tamil Nadu) and two more (Sahiwal and Ongole) should be the focus of conservation programs. Extensive crossing with European breeds has produced five named breeds of crossbred origin; the crossbreed- ing programs tend to choose the best Indian breeds as foundation stock, which has led to the decline in the number of pure Sahiwals. Two nineteenth-century derivatives of European crossbreeding, the Taylor of Bihar and the Hatton of Sri Lanka, are nearly extinct. The unique mithun (Bos frontalis; domesticated gaur) is found in Bhutan and neighboring countries to the east. In Japan, the original breeds have been displaced by crossing with European breeds to form four improved Japanese breeds. Else- where in the Far East, however, the local cattle remain and cross- breeding has only just begun. China has humpless cattle in the north, pastoral areas of Iko (Mongolian) and in the west (Kazakh and Ti- betan) and zebus in the south (but two out of the three breeds are now rare); in central China there are four major and four minor breeds with some zebu genes. Korea still has its native humpless cattle. Farther south, Burma, Indonesia, Kampuchea, Malaysia, the Philip- pines, Thailand, and Vietnam each has its own zebu landrace. In addition, Indonesia has the unique Bali cattle (Bos javanicus), which are descended from the banteng, and Madura cattle, which are inter- mediate between Bali cattle and lavanese zebu. Africa In North Africa, European breeds have had a great influence, but the native humpless breeds (Brown Atlas and Egyptian) remain dominant. The Oulmes Blond (Morocco) and the Cape Bon Blond (Tunisia) are two local derivatives. The Thibar is a newly developed breed in Tunisia. Some Libyan cattle remain; they are intermediate between the Egyptian breed and the Brown Atlas. In West Africa, there has been very little crossing with imported breeds because they generally adapt poorly to local disease and cli- matic problems. There are five major local types: zebus, N'Dama, West African Shorthorn, zebu x humpless crossbreeds, and Kuri. In the northern part of West Africa, there are 11 recognized breeds of zebu. These are the cattle that suffer from the periodic Sahelian droughts. In the southerly (coastal) areas, where the tsetse fly and associated trypanosomiasis disease are prevalent, are the two humpless trypanotolerant breeds: N'Dama in the west and West African Short- horn in the east and south. Between zebu and humpless at least four

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Appendix A / 147 stabilized breeds of crossbred origin have developed. This cross- breeding is putting a strain on the West African Shorthorn, however; the zebu or zebu-cross is preferred because of its larger size, despite its reduced (or lack of) tolerance to trypanosomiasis. Of the several varieties of West African Shorthorn, those in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Cameroon are either extinct or nearly so, and those in Togo, Benin, and Liberia are declining. Because its productivity per unit of body weight is higher than that of other breeds in tsetse areas, the West African Shorthorn needs conservation. There are still sizable populations in the Ivory Coast (Baoule) and Nigeria (Muturu). The fifth West African breed, the humpless Kuri of Lake Chad, is unique and its status should be monitored. In East Africa, the original humpless cattle have disappeared (un- less they are represented by the rare Sheko breed of southwest Ethio- pia); they were displaced first by the Sanga and then by zebu from India. There are now recognized Sanga breeds in Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Zaire, and Tanzania; in addition, there are at least 20 zebu breeds in those countries and in Kenya, Mozambique, and Madagas- car, as well as 5 zebu-Sanga intermediates. The only endangered breeds appear to be the above-mentioned Sheko, two breeds of Euro- pean x zebu origin (the Mpwapwa in Tanzania and the Renitelo in Madagascar), and two "breeds" in Madagascar (the Baria and the Rana) about which recent information is lacking. In southern Africa, there are many Sanga breeds in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zaire, Zambia, and Zim- babwe. No breeds are recorded as rare, but there are some interest- ing new breeds in comparatively small numbers in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, all based on a European x Sanga foundation. The Americas America has no truly indigenous cattle; cattle of Spanish or Por- tuguese origin (Criollo or Crioulo) have been acclimatizing for nearly 500 years, however, and they have some claim to being called native. In the temperate areas (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, southern Brazil, northern Mexico, and the United States) the native cattle have been replaced by more productive European breeds, and in the tropical areas they are giving way to the zebu. The improvement in zebu x Criollo crosses is wrongly attributed to additive rather than to het- erosis effects, so grading up continues and the pure Criollo is now rare. The largest populations are the Yacumeno of Bolivia, the Casanareno/Llanero of Colombia and Venezuela, and the mountain Criollos of the Andes. There are several other local breeds in Colom

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148 / Appendix A bia but not in large enough numbers to be exploited commercially. Small Criollo populations are being used for meat production in Ar- gentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, and Venezuela. Criollo cattle for milk production have been developed in Brazil, the Central Ameri- can countries, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Bolivia, and Ven- ezuela. De Alba (1987) describes 31 Criollo ecotypes. In the United States, the two breeds of Spanish origin are the Texas Longhorn, which has come back from near extinction to be a flourishing breed, and the nearly extinct Florida Cracker, which is now the object of private conservation efforts. In the United States and Canada, some interesting rare breeds are descended from early imports from other countries; these include the Dutch Belted, Milk- ing Devon, and Canadienne. In both North and South America, the most striking feature is the multitude of new breeds, either well established or in formation. In tropical America, the new breeds are mostly based on a zebu x Euro- pean cross, but some are Criollo x European and others zebu x zebu. They include nine breeds in Brazil (beef, dairy, and dual purpose), two in Colombia, two in Cuba, and four in Jamaica. There is also the Senepol of the Virgin Islands, which is unique in that it has N'Vama as well as Red Poll genes. In the United States, all the new breeds are beef type; seven are based on a zebu cross and five have only European ancestors. Three breeds are said to have bison blood. In Canada, no zebu genes is present in the one new dairy and four new beef "breeds." Australia Like America, Australia is chiefly noteworthy for its new breeds. The Illawarra and Murray Grey breeds, of pure European origin, are of long-standing and major importance. In the past 60 years, at least eight new beef and two new dairy breeds have been formed from initial zebu x European crosses. GOATS Europe In all of the countries of Europe except Norway and the southern peninsulas, the goat is decreasing in importance. All major breeds are derivatives of Swiss dairy goats, especially the Saanen, Toggenburg, and Chamois Colored, in that order. A few minor local breeds re- main, including the Anglo-Nubian in England; the Corsican in France; the Pinzgau in Austria; the Carpathian in Poland and Romania; and

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Appendix A / 149 the Appenzell, Grisons Striped, Valais Blackneck, and Verzasca in Switzerland. There are also several rare breeds, mostly kept by fanci- ers or in conservation herds. These include the Bagot, Old English, Golden Guernsey, and Irish in the British Isles; the Dutch Dwarf, Dutch Landrace, and Dutch Pied in the Netherlands; the Catalan, Massif Central, Poitou, Provenc~al, and Rove in France; the St. Gallen in Switzerland; and the Peacock goat in Germany. The importation of goats raised for fiber is a recent and growing interest in many European countries. The use of the imported ani- mals to upgrade local goats for fiber production has further jeopar- dized the survival of some populations. In Scandinavia, the Norwegian goat has absorbed the declining native goats of Sweden and, to a lesser extent, Finland to form the flourishing Nordic breed. The Icelandic breed, which was down to only 200 animals, has been saved through a state program initiated in the 1970s. The number and status of goat breeds in southern Europe are shown in Table A-3. The table excludes the Swiss derivatives in Italy, which are among the major breeds in that country. The large number of minor and rare breeds reported for Italy reflects recent identifica- tion of several local breeds in what was hitherto considered a hetero- geneous population and, to a great extent, still is. In the Commonwealth of Independent States, dairy goats are mostly restricted to individual holdings; the only recognized breeds are the Saanen derivatives in northern European Russia (Russian White and Gorki) and the native Mingrelian in Georgia. The state and collective farms in the Don basin and in central Asia keep large herds of down (cashmere) and mohair goats of several breeds, most of them of re- cent formation from crosses onto the local coarse-haired goats. The latter are found in small numbers in central Asia and in Transcaucasia. Asia In southwest Asia, there are many interesting and important goat breeds. These include the Angora and Anatolian Black of Turkey, the Mamber and Damascus of Syria, the Israeli Saanen (the only Euro- pean influence), and the Iraqi. These are the breeds listed as "major" in Table A-3. The Damascus goat of Syria, a dairy breed, is in need of conservation and improvement. The minor breeds of southwest Asia may also be numerically and economically important, but they have not been adequately described, except for those in Turkey. In the Indian subcontinent, there are very many goats, and a large proportion have been classified into recognized or local breeds (Table

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150 / Appendix A TABLE A-3 Number and Status of Local Goat Breeds Status Region or Country Nearly Major Minor Rare Extinct Southern Europe Albania Bulgaria Greece Italy Portugal Spain Yugoslavia Southwest Asia Afghanistan Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel ~ . Syria Turkey Saudi Arabia Yemen (North) Indian subcontinent Bangladesh India Kashmir Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka 1 4 3 5 2 2 2 1 18 1 13 11 2 5 1 3 2 6 2 2 2 1 7 2 6 3 5 _ 2 4 Add. These include dairy, meat, hair, and cashmere producers. The only endangered breeds in India are the Jamnapari, whose purebred numbers have fallen to 5,000, and the Barbari, of which there are 30,000 purebreeds. China rivals India in the number and variety of its native goats. Many breeds have been briefly described, and they can be tentatively classified into 15 major and 14 minor breeds. They include meat and cashmere breeds. In addition, eight new dairy breeds are being formed by crossing native goats with European breeds, chiefly Saanen. In the Far East, there are small, local goats in Korea, Indochina, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. The best known is the hating of Malaysia and Indonesia. Japan's native breeds have

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Appendix A / 151 been~reduced to two rare populations, one in a protected herd and the other feral. In southeast Asia, there is considerable crossing with the lamnapari of India. Africa In North Africa, the goats in the east (Egypt) are clearly related to the long-haired, long-eared black breeds of the Middle East (Anatolian Black, Mamber, Iraqi). Farther west they become more heterogeneous, and "breeds" have not been described (except for the Mzabite of Algeria). The Zaraibi dairy goat of Egypt appears to be declining in number, and its status should be monitored. The goats of West Africa fall into two main groups the West African Dwarf, found toward the coast, and the Sahelian, found far- ther inland. The West African Dwarf is remarkably uniform from Senegal to Angola, but the Sahelian is divided into many local "breeds." The Maradi of Niger (a breed equivalent to the Red Sokoto of Nige- ria) is a useful producer of "Morocco" leather. In East Africa, two breeds have been described in Ethiopia (with many local varieties), four in the Sudan, one major and three minor in East Africa proper, three in Somalia, and one in Mauritius. In southern Africa, there is one improved meat breed (the Boer of South Africa) and flourishing native populations in all other countries of the area. The Americas The original Spanish, Portuguese, and West African imports have given rise to the Criollo goats of Spanish America (with many na- tional populations) and the Crioulo of Brazil. From the latter has developed the SRD (sem rapa definida, without defined breed) with its four color varieties, which are being made into breeds. Interesting new imports into Brazil are the Bhuj from India, the Mamber from Syria, and the Anglo-Nubian and other European breeds. In the United States, several new breeds of diverse origin have been formed, including Lamancha (Mexico), American Pygmy and Nigerian Dwarf (West Africa), Oberhasli (Switzerland), Spanish An- gora, and Tennessee Fainting (India) ~ ~ ~_,. Perhaps the most interesting goat genetic resource in the Americas is the series of feral popula- tions found on at least five Pacific islands. All are in danger from extermination policies designed to save the native plant and animal communities of the islands.

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160 / Appendix A and Poonchi of lammu and Kashmir (owing to crossbreeding); the Magra, Pugal, and Chokla breeds of Rajasthan (owing to shortage of feed and water in their arid habitat); and the Mandya of Karnataka (in part because of the spread of cultivation). In China, there are six major and six minor breeds, chiefly in the pastoral areas of the west and north. They are all coarse-woofed breeds. Fourteen new breeds have been formed (or are being formed) by crossing with western breeds, chiefly Merinos. However, the new breeds do not yet seem to have made any impact on the numbers of the local breeds, especially the Mongolian, which is dominant in Mongolia and northeast China. The Hu and the Han are interesting prolific breeds in central China. Southeast Asia is not sheep country, but there are small popula- tions of the local breeds in Burma, Malaysia, and Thailand. Indone- sia is the only country of the region with a large population of sheep, chiefly in lava. There are three breeds, all of interest because of their adaptation to a hot, humid environment, high reproductive rate, and mutton production. Africa Among the countries of North Africa, Morocco, Algeria, and southern Egypt have thin-tailed sheep; Tunisia, Libya, and northern Egypt have fat-tailed sheep. All are coarse-woofed breeds and by necessity adapted to a difficult environment. Crossing with improved breeds has had little effect on the general sheep population. Three native breeds can be counted in Algeria, six in Egypt, ten in Morocco, one in Tunisia, and one in Libya, but subdivision into breeds is flexible in Algeria and Morocco. Some interesting breeds in Morocco should be moni- tored; for example, the less coarse-woofed breeds of the Atlantic Coast and the prolific D'Man of the Sahara. A new breed is the Tunisian Milk sheep, of Sardinian origin. West Africa has five major breeds with many varieties. Only one, the Macina of Mali, is woofed. The others are hair sheep long- legged sheep in the Sahel and the so-called West African Dwarf in the Guinean (coastal) zone. The latter is trypanotolerant. Numbers ap- pear to be stationary, and there has been almost no crossing with exotic breeds. In East Africa, three breeds have been described in Ethiopia, but the country has not been covered, and several more breeds have not been adequately described. Sudan has two main breeds with many varieties and at least three minor breeds. Somalia has its famous Blackhead. Farther south there are well-defined populations of fat

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A Spend ix A / 161 tailed hair breeds. No attrition is reported, but in the highlands of Kenya, European breeds continue to displace the indigenous Masai sheep. In southern and central Africa, each country has its population of local fat-tailed hair sheep, but in Zaire, Angola, and west central Africa, the numbers are few and those that are found are poorly described. In southern Africa, most of the local breeds have been replaced by European breeds, especially Merinos. The Blackhead Persian, of Somali origin, has taken the place of the local breeds as an adapted hair breed. The Nguni remains in Zululand, as well as in Swaziland and Mozambique, but the Africander is nearly extinct. Most new breeds in southern Africa are based on the Merino, but the Dor- per is of Dorset-Persian breeding and a useful addition to improved meat breeds adapted to the dry tropics. The Americas The temperate areas of Latin America are entirely populated by European breeds, largely Merinos, but the tropical areas have large populations of "native" breeds, so-called because of centuries of ad- aptation to local conditions. The Criollo, of Spanish origin, is the major breed in the highlands from Mexico to Bolivia. There are many varieties but few have been described. In the tropical lowlands from Mexico to Brazil, hair sheep (originally from West Africa) have be- come increasingly important. There are at least four recognized breeds and many mixed and undescribed populations. They are also impor- tant on several Caribbean islands. There are prolific breeds on Bar- bados and the Virgin isles, but the numbers are small and the breeds need encouragement. There are other groups in the Bahamas, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic (among others). In the United States, most of the major British breeds are repre- sented, as well as many breeds from other countries. Many synthetic breeds were formed in the past. These can be classed as two major, five minor, six rare, two feral, and one nearly extinct. Canada also has two minor breeds. The process of breed formation continues; 11 new breeds in the United States, plus 2 in Canada, have been devel- oped in the past 50 years from a very diverse selection of foundation breeds. Australia and New Zealand! Besides the British breeds, the major breeds of local origin are the Australian Merino, Corriedale, New Zealand Romney, and Polwarth.

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162 / Appendix A Through various combinations of these resources, 12 new breeds have been formed in Australia and 10 in New Zealand. In New Zealand, one aim has been to produce carpet-wool breeds by exploiting the coarse-wool mutations of the Romney. BUFFALO There are two main types of water buffalo: the Swamp and the River buffalo. The Swamp buffalo of southeast Asia extends from Assam to the Philippines and from southern China to northern Aus- tralia. They are primarily draft and secondarily meat animals. There is little apparent variation, except in size and horn length. Their color is slate grey, but there are some white variants in Thailand and some pied in Indonesia. No breeds have been defined. The River buffalo extends from India westward to Egypt and Italy. These buffalo are black or dark grey, have a variety of horn forms, and are primarily dairy animals. They have been developed into a series of seven recognized breeds in India and Pakistan. At least five named varieties are among the prevailing desi population of central and southern India. There are important national breeds in Bulgaria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Italy, and Turkey. In Albania, Greece, . . ~, . . . . 1 1 ' . . . . , .~ egomania, and Yugoslavia, the river buffalo is declining. In Syria it is rare, and in Hungary nearly extinct. In Bulgaria and Italy, it is mov- ing from a milk to a meat and milk animal. A large and expanding population is in Brazil, with two main breeds, lafarabadi and Medi- terranean; smaller populations exist in other Latin American coun- tries and in Trinidad. POULTRY The global status of poultry can be assessed only in very general terms because of inadequacies in existing knowledge. Two kinds of problems prevent specific assessments. First, descriptive inventories of breeds, landraces, and types do not exist for poultry. There are a few exceptions, but overall, the range of poultry genetic resources has never been adequately measured, even at national levels. Second, national census data do not clearly distinguish among the various species of domesticated birds, and so there is not even any certain knowledge of the world population for each species. Some species are totally ignored, others may be grouped under the terms poultry and waterfowl, and sometimes the term poultry is used only for chickens. There are eight species of domesticated birds that provide a sig- nificant food resource of eggs and meat. A few others also provide

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Appendix A / 163 food for humans, but their global significance is negligible. Collec- tively, these can be called poultry using the broad definition that includes avian species that reproduce freely under the care of man. The eight species having significance as food producers are chickens or do- mestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic ducks (Anas plalyrhynchos), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), domestic geese (Anser anser and Anser cygnoides), and pigeons (Columba livia). Most domesticated birds have passed through four stages in their evolution. The first was domestication per se. The second was diffu- sion to other countries, other environments, and other cultures. The third was the "hen craze era" of the late nineteenth and early twenti- eth centuries, when public interest in breeds and breeding was ex- tremely high. And the fourth has been industrial exploitation. The result has been stratification of genetic types, some of them relic, into four categories: industrial, middle level, indigenous, and feral (Crawford, 1984; Crawford, 1990; Mason, 1984~. Industrial stocks are the hybrids (two-way, three-way, and four-way crosses) bred by multinational corporations for the mass production of eggs and meat under inten- sive confinement conditions. Middle-level stocks are the traditional breeds of developed countries; they have reasonably good produc- tion performance if kept under reasonably good husbandry. Indig- enous stocks are native to an area and are mostly kept as scavengers under conditions of minimal care and, thus, low productivity. Feral stocks have reverted to the wild and are away from the care of man. Chickens Chickens are the most important domestic animals globally as a source of food for man. Although they originated in the tropics, they perform well in temperate and cold climates if provided warm hous- ing and special care. Industrial and middle-level stocks developed under temperate conditions. Industrial chickens are bred by primary breeder operations owned by multinational corporations. Fewer than 10 primary breeders, which generate both white-shell and brown-shell layers, dominate the world industrial egg market. Fewer than 10 breeders now dominate the world industrial broiler market. There are a few small-scale primary breeder operations at regional levels. All industrial chickens are crossbreeds, usually three-way or four- way crosses. The pure grandparent lines are kept by the primary breeder. Crossbred parent stocks are kept by multipliers and dis- tributors who sell the commercial progeny to the producers. White

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164 / Appendix A shell layers are exclusively White Leghorn strain crosses. Brown- shell layers are breed crosses, principally involving the Rhode Island Red, Barred Plymouth Rock, Black Australorp, and a few other breeds. Chicken broilers are crosses of lines based on the White Cornish and White Plymouth Rock breeds. The major primary breeders sell their products in most devel- oped countries, except Australia, which has its own group of primary breeders. The industrial stocks are also used extensively in centrally planned economies, either as a basic resource for local selection and reproduction or as annual replacements of production flocks, and in some developing countries that have imported high-input industrial- ized poultry systems. The origin and inventory of grandparent stocks are a corporate secret of each primary breeder. It is widely suspected that many primary breeders share the same or very similar grandparent lines. Thus, the genetic base for industrial poultry may be exceedingly nar- row. Most primary breeders maintain genetic resources in reserve to meet changing product requirements and production conditions. Their future breeding horizon rarely exceeds a decade, however. Middle-level chickens are the traditional breeds developed in cold and temperate climates. Most are dual purpose, but Leghorns are egg producers. Most were developed in western Europe, Great Brit- ain, and North America during the "hen craze" era that began in the late nineteenth century. Phenotypic descriptions can be found in fancier guidebooks, such as the American Standard of Perfection (1983), first published by the American Poultry Association in 1874. Several breeds, including Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn, and Barred Ply- mouth Rock, have been repeatedly introduced into developing coun- tries to improve the production performance of indigenous stocks. Most indigenous stocks probably would include some genes from these middle-level breeds. These breeds were also widely used in centrally planned economies before the advent of industrial stocks. Middle-level chickens are the most endangered poultry resource in western countries, where industrialization is most advanced. Only eight middle-level strains remained in use in Canada in 1980 (Crawford, 1984), and most are now commercially extinct. An American Minor Breeds Conservancy (1987) survey revealed a similar situation in the United States. Some middle-level breeds are being conserved by public agencies in Europe, and fanciers are active in conservation in Great Britain and North America. Except for Canada, the United States, and Australia, no satisfactory inventories of middle-level breeds ex- ist. Particularly lacking is knowledge of these breeds in eastern Eu- rope, Asia, and Latin America.

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Appendix A / 165 Indigenous chickens are found around the world in hot climates. The birds are small and hardy, but their productivity is low. They are seriously endangered globally because of the invasion by industrial stocks from Western countries and their susceptibility to pathogens introduced by the industrial stocks. Little documentation is available on their production and adaptation traits. In Africa, only the indigenous chickens of Nigeria and Egypt have been studied in detail. Those of Central and South America are vir- tually unknown. The native chickens of Iran have been described, but there are no known studies from other areas of southwest Asia. Most is known about the indigenous resources of southeast Asia and Oceania (Society for the Advancement of Breeding Researches in Asia and Oceania, 1980~. There are 18 indigenous chicken breeds in India, 2 each in Indonesia and Thailand, and 1 each in Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Bangladesh, and Papua New Guinea. Intermating of wild and domestic stocks is common in southeast Asia, the center , . 01 orlgm. Feral populations of chickens are few in number. It is believed that the red junglefowl of the Philippines and some islands of Oceania are really feral stocks. In addition, there are many inbred lines, random-bred control strains, stocks carrying particular blood type alleles, and lines carry- ing mutant genes and chromosome rearrangements. More than 350 mutations have been reported (Somes, 1988), and 125 genes from chickens have been cloned. Somes (1988) has listed 217 specialized chicken stocks. Turkeys Turkeys are a species of temperate climates, where they perform well if given suitable care. They do not tolerate extreme heat. They are second in importance to chickens as a meat source in Western countries. They have lesser importance in centrally planned econo- mies. Except in Central and South America, they are seldom kept in developing countries. Industrial turkeys are a three-way or four-way cross, always white feathered and broad breasted. They are reproduced by artificial in- semination, because their natural mating ability is hampered by the broad-breasted character bred into them. Fewer than five primary breeders share most of the world market for industrial turkeys. There is no inventory of genetic resources. Middle-level turkeys are rare. The few that remain produce less meat than industrial lines, but they can mate naturally. Only one . .

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166 / Appendix A strain remains in Canada (Crawford, 1984), and very few are left in the United States (American Minor Breeds Conservancy, 1987~. A French stock is marketed, especially in Latin America. Indigenous turkeys are prevalent in Mexico and in South America. They probably have descended directly from the original Mexican domestication without the influence of the eastern wild turkey of the United States, which contributed to development of the industrial broad-breasted turkey. Guinea Fowl This species is adapted to a hot, dry climate. It needs warm housing in cold climates and will not reproduce until temperatures exceed 15C. Industrial breeding has begun in France. Guinea fowl production is a small-scale operation in western Europe and North America, but it is more important in central and eastern Europe. Guinea fowl are second to chickens in importance in most of Africa, but they are barely known elsewhere in the world. There are no distinctive breeds. Some stocks have been selected for growth rate and body size and could be classed as middle-level breeds. Most are essentially wild types. Those of Africa could be called indigenous; eggs and meat are harvested from wild, feral, and domestic flocks. Japanese Quail Coturnix have gained importance as a source of eggs and meat since World War II. Those bred for food production are of the lapa- nese species. They are a migratory species and require a temperate or warm environment. Their use has spread rapidly to all continents, mostly for production of specialty foods. In southeast Asia, Japanese quail production is becoming a major industry. Most stocks in use could be classed as middle-level breeds. Breeds in the traditional sense have not yet been identified, and the exist- ence of truly indigenous stocks is not documented. Except for a partial inventory of laboratory strains and mutations (Somes, 1988), there is no known inventory of existing genetic resources. Domestic Ducks Mallards, the sole ancestor of domestic ducks, are a northern temperate species. Hence, the domestic form can tolerate all environments,

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Appendix A / 167 except very hot. Their egg-production potential exceeds that of chickens, but only in southeast Asia are duck eggs a preferred product. Industrial breeding of meat ducks is confined to developed coun- tries. Crossbreeds are based on the White Pekin breed. Several major breeding companies provide most of the commercial ducklings. Middle-level breeds are found in Western countries, but they are not important food sources. Khaki Campbells and Indian Runners are noted for high levels of egg production. Indigenous stocks in southeast Asia are kept mainly for egg pro- duction under herding management. A few stocks of industrial ori- gin are confined to meat production. These are the best-described indigenous stocks of any poultry species (Farrell and Stapleton, 1986; Society for the Advancement of Breeding Researches in Asia and Oceania, 1980~. Particularly notable are the Alabio of South Kalimantan, Tegal of lava, Tsaiya of Taiwan, and Indian Runner of Indonesia and Ma- laysia. Muscovy Ducks This species is tropical and does not tolerate cold temperatures. It remains similar to the wild species, with only a few color variants and variations in body size. Muscovy ducks can be hybridized with domestic ducks (usually muscovy male x domestic female) to pro- duce the sterile mulard, which is in demand as a meat product, espe- cially in Taiwan. Despite their high yield of low-fat meat, muscovy ducks have not received much attention. They are just now becoming the focus of industrial breeding in France. Most stocks in developed countries and centrally planned economies can be classed as middle level, but separate breeds and strains are not recognized. The stocks in devel- oping countries can be regarded as indigenous. Their greatest value is in their brooding behavior and mothering ability, both toward their own progeny and those of other species. Domestic Geese Domestic geese are descended from two wild species. Eastern stocks are Anser cygnoides, and the western ones are Anser anser. The two types can interbreed freely. Both are temperate northern species adaptable to all but the warmest environments. Because of their poor tolerance of high temperatures, few geese are raised in tropical developing countries. They have only minor importance as a meat

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168 / Appendix A source in developed countries but are of greater importance in cen- trally planned economies, especially China. Industrial breeding of geese has not begun. Middle-level breeds provide most of the food-producing birds, as purebreds and as crosses. The predominant breeds in Western countries are Emden, Toulouse, and Chinese. There are believed to be many middle-level stocks, es- pecially in China, but the relationship of those stocks to the predomi- nant breeds in Europe and North America is not known. Indigenous stocks probably exist, but they have not been described. Pigeons Pigeons are kept largely by fanciers in temperate and cold cli- mates. In hot areas of Europe, Asia, and Africa, however, they have been a traditional source of meat for many centuries (Levi, 1969~. The meat product is squab (young pigeon nearly ready to fly). There is a considerable but uncataloged array of genetic resources, includ- ing kinds that are highly developed for squab production (Levi, 1969~. REFERENCES de Alba, J. 1987. Criollo cattle of Latin America. Pp. 19-44 in Animal Genetic Re- sources, Strategies for Improved Use and Conservation, J. Hodges, ed. FAO Ani- mal Production and Health Paper No. 66. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organi- zation of the United Nations. American Minor Breeds Conservancy (AMBC). 1987. 1987 AMBC Poultry Census and Sourcebook. Pittsboro, N.C.: American Minor Breeds Conservancy. American Poultry Association. 1983. The American Standard of Perfection, J. Skinner, ed. Troy, N.Y.: American Poultry Association. Bowman, J. C. 1974. Conservation of rare breeds in the United Kingdom. Pp. 23-29 in Proceedings of the First World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Pro- duction, Vol. II. Madrid, Spain: Graficas Orbe. Cheng Peilieu. 1984. Livestock Breeds of China. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 46. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Crawford, R. D. 1984. Assessment and conservation of animal genetic resources in Canada. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 64:235-251. Crawford, R. D., ed. 1990. Poultry Breeding and Genetics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. Dmitriev, N. G., and L. K. Ernst, eds. 1989. Animal Genetic Resources of the USSR. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 65. Rome, Italy: Food and Agri- culture Organization of the United Nations. Farrell, D. J., and P. Stapleton, eds. 1986. Duck Production Science and World Prac- tice. Armidale, Australia: University of New England. Levi, W. M. 1969. The Pigeon, 2d rev. ed. Sumter, N.C.: Levi. Maijala, K., A. V. Cherekaev, J. M. Devillard, Z. Reklewski, G. Rognoni, D. L. Simon, and D. E. Steane. 1984. Conservation of animal genetic resources in Europe.

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Appendix A / 169 Final report of an EAAP (European Association of Animal Production) working party. Livestock Prod. Sci. 11:3-22. Mason, I. L., ed. 1984. Evolution of Domesticated Animals. New York: Longman. Mason, I. L. 1988. A World Dictionary of Livestock Breeds Types and Varieties, 3d ed. Wallingford, U.K.: CAB International. Society for the Advancement of Breeding Researches in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO). 1980. Proceedings of SABRAO Workshop on Animal Genetic Resources in Asia and Oceania. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agricultural Research Center. Somes, R. G., Jr. 1988. International Registry of Poultry Genetic Stocks. Storrs Agri- cultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 476. Storrs: University of Connecticut.

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