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WATER CHEMICAIS CODER Committee on Water Treatment Chemicals Food and Nutrition Board Assembly of Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982

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NOTICE: m e project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purpose of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. m e Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. m e Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the chanter of the National Academy of Sciences. This work was supported by the Environmental Protection Agency under Contract 68-01-5842. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 82-62272 International Standard Book Number 0-309-03338-1 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Committee on Wincer Trea~cmen~c Chemicals WILLAIM H. GLAZE (Chairman) University of Texas, Dallas Richardson, Texas CHARLES A. BUESCHER St. Louis County Water Company St. Louis, Missouri JOHN H. MAHON Calgon Corporation Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania NINA I. McCLELLAND National Sanitation Foundation Ann Arbor, Michigan GERALD E. STOBBY, 1980-81 Dow Chemical Company Midland, Michigan Staff ROBERT E. REHWOLDT, Staff Officer JUIT CHEE, _upport Staff PAMELA L. KELLY, Support Staff . ~ 111 ROBERT S. BRYANT Stauffer Chemical Company Westport, Connecticut ARNOLD E. GREENBERG California Department of Health Services Berkeley, California J. CARRELL MORRIS Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts RONALD C. SHANK University of California Irvine, California R. RHODES TRUSSELL James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers Pasadena, California

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Preface In recognition of the fact that large segments of the U.S. population come in contact with chemical additives used in water disinfection, corrosion control, and fluoridation, a memorandum of understanding was signed in 1979 by which responsibility to monitor and control these additives, direct and indirect, was vested in the Environmental Pro- tection Agency. Not long thereafter, in response to a request from that agency, the National Research Council undertook to recommend minimum acceptable purity speci- fications for such substances. me Committee on Water Treatment Chemicals was formed and entrusted with the task of developing specifications, first for direct additives and, as feasible, later for indirect additives. The resulting "Codex" is meant to supplement existing compendia on water treatment chemicals and is confined to information on purity as related to health; it does not address product performance, packag- ing, storage, or handling. In the course of its work, the committee was hampered by a lack of public data on the purity of water treatment chemicals and, therefore, has been forced to develop its recommendations on the basis of incomplete and largely unpublished data. As a result, the selection of impur- ities to be included in a Codex monograph was based upon the committee's knowledge of the processes used for manu- facturing the water treatment chemical under considera- tion, or on similarities in the chemistry of the additive and its more likely impurities. Analytical procedures were selected from compendia on analytical methodology or protocol, adopted from methods obtained from manufacturers, or derived from methods appearing in the scientific literature. Data on toxi- cologic aspects were obtained from the scientific litera- v

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sure, from manufacturers of chemicals, and from the Code of Federal Regulations. In carrying out its task, the committee was greatly aided by contributions from toxicologists and those experienced in analytical procedures. Explicit recognition and thanks are due to: FRANK J. BAUMANN, California Department of Health Services, Los Angeles, California JOSEPH CONNORS, Editor, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Oakland, . California ROBERT K. HINDERER, m e B.F. Goodrich Company, Cleveland, Ohio RICHARD LARSON, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois V1

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Con~cen~cs Findings and Recommendations Description of the Codex Aluminum Sulfate, Alum Ammonia, Anhydrous Ammonium Hydroxide, Aqua Ammonia Ammonium Sulfate Calcium Hydroxide, Slaked Lime Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium Oxide (Lime, Quicklime) Carbon, Activated, Granular Carbon, Activated, Powdered Carbon Dioxide Chlorine Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulfate Ferrous Sulfate Fluosilicic Acid, Hydrofluosilicic Acid vii I 1 2 9 11 12 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 28 30 32 34 36

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Potassium Permanganate Sodium Aluminate Sodium Carbonate, Soda Ash Sodium Chlorite Sodium Fluoride Sodium Hydroxide, Caustic Soda Sodium Metabisulfite, Sodium Pyrosulfate Sodium Polyphosphate, Glassy Sodium Silicofluoride, Sodium Fluosilicate Sulfur Dioxide Activated Alumina Bentonite-Type Clay Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Calcium Magnesium Polyphosphate, Glassy Sodium Silicate, Activated Silica Sodium Tripolyphosphate Sodium Zinc Polyphosphate, Glassy Sodium Zinc Potassium Polyphosphate, Glassy Sulfuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol) Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate 38 40 42 44 46 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 60 61 63 64 66 68 70 72 viii

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WATER CHEMICALS a

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