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Index A Africa cattle, status in, 146-147 data base on livestock populations, 120 expert committee on animal genetic resources in, 115 germplasm banks, 122 goats, status in, 151 horses, status in, 156-157 identification of endangered livestock in, 115 pigs, status in, 153 priorities for livestock conservation by management, 117 sheep, status in, 160-161 African swine fever virus, 178, 205, 206, 211, 224 Akabane virus, 178-179, 204, 229- 230 Alleles defined, 72, 245 maintenance in interbreeding populations, 55 multiple, 72, 79, 82 259 variation in blood group proteins, 80 Allelic frequencies defined, 72, 245 determinants of, 67 estimation of, 73 genetic drift, 69 Alpacas, 22, 23, 117 American Minor Breeds Conservancy, 40, 50, 51, 60, 98, 101 Animal agriculture, development of, 21-25 Animal welfare concerns, 27 Argentina, 108, 122 Artificial breeding centers, 217-219 diseases of concern in, 220-234 of endangered and rare species, 234-235 and genetic diversity losses, 52 research recommendations, 235- 238 Artificial insemination, 32, 33, 52, 88, 107, 111 Asia cattle, status in, 145-146

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260 / Index expert committee on animal genetic resources, 115 germplasm banks, 122 goats, status in, 149-151 horses, status in, 156 pigs, status in, 153 priorities for livestock conservation by management, 117 sheep, status in, 159-160 Asociacion Latinoamericana de Produccion Animal, 112-113, 115, 126 Ass, 23 Association of Living Historical Breeding, 9 Farms and Agricultural Museums, 101 Australia cattle, status in, 147-148 DNA probes, 93 horses, status in, 157 pigs, status in, 154 sheep, status in, 41, 161-162 B Bacterial agents, 225-226 Bangladesh, oxen in, 43 Banteng, 23 Bees, 121 Biological diversity, impact of human activities on, 112 Biotechnology, and stock improvement, 40 Birds cryopreservation of germplasm, 54 domesticated, generic distribution of, 23 gene transfer into, 85 Blood group proteins, allelic variation in, 80 Blood samples, 122 Bluetongue virus, 179-180, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 213, 221 Bos indices, 23, 24, 25 Bos Taurus, 1, 23, 24, 70 livestock conservation programs, 108 pig and poultry production, 26 Bovine leukemia virus, 180-181 Bovine leukosis virus, 204, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213, 228 Bovine parvovirus, 207 Bovine viral diarrhea virus, 181, 204, 205, 207, 210 Brazil germplasm bank, 122 livestock preservation in, 99, 108 Panterno swamp cattle, 39 controlled, 5-6 and feeding requirements, 5-6, 36 history of, 5-6, 27-28 population, 66 see also Crossbreeding/ crossbreeds Breeds characterization of, 115 classifications of status of, 50-51, 116, 121 commercial, 4, 9 defined, 66, 245 designation of identity, 64-65 documentation of, 16 examples of, 3 extinct, 41, 59, 247 geographic isolation or fragmentation, 52, 64-65 loss of, 43 minor, 50, 51 number of, 29 preservation within, 4, 116 quantifying relationships among, 79 rare, 50, 51, 55-56 societies / associations, 64, 98 subdivision into, 4, 64-67 uniqueness, 28-31 watch, 51 world list of, 121 see also Crossbreeds/ crossbreeding; Endangered

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Index / 261 and unique breeds; Indigenous breeds; Stocks; Traditional breeds Brucella abortus, 181-182, 204, 207, 208, 210, 212 Buffalo cryopreservation of semen, 88 domestication of, 22 Murrah, 117 Nili-Ravi, 117 priorities for conservation by management, 117 status globally, 162 Swamp, 117 Burkina Faso, chicken production, 65 Camelidae, 22, 23, 117, 141 Campylobacter fetus, 205 Canada, government subsidies for private breeding, 16, 56 Caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus, 182, 209, 212 Cat, 23 Cattle Africander, 73-74 assay of embryos from seropositive or infected donors, 210-211 assay of uterine flush fluids from seropositive or infected donors, 212 Bali, 107 Barzona breed, 74 beef, 6, 35, 65 Berrenda breeds, 42 Boran, 89, 92, 117 breeding, 5-6 Camargue, 55 Canadienne, 16, 56 characterization studies of, 99 Charolais, 6 Criollo, 4, 117 disease resistant, 8, 24, 70 domestication of, 22 Dutch Belted, 101 embryo transfer from seropositive or infected donors, 208 embryonic development and infectivity of zone-intact embryos after pathogen exposure, 204-205, 207 endangered, 42 gene products of major histocompatibility complex, 58-59 genes mapped in, 83 generic distribution of, 23 genetic variation among breeds, 3 Guzera, 117 Hereford, 70 humped, 24 humpless, 24-25 Hungarian Grey Steppe, 55, 98 Iberian stock, 4 importance of genetic diversity, 38 in vitro exposure to pathogens and, 213 in vitro fertilization, 32 Kenana, 117 Longhorn, 5-6, 55 N'Dama, 8, 24, 27, 89, 92, 117 Nguni, 55 nomenclature problems, 24-25 Pantenero swamp, 39 priorities for conservation by management, 117 Sahiwal, 73, 117 Scottish Highland cattle, 59 semen viability, 58 Shorthorn, 6 status globally, 143-148 trypsin treatment on pathogen exposed, zone-intact embryos, 206 zebu, 24, 143, 145, 146-147, 148, 223 see also Dairy cattle Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, 112 Chad, Bos indicus cattle, 25

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262 / Index Chickens, 1 cage system, 27 cryopreservation costs, 39 domestication of, 22 Dominique, 42, 101 generic distribution of, 23 immunology and disease resistance research, 41 layer, 36 Leghorn, 7 linkage map, 83 maturation time, 28 population changes, 87 priorities for conservation by management, 117 production systems, 7, 34-35, 36 selection goals in, 68 status globally, 163-164 stocks of, 7, 33 transfer of exotic animals and production systems, 34-35 China, 108 Chlamydia psittaci, 210 Clones defined, 246 transfer into another animal line, 85-86 Cloning disadvantages of, 93 embryos, 12, 32, 88 genes in a library, 84 by nuclear transplantation, 92-93 by splitting embryos, 92 technology for, 32, 92-93 use for conservation, 93 Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 119 Commonwealth of Independent States, 15 documentation of endangered breeds, 40 study of indigenous animals in, 114 Conservation of livestock genetic resources approaches to, 12-14, 42~6 committee's view, 2-3, 45~6 cultural and historical rationale for, 10, 41-42 defined, 246 DNA libraries and, 86 economic reasons for, 9, 38~1, 42-43,47 funding for, 111 implementation of efforts for, 14- 15 inventories of populations and, 12-13 preservationist's view, 2, 44~5 prioritization for, 13,16,46,102 by private organizations, 98 quarantines and, 94 rationales for, 9-10, 38-42, 58 recommendations for, 16,46-47 research needs, 14 scientific rationale for, 9-10, 41 training activities, 114 unique adapted breeds, 5 utilizationist's view, 2,43-44,45 see also Genetic resource management; Preservation of germplasm Conservation of populations criteria for, 13, 49-53 effective size considerations, 12, 52-53,246 exotic, 104 indigenous, 104 live, 12-13,54-57,60 recommendations for, 59-61 sampling strategies, 13,53-54,60, 66 status and vulnerability considerations, 50-52 subsidies for, 55-57 uniqueness and importance considerations, 52-53,103-104 see also Preservation of germplasm Conservation organizations, expanded support of, 127-128 Consultative Group in International Agricultural Research, 19,125- 126

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Index / 263 International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 19, 123, 125 proposed animal genetic resource conservation institute within, 125-126, 129 purpose, 125 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, 223-224 Cotswold Farm Park, 45, 100 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 44, 54 Crossbreeds /crossbreeding, 18 backcrossing, 66, 68, 74, 89, 245 committee's view on, 45 costs of, 74 defined, 68, 246 disadvantages of, 68 and genetic diversity, 6, 52, 66 importance of unique breeds for, 31 of indigenous stocks with imported ones, 5, 35-36, 37-38, 71 Merino-Lincoln sheep, 105 migration and, 63-64 N'Dama-Boran, 92 preservationist's view of, 44, 45 utilizationist's view, 43 Cryobiology, 32,90 Cryopreservation of germplasm advantages and disadvantages, 12, 88-89 collecting and processing samples for, 57,58 costs of, 13,39-40,57 critical elements of, 87 defined, 6, 26, 246 documentation of samples, 103- 104 effectiveness of, 17-18, 32, 89,90- 91 of endangered and unique populations, 17-18 exceptions to application of, 54 expertise required for, 57 first, 90 future uses of germplasm from, 18,57 of genomic libraries, 84 health status of donor animals, 57-58 ideal package for, 90 international efforts, 115 recommendations on, 17-18,60- 61 regeneration constraints, 49,57, 90 regional banks for, 121-122 risks of disease transmission, 57- 58 sampling of breed for, 57 of semen and embryos, 87-91 viability of germplasm after, 58 vitrification, 91 a-Crystallin, 79 ry-Crystallin, 79 Dairy cattle D breeds, 3,6 Dutch Black Pied, 66 Holstein, 66,67, 70,107 Holstein-Friesian, 6, 7, 52-53 Jersey, 66 milk production improvements 6,28,39 Milking Devon, 101 production systems, 32 purebred, 35 stocks of, 7 Danubian Countries Alliance for Gene Conservation in Animal Species, 113 Data bases Animal Genetic Data Bank, 15, 16,116,120,129 animal genetic resources, 14,102, 103,115,119-121 breed descriptions and population statistics, 116, 119, 120, 121 Commonwealth Bureau of

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264 / Index Animal Breeding and Genetics, 119 computer programs/software, 120, 121 data collection and processing in developing countries, 119-120 defined, 246 FAO, 121 Global Data Bank for Domestic Livestock, 14-15, 129 information categories, 120 methodologies for data handling, 119 need for, 119 Nordic Gene-Bank, 121 pilot trials by FAO, 119-120 recommendations, 129 regional versus global data, 120 Deutsches Institut fur Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, 119 Developing countries bilateral and multilateral aid to, 18,105 conservation programs for animal genetic resources, 108,116 data collection and processing in, 119-120 displacement of traditional breeds, 111 exotic livestock and management system imports into, 34-35, 107,111 factors affecting risk of livestock survival, 52 frozen germplasm banks for, 122 livestock management practices, 26-27 national strategies, 98 recommendations for handling indigenous breeds, 47,52 technology transfer to, 107 training for scientists in gene technologies, 118 Disease control programs, 33, 36, 105,115 elimination from embryos, 12 genetic resistance to, 11, 24,27, 70 pathogen resistance to antibiotics, 39 see also individual diseases Disease transmission through embryo transfer African swine fever virus, 178, 205,206,211 Akabane virus, 178-179,204 assay of embryos from seropositive or infected donors, 210-211 assay of uterine flush fluids from seropositive or infected donors, 212 bluetongue virus, 179-180,204, 207,208,209,210,212,213 bovine leukemia virus, 180-181 bovine leukosis virus, 204,207, 208,210,212,213,228 bovine parvovirus, 207 bovine viral diarrhea virus, 181, 204,205,207,210 Brucella abortus, 181-182,204,207, 208,210,212 Campylobacter fetus, 205 caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus, 182,209,212 Chlamydia psittaci, 210 conclusions about, 190-192 constraints to international exchange of embryos, 192-193 embryonic development and infectivity of zone-intact embryos after pathogen exposure, 204-205 foot-and-mouth disease virus, 182-183,204,205,207,208, 210,211,212 Haemophilus somnus, 183-184,204, 207 hog cholera virus, 184,205,206, 208,211,212 in vitro exposure to pathogens and, 213 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

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Index / 265 virus, 184-186, 204, 206, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213 mechanisms of, 175-176 porcine parvovirus, 186, 205, 209, 213 potential for, 57-58, 174-175, 208-209 pseudorabies virus, 186-187, 205, 206, 207, 213 rinderpest virus, 188, 204, 208, 210 risk of, 88 scrapie, 188, 209 studies of, 176-177 swine vesicular disease virus, 188-189, 205, 206, 209, 211, 212 transmissibility of specific agents, 177-189 trypsin treatment and, 206 vesicular stomatitis virus, 189, 204, 205, 206 washing of embryos and, 207 Disease transmission through semen African swine fever virus, 224 Akabane virus, 229-230 assay of embryos bred with infected semen, 210 bacterial and protozoa! agents, 225-226 bovine leukosis virus, 228 bovine viral diarrhea virus, 228- 229 bluetongue virus, 212, 221 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, 223-224 ephemeral fever virus, 229 foot-and-mouth disease virus, 220-221 hog cholera virus, 224 horses, 232-233 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 227-228 List A Agents, 220-225 List B Agents, 225-234 lumpy skin disease (Neethling virus), 222 mycoplasmas, 226-227 DNA parainfluenza 3 virus, 230 porcine parvovirus, 230-231 poultry, 233-234 research recommendations, 235- 238 Rift Valley fever virus, 222-223 rinderpest virus, 221-222 sheep and goat, 231-232 sheep and goat pox virus, 222 swine vesicular disease virus, 224 vesicular stomatitis virus, 223 banks, 96 base pairs, 72-73 defined, 246 hybridization, 78-79, 86, 246 libraries, 83-86, 90; see also Genomic libraries mitochondrial, characterizing, 81- 82 probes, 79, 81, 84-85, 93 sequencing, 78, 246 structure, 72 Dog, 23 Donkey, 23 Ducks domestic, 23, 117, 166-167 generic distribution of, 23 muscovy, 23, 117, 167 production efficiency, 33 status globally, 166-167 E Eastern Europe, documentation of endangered breeds, 40 Elephant, Asiatic, 23 Embryo transfer, 4, 12, 32, 91 defined, 247 for disease resistance, 89 and genetic diversity, 32, 88 hormonal treatments for, 58, 91 and pregnancy rates, 91 recommendations on, 193-195 sanitary handling procedures, 202 from seropositive or infected donors, 208-209

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266 / Index success of, 107 technology in domestic species, 172-174 see also Disease transmission through embryo transfer Embryos cryopreservation of, 12, 13,17-18, 54, 57-58, 87-91, 103-104, 202 cloning, 4, 12, 32, 88, 92-93 collection, 53-54, 57, 87, 200 constraints to international exchange of, 192-193 defined, 247 gene transfer to, 58 health status-of, 57, 88 identification of, 202 inspection for intactness of zone pellucida, 201 micromanipulation of, 201-202 from purebred lines, 55 sampling standards, 60 sanitary techniques for handling, Europe 200-202 splitting, 12, 32, 92 storage and transport, 6, 53-54 technology for collection, manipulation, and preservation, 32 thawing of, 202 transgenic, 85 trypsin treatment of, 201 washing, 57-58, 88, 95, 106, 200- 201, 207 zone pellucida, 95 Endangered and unique breeds artificial breeding of, 234-235 cattle, 42 cryopreservation of, 17-18 crossbreeding with, 31, 44 defined, 13, 247 documentation of, 16, 40-41, 59- 60, 109-110, 120 embryo collection from, 87 in farm parks, 41-42 health status of germplasm from, 94 inventories of, 113-114, 115 monitoring status of, 74 North Ronaldsay sheep, 28-31 number of, 29 population size for classification as, 50-51 potential loss of, 28 poultry, 42 profitability, 40 public support of preservation efforts, 41, 54, 55-57 sampling, 53-54, 115 utilizationist's view on preservation of, 44 World Watch List of Threatened Livestock, 116 England, see Great Britain Ephemeral fever virus, 229 Ethiopia germplasm bank, 122 see also International Livestock Center for Africa cattle, status in, 15, 29, 144-145 data base for, 15, 120 goats, status in, 148-149 horses, status in, 154-156 pigs, status in, 152-153 poultry production systems, 27 recommended livestock population sizes for consideration as endangered, 50 sheep, status in, 157-159 Working Party on Animal Genetic Resources, 115, 120 European Association for Animal Production, 15,112,115, 116, 120, 126 European Space Agency Retrieval Service, 119 Ex situ conservation, 112, 116; see also Cryopreservation of germplasm Expert Advisory Panel on Animal Genetic Resources Conservation and Management, 118

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Index / 267 F Farm parks, 16, 41-42, 45, 55, 100, 101 Fibronectin, 79 Flow cytometry, 93, 247 Follicle-stimulating hormone, 91 Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division, 126-127 assessment of populations for conservation, 50, 52 Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, 14 Committee on Agriculture, 115 data-base development, 119-120, 121, 129 expansion of efforts of, 126-127, 129 funding, 127 germplasm bank development, 122 guidelines for establishing programs, 16, 99, 104, 108 inventory of native livestock breeds, 16, 113-114 pilot program to conserve animal genetic resources, 113-114 prioritization of conservation areas and activities, 114 . . . program on managing ammal genetic resources, 14-15, 116- 118, 124, 128-129 publications on animal genetic resources, 118-119 recommendations for, 19 regional meetings on animal genetic resources, 16, 115 reports on breeds, 112 Foot-and-mouth disease virus, 122, 182-183, 204, 205, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 220-221 France DNA probes 93 in situ herds in public parks, 55 preservation of traditional breeds, 10, 40 G Gametes defined, 247 frozen storage of, 13, 103-104 Gayal, 23 Geese Canada, 23 Curly Feathered (Sebastapol), 98 domestic, status globally, 167-168 generic distribution of, 23 Pilgrim, 101 base pairs, 73 defined, 248, 72 flows, 52, 66, 68, 248 locus, 72, 250 losses through selection, 66 mapping, 82-83 markers, 40, 71, 82, 83 mitochondrial DNA, 81-82 physical mapping, 83 polymorphic, 72 pool, 65, 77 technologies, 118 transfer, 10, 11, 17, 58, 71, 77, 83, 84-85, 248 Genetic distances defined, 10, 248 and identification of candidates for preservation, 53, 66 molecular quantification of, 11, 78-81 Genetic diversity, see Livestock genetic diversity Genetic drift, 69, 94, 248 Genetic information, packaging of, 72-73 Genetic maps, developing, 82-83 Genetic resource management breed preservation, 116 data bases, 14, 103 defined, 114 documentation and inventory, 14, 90, 102-103, 116 FAO program on, 14, 116-118 gene technologies, 118

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268 / Index goals of, 45-46 indigenous breed development and conservation, 116-117 international programs for, 112- 118 legal framework (international), 118 priorities for conservation by, 117 purpose of, 1 training activities, 114 Genetic variation among species, 22, 63 among traditional breeds, 5 between types and breeds, 22 within commercial stocks, 3-4 factors affecting, 54, 67-69 genetic drift and, 69 and germplasm use, 69-74 human society's influence on, 63- 67 migration and, 4, 68 mutation and, 68-69 quantification methods, 11, 63, 77-83 rate of, 86-87 recommendations on measurement and use of, 74- 75 sampling and, 54 selection and, 3-4, 67-68 subdivision into breeds, 64-67 Genetics deleterious effects of breeding applications, 1-2 population, 28, 251 Genome characterization of, 10-11, 86 defined, 248 mapping, 11, 17, 40 Genomic libraries animal, 83-85, 122 cloning genes in, 84 complete, 84 cryopreservation of, 84 defined, 248 establishing, 83-84 identifying quantitative traits, 86 screening of, 11, 59, 84-85 as supplements to conservation programs, 11, 13, 54, 86 value of, 58-59 Genotype defined, 72, 78, 248 molecular methods for discerning, 67-68, 78 Germany, Hanover School for Veterinary Medicine, 15, 16, 120 Germplasm access to, 104 banks, 98, 114, 116, 121-122 collection of, 95, 115 conservation in developed and developing countries, 106-108 defined, 249 frozen, creating regional stores of, 121-122 global conservation of, 123-128 health status of, 12, 94-95 industrial stocks, use in, 69-71 international movement of, 6, 9, . 12,27,49,52-53,88,94,106, 111 nonindustrial populations, use in, 71-74 ownership, exchange, and compensation issues, 118, 123 propagation and dissemination, 6 searching for useful genes, 77, 85-86 trade, species involved in, 52-53, 216-217 use, 1, 69-74 see also Embryos; Preservation of germplasm; Semen Global efforts, see International/ global programs Goats Alpine dairy, 71 assay of uterine flush fluids from seropositive or infected donors, 212 Boer, 117 Damascus, 117

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Index / 269 diseases of, 231-232 domestication of, 22 embryo transfer from seropositive or infected donors, 208 Fouta Gallon, 117 generic distribution of, 23 lamnapari, 117 Landim landrace, 71 Moxoto, 117 pox virus, 222 priorities for conservation by management, 117 resistant to trypanosomiasis, 68 Rove, 55 selection programs for tropical breeds, 107 status, globally, 148-151 Great Britain cattle breeds, 5-6 farm parks, 41~2, 45 Milk Marketing Board for England and Wales, 101 Rare Breeds Survival Trust, 16, 28, 30-31, 40, 42, 55, 60, 97, 100-101 Growth hormone, 79 Guinea fowl, 23, 117, 166 Guinea pigs, 22, 23 H Haemophilus somnus, 183-184, 204, 207 Herdbooks, 27-28, 249 Heterozygosity, 72, 80, 82 Hog cholera virus, 184, 205, 206, 208, 211, 212, 224 Horses Akhal-Teke, 117 Camargue, 55 diseases of, 232-233 domestication of, 22 embryo collection from, 87 generic distribution of, 23 genes mapped in, 83 Pantaneiro, 117 priorities for conservation by management, 117 Przewalski, 118 status, globally, 154-157 Hungary, livestock preservation activities in, 10, 55, 98, 114 I Immunological techniques, 80 In situ preservation, 116 In vitro fertilization, 4, 12, 26 defined, 249 and genetic variation, 88, 91 and reproduction rates, 32 In vitro oocyte maturation, 88 Inbreeding, 55, 249 India, livestock preservation in, 99, 108, 122 Indigenous breeds adaptation to environmental conditions, 36, 39, 106, 107 characterization of, 126 crossbreeding with exotic animals, 5, 35-36, 37-38, 71 development and conservation of, 52, 116-117 evaluation of, 74-75 priorities for conservation by management, 117 replacement with exotic breeds, 35, 37-38, 104, 107 sociocultural benefits of, 10, 44, 45 Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, 184-186, 204, 206, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213, 227-228 Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources, 113, 115 International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 19, 123 International Buffalo Information Center, 121 International Committee for World Congresses on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, 113

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270 / Index International Development Research Center, 121 International/global programs administrative expertise criterion, 125 consultative mechanism, 125 creating regional stores of frozen germplasm, 121-122 donor confidence criterion, 124,128 global-level efforts, 19-20, 112 115, 123-128 FAO program on managing Landraces animal genetic resources, 116 118 funding for, 124, 128 information sources and data bases, 118-121 leadership requirements, 123-124, 128 options for, 19, 125-128 private sector role, 127 recommendations, 19-20, 47, 128 129 related issues of plant genetic resource programs, 122-123 scientific capability criterion, 124 see also individual organizations International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, 11, 89, 92, 112, 125-126 International Livestock Center for Africa, 11,112,116,120, 125, 126 International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 19 Isozyme analysis, 79 J Japanese quail generic distribution of, 23 status globally, 166 Joint Expert Advisory Panel on Animal Genetic Resources Conservation and Management, 114, 115 K Kenya disease resistance in cattle, 70 International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases 11 Knight Ridder Company, 119 L defined, 250 use in plant improvement, 15, 60 Latin America commission on evaluating and conserving animal genetic resources, 115 germplasm bank, 122 priorities for livestock conservation by management, 117 Linkage groups, 82-83, 250 Linnaeus, Carolus, 24 Livestock animals cultural and historic importance of, 41-42 economic importance of, 38~1 exotic, 34-35, 36-37, 247 defined, 250 demand for products of, 1 domestication of, 4, 21-22, 64 extinction of, 9 factors affecting risk of survival, 52 generic distribution of, 23 importance of, 1, 4 major domesticates, 22, 141, 250 minor species, 22, 89, 250 scientific importance of, 41 species involved in international germplasm trade, 216-217 uniform stocks, dangers of, 33 see also individual species Livestock genetic diversity adaptation and, 4 artificial selection and, 46

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Index / 271 breeds, 3 crossbreeding and, 6, 52, 66 declines in, 21,111 defined, 63, 248 importance of, 15 molecular quantification of, 78-81 monitoring of, 104 preservation within commercial breeds, 4 species range, 9 technology and, 9, 10, 26-38, 40, 111-112 types, 3 Livestock production systems and environmental adaptation of animals, 36 changes in, 27, 32-38 demand for products and, 38 and disease control, 36 exotic, 34-35, 36-37, 247 extensive management systems, 7-8, 26, 34-37, 247 feed requirements for prolific or high-producing breeds, 31, 36 and genetic composition of animals, 36-37 herd or flock size, 34, 36 housing requirements, 34, 36 industrialized systems, 32-33 intensive management systems, 6-7, 32, 34-37, 249 manipulation of systems, 36 marketing and distribution systems, 34, 104 nutrition requirements, 34 reproductive rates and efficiency of, 31-32 and sanitation, 36 -Llamas, 22, 23, 117 Lumpy skin disease (Neethling virus), 222 M Major histocompatibility complex, 58-59 Male-specific antigen, 93 Mammals, domesticated, generic distribution of, 23 Management, see Genetic resource management Mathematical models, genetic divergence from restriction site polymorphisms, 81 Mexico, 122 Migration, and genetic variation, 63-64, 68 Morocco, 108 Mouse, 23 Mozambique, Landim landrace of goats, 71 Musk ox, 23 Mutation, and genetic variation, 67, 68-69 Mycoplasmas, 226-227 N National programs aim of, 108 bilateral and multilateral aid to developing countries, 18, 105 collaboration with other programs, 104-106 conservation of unique and endangered populations, 46, 47, 103-104 data base, 103 documentation and inventory, 102-103 evaluation and international use of indigenous and exotic populations, 104 examples of current efforts, 97-101 germplasm conservation, 106-108 organizational elements of, 101- 106 recommendations, 18, 47, 108-110 research opportunities, 106 see also individual countries Neethling virus, 222 New Zealand pigs, status in, 154 sheep, status in, 105~161-162

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272 / Index Nomenclature, problem of, 24-25 Nongovernmental projects, livestock preservation, 100-101 North America cattle, status in, 147-148 goats, status in, 151 horses, status in, 157 pigs, status in, 153-154 sheep, status in, 161 Nutrition changes in, 32-38 feed requirements for prolific breeds, 31 production system and, 35 supplemental feeding, 33 o Oocytes, 32, 88, 91, 92, 93, 251 Organization of African Unity, 113, 115 Osteonectin, 79 Outbreeding, 66, 80 Ova, 32, 251 Oxen, 43 p Parainfluenza 3 virus, 230 Peafowl, 23 Pedigree records, 27 People's Republic of China duck production, 33 germplasm banks, 122 poultry production, 7 study of indigenous animals in, 114 Phenotypes, 58, 65, 67, 72, 78, 251 Pigeons generic distribution of, 23 status globally, 168 Pigs, 9 assay of embryos bred with infected semen, 210 assay of uterine flush fluids from seropositive or infected donors, 212 i, cryopreservation costs, 39 Danish, 28 domestication of, 22 embryo cryopreservation, 12,18, 91 embryo transfer from seropositive or infected donors, 208-209 embryonic development and infectivity of zone-intact embryos after pathogen exposure, 205, 207 extensive production of, 26 fat thickness, 28,38 genes mapped in, 83 Gloucester Old Spot, 56 in vitro exposure to pathogens and, 213 ndustrialized production of, 32 Mangalica, 55,98 Min. 117 miniature, 9-10 Piau, 117 priorities for conservation by management, 117 semen viability, 58 status, globally, 152-154 stocks of, 7 Taihu, 117 transfer of exotic animals and production systems, 35 trypsin treatment on pathogen- exposed, zone-intact embryos, 206 West African, 117 within-breed selection, 4 see also Swine Plant genetic resource programs, related issues of, 122-123 Populations of livestock breeding, 66, 69,77 defined, 251 descriptions of, 121 evaluation of status of, 50-52 exotic, 104 global status of, 141-168 indigenous, 104

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Index / 273 information sources on, 118-119, 121 interbreeding, 55, 66 nonindustrial, 71-74 outbreeding, 80 responsiveness to artificial selection, 63 size considerations, 7, 9, 12, 34, 50-51 sizes, by region, 142 unique and endangered, 105-106 see also Conservation of populations Porcine parvovirus, 186, 205, 209, 213, 230-231 Poultry backyard production, 8 data bank on, 121 diseases of, 233-234 eggs per female and hatchability declines, 33 endangered, 42 extensive production of, 26 industrialized production of, 32, 33 priorities for conservation by management, 117 public preservation of, 55 status globally, 162-168 see also specific types Preservation of germplasm in banks, 98 economic reasons for, 38-41 defined, 251 genomic libraries, 13, 58-59, 85- 86 live population management, 12, 54-57 methods for, 12-14, 32, 54-59 public and private initiatives, 55- 57 see also Cryopreservation Production systems, see Livestock production Progeny testing, 67, 82, 251 Prolactin, 79 Protein electrophoresis, 79-80, 247 Protozoal agents, 225-226 Pseudorabies virus, 186-187, 205, 206, 207, 213 Public parks, in situ herds in, 55, 98 Q Quarantine regulations, 49, 105-106 R Rabbits, 23, 121 Rare Breeds International, 113 Rat, 23 Recommendations bilateral and multilateral support to developing countries, 109 for conservation of genetic resources, 19-20, 46-47 for conservation of populations, 59-61 cryopreservation, 17-18, 60-61 data bases, 129 DNA banks, 96 evaluation of breeds and populations, 74-75 documentation of, 16 expanded programs and activities, 15-16 information and data, 109-110, 129 international programs and a global mechanism, 19-20, 47, 128-129 inventory and characterization of endangered and unique populations, 109-110 linking research in molecular genetics, 96 measurement and use of genetic variation, 74-75 monitoring status of unique populations, 74 national programs, 18, 47, 108- 110 operational programs, 109 .

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274 / Index priority for preservation, 47 private preservation efforts, 16 17, 60 research and technology development, 17, 95-96 sampling strategies for populations, 60 Reindeer, 22, 23, 121, 141 Reproduction efficiency, 30-31, 41 factors affecting, 31 Semen rates and production efficiency, bank, 101 31-32 technology and, 32 Reproductive technologies, 30-32 advantages and disadvantages, 10, 88-90 cryopreservation of semen and embryos, 12, 87-91 embryo cloning, 4, 12, 92 embryo transfer, 12, 91 follicle maturation techniques, 4 multiple ovulation, 12, 91, 250 in vitro fertilization, 4, 12 and rate of genetic change, 86 sex determination, 12, 93-94 see also Embryos; Semen Restriction enzymes, 79, 80, 82, 84 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 79 defined, 252 and gene mapping, 82 RFLP analysis, 80-81, 86 Rift Valley fever virus, 222-223 Rinderpest virus, 188, 221-222 Ring-necked pheasant, 23 S Scrapie, 188, 209 Selection artificial, 32, 38, 39, 46, 66, 67-68, 78, 245 defined, 252 gene losses through, 66 genetic-marker-assisted, 40, 71, 82 and genetic variation, 3 - , 67-68 goals, 68 in industrial stocks, 69-70 molecular aids to, 4 natural, 6, 38, 67, 68, 251 rate of response to, 4, 67 reproductive rates and, 32 responsiveness of a population to, 63, 69 within-breed, 3-4 collection, 13, 32, 88 control of collection, handling, preservation, and storage of, 32, 219-220 cryopreservation of, 13, 17, 54, 58, 87-90, 101, 107 donor animal requirements, 217- 219 health status screening, 95 immunoextension, 95 sampling standards, 60 storage and transport, 6, 18 viability, 33, 58 see also Artificial breeding Senegal, germplasm bank, 122 Sheep Awassi, 117, 118 Booroola Merino, 41 Corriedale, 105 cryopreservation costs, 39 diseases of, 231-232 Djallonke, 117 D'man, 117 domestication of, 22 embryo transfer from seropositive or infected donors, 208 embryonic development and infectivity of zone-intact embryos after pathogen exposure, 205, 207 extensive production systems, 8 Finnish Landrace, 3, 73 generic distribution of, 23 genes mapped in, 83

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Index / 275 hair, 22, 24 in vitro exposure to pathogens and, 213 Jacob, 101 lavanese Thin-tailed, 117 lambing rates, 3, 41 Navajo-Churro, 101 North Ronaldsay, 28-31, 101 Pelibuey, 117 Polypay, 73 pox virus, 222 priorities for conservation by Technologies management, 117 Racka, 55, 98 status globally, 157-162 Whitefaced Woodland, 100 wool, 24 Society for the Advancement of Breeding Researches in Asia and Oceania, 112, 115, 126 South Africa, in situ herds in public parks, 55 South America cattle, status in, 147-148 goats, status in, 151 horses, status in, 157 pigs, status in, 153-154 sheep, status in, 161 Spain, endangered cattle breeds, 42 Sperm cryopreservation of, 88-89 sex determination from, 93 Traits see also Semen 21-Steroid hydroxylase, 79 Stocks feral, 51, 247 imported, 66 inappropriate, introduction of, 104 industrial, 69-70 Sub-Saharan Africa, implementation of conservation program in, 116, 126 Swine backyard production, 8 cryopreservation of germplasm, 54 generic distribution of, 23 see also Pigs Swine vesicular disease virus, 188 189, 205, 206, 209, 211, 212, 224 T Technical Consultation on the Conservation and Management of Animal Genetic Resources, 114 and adaptation of breeds, 27 breeding and improvement, 4, 27-30 for conserving and using germplasm, 10-12 and genetic diversity, 6, 10, 26-38 recommendations on, 17, 95-96 research on, 17, 95-96, 118 training developing country scientists in, 118 see also Reproductive technologies Theileriosis, 70 Traditional breeds development and conservation, 116-118 displacement of, 5-6 origins of, 4-5 preservation of, 10 see also Indigenous breeds polygenic, 73 of production importance, 73, 78 quantitative, 86 single-gene, 73 , ~. . . ransgenlc animal, 85, 252 lambda phage, 84 Trypanosomiasis, resistance in cattle, 8, 11, 24, 27, 68, 89, 92 Trypsin treatment of pathogen exposed embryos, 206 Tsetse fly, 8, 27 Tunisia, sheep production, 8 Turkeys domestication of, 22

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276 / Index generic distribution of, 23 priorities for conservation by management, 117 status globally, 164-164 stocks of, 7, 32 U United Kingdom, see Great Britain United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 113 Development Program, 113 Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 113 Environment Program, 16, 14, 99, 108, 113-115, 119, 121, 122, 123 United States animal genetic resource conservation in, 44 beef cattle phenotype, 65 DNA probes, 93 Yaks, 22, 23 milk production, 39 national germplasm program, 97 in situ herds in public parks, 55 University of California at Davis, 41 Zimbabwe, 108 V Variable number of tandem repeats, 82, 252 Vesicular stomatitis virus, 189, 204, 205, 206, 223 W Water buffalo, 23, 121 West Africa, N'Dama cattle, 8, 27 World Bank, 113 World Conference on Animal Production, 113 World Conservation Union, 20, 113, 127-128 World Resources Institute, 113 World Watch List of Threatened Livestock, 116 y z

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