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Appendix G Glossary of Terms and Acronyms ACCEPT- The degree or status of meat or food product sanitation, ABILITY equipment, or other items dealing with inspection or quality that meet minimum standards as established by the agency ADRS Animal Disease Reporting System of FSIS ALPHA (~) Refers to the error made if a true hypothesis is rejected (also ERROR referred to as type ~ error) APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Sentence of USDA AQL Acceptable Quality Level--A beef carcass reinspection program used in traditional cattle slaughtering facilities to evaluate wholesomeness and acceptability of carcasses and edible products ARS Agricultural Research Service of the USDA BETA ~) Refers to error made if a false hypothesis is accepted (also ERROR referred to as type IT error) CDC Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service CHEMICAL Includes any of the following: pesticides, agricultural RESIDUES chemicals, heavy metals, antimicrobials, mycotoxins, and other metabolites, exogenous hormones, and growth stimulants CLEANLINESS Sanitation and reasonable freedom from contamination or extraneous material involving food products, including meat, and all items having contact with these products CMS CSRS CUSUM Consumer Marketing Service of USDA Cooperative State Research Service of USDA Cumulative Sum--A statistical procedure developed by FSIS for use with SIS-C that compares the output of a process against finished product standards to determine compliance 99

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DEFECTS Any minor, major, or critical type of nonconformance DESIGNATED Abnormal conditions that are not caused by improper TRIMMABLE procedures, that are readily identifiable, and that do not effect CONDITIONS the disposition of the carcass DRESSING Defects on the carcass that result from errors in the handling, NONCONFORM- slaughtering, or dressing operations performed by ANCES establishment employees EEC FDA European Economic Community Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Public Health Service FED CATTLE Young castrated males (steers) and young females that have never calved (heifers); both are being fed special finishing rations in feed lots immediately prior to slaughter FNB FPS FSIS HACCP IOM LESION Food and Nutrition Board of the IOM Finished Product Standards. Standards used with SIS-C to define criteria that the product must meet to avoid the risk of having to rework the product Food Safety and Inspection Service (formerly FSQS, Food Safety and Quality Serviced of USDA Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Program Institute of Medicine of the NAS An abnormal change in structure of an organ or part due to injury - Or c .lsease MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS on, or cause infection, by contact or association Includes microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and viruses) that intrude MPI NAHMS NAS Meat and Poultry Inspection Division of USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System of APHIS National Academy of Sciences 100

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NONCONFOR- Defects that occur on the carcass or edible by-products MANCES as a result of errors in the handling, slaughtering, or dressing operations performed by slaughter facility employees NRC National Research Council of the NAS NRP National Residue Program of FSIS ORGANO- Affecting or relating to qualities perceived by special senses. LEPTIC These qualities include appearance, color, odor, and texture PALPATION To examine medically by touch PRESENT The Committee on Evaluation of USDA Streamlined Inspection COMMITTEE System for Cattle (SIS-C), Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine PQC QUALITY REWORK SAFETY Partial Quality Control. A program of quality control standards established by slaughter facilities for presentation of head/viscera/ carcass or for the entire slaughter dressing process. These programs can be approved by FSIS for the entire slaughter dressing process or for presentation only. In facilities operating without an approved PQC program, all the tests are conducted by the FSIS inspector in charge or by his or her designee Relative to meat, refers to palatability and organoleptic characteristics such as tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, based on the maturity, marbling, color, firmness, and texture of the meat. However, the term quality is often interpreted to mean the visible acceptability, freshness, and cleanliness of the product. It should not be confused with the wholesomeness or safety of the product from a human health standpoint. In general, meat quality is identified by the USDA Meat Grading Service and is designated as USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner for beef Reprocessing the product to correct the condition or conditions causing the nonconformances Refers to the condition of meat and food indicating freedom from harmful ingredients or organisms that could be a hazard to human health. NO raw food products are completely sterile or free of all possible organisms or chemicals 101

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SIS TOLERANCE USDA WHOLE SOMENESS ZOONOTIC DISEASES Streamlined Inspection System Identifies a limit above which the product is deemed to be unacceptable U.S. Department of Agriculture The general term used to imply that meat and other foods are processed in a sanitary and healthful manner and are safe to eat. Meat inspection is performed by the USDA-FSIS, which identifies what is acceptable to be classified as U.S. inspected and passed Diseases transmissible from animals to humans. 1 102