INDEX

A

Acetaminophen, 18

Acetone, 75

Acetylation, autoimmunity, 60

antinuclear antibody, 60-61

complement, 61

histopathologic examination, 60-61

immune complex, 61

Acetylcholine, 17

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 10, 12, 63

Adenosine deaminase deficiency, 65

Adrenal cortical trophic hormone, interleukin-1, 17

Age, 19, 21

B cell, 16

immune function, 15

immunoglobulin, 16

immunosuppression, 78-79

T cell, 16

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease

Registry, 9, 11

reference population, 120

trichloroethylene, 11

Air pollution, 127-139

arrhythmia, 131

asthma, 1

cacosmia, 131

depression, 130

psychiatric disorder, 130

recommendations, 148

synergistic effect, 18

Alcoholism, 19

Alfalfa, 54

Allergy, overview, 10

Alum, immunologic adjuvant, 40

Amaranth, 37

Amino acid, 19

Amiodarone, 54

Anemia, 54

Animal model, 3-4, 58-59, 82, 83-98

bioassay

application, 92-97

approach, 85

criteria, 83-84

bone marrow, 89

cellular immunity, 87-88

host resistance, 89

humoral immunity, 87

hypersensitivity, 43-49

antigen-antibody complex, 46

contact, 46-49

cytotoxic reaction, 46

immunoglobulin E, 45-46

immunoglobulin G, 45-46

technique, 44-45

mechanistic study, 89-90

nonspecific immunity, 88-89

pathologic evaluation, 84-87

pulmonary immunocompetence, 90-91

recommendations, 97-98, 146-147



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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology INDEX A Acetaminophen, 18 Acetone, 75 Acetylation, autoimmunity, 60 antinuclear antibody, 60-61 complement, 61 histopathologic examination, 60-61 immune complex, 61 Acetylcholine, 17 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 10, 12, 63 Adenosine deaminase deficiency, 65 Adrenal cortical trophic hormone, interleukin-1, 17 Age, 19, 21 B cell, 16 immune function, 15 immunoglobulin, 16 immunosuppression, 78-79 T cell, 16 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 9, 11 reference population, 120 trichloroethylene, 11 Air pollution, 127-139 arrhythmia, 131 asthma, 1 cacosmia, 131 depression, 130 psychiatric disorder, 130 recommendations, 148 synergistic effect, 18 Alcoholism, 19 Alfalfa, 54 Allergy, overview, 10 Alum, immunologic adjuvant, 40 Amaranth, 37 Amino acid, 19 Amiodarone, 54 Anemia, 54 Animal model, 3-4, 58-59, 82, 83-98 bioassay application, 92-97 approach, 85 criteria, 83-84 bone marrow, 89 cellular immunity, 87-88 host resistance, 89 humoral immunity, 87 hypersensitivity, 43-49 antigen-antibody complex, 46 contact, 46-49 cytotoxic reaction, 46 immunoglobulin E, 45-46 immunoglobulin G, 45-46 technique, 44-45 mechanistic study, 89-90 nonspecific immunity, 88-89 pathologic evaluation, 84-87 pulmonary immunocompetence, 90-91 recommendations, 97-98, 146-147

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology risk assessment, 94-97 rodent immunoassay table, 86 test design, 92-94 Antibody defined, 9 hypersensitivity, 42 Antibody formation testing, 101-102 Antigen complement-mediated immune reaction, 29 defined, 9 Antimicrobial drug, 18 Antiparasitic drug, 18 Anxiety, multiple chemical sensitivity, 134 Aroclor, 75 Arrhythmia, air pollution, 131 Arsenic, 70, 75 Arsine gas, 75 Arthritis autoimmunity, 145 multiple chemical sensitivity, 135 rheumatoid, 27, 54, 56 Asbestos, 70 Asthma, 14, 17, 34-36 air pollution, 1 autoimmunity, 145 defined, 11 detergent, 35 incidence, 35 mortality, 40-41 nickel, 35 nitrogen dioxide, 1 ozone, 1 palladium, 35 platinum, 35 sulfite sensitivity, 38 tobacco, 130 toluene diisocyanate, 35 trimellitic anhydride, 35 Ataxia telangiectasia, 65 Atopy, asthma, 35 Autoimmunity, 2-3, 53-62 acetylation, 60 antinuclear antibody, 60-61 complement, 61 histopathologic examination, 60-61 immune complex, 61 tissue autoantibody, 60 animal model, 58-59 defined, 53 erythema multiforme, 57 genetic code, 55-56, 59-60 histocompatibility complex, 59 immunoglobulin, 59 incidence, 53-55 mechanism, 57-58 pharmaceutical worker, 3 recommendations, 61-62, 145 xenobiotic, 54-57 B B cell age, 16 assay, 102 defined, 9 function, 24-26, 99 Bacteria, 24 Benzene, 11, 70, 75 immunosuppression, 72 Benzidene, 70 Benzoic acid, 38 Benzophenone, 39 Beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, diagnosis, 14, 41 Biologic marker animal model, 83-98 autoimmune disease, 53-62 classification, 12 environmental health, 127-139 epidemiology, 113-125 human marker, 99-111 immune-mediated disease, 33-52 immunosuppression, 63-82 recommendations, 141-148 validation, 19-20 Bone marrow, 31 animal model, 89 Bronchoalveolar lavage, 76 hypersensitivity, 43 Bruton's disease, 65 Buehler test, 45, 48 Butylated hydroxyanisole, 70 Butylhydroxyanisol, 37 Butylhydroxytoluene, 37 C Cacosmia, air pollution, 131 Cadmium, 54, 75

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology Calcium, 70 Cannabionoid, 70 Captopril, 54 Carbon tetrachloride, 75 Carrier protein, 13 Cell-mediated immunity, defined, 9 Cellular immunity animal model, 87-88 hypersensitivity, 42 testing, 102-104 Cellular interaction schema, 25 Cephalosporin, 58 Chediak-Higashi syndrome, 65 Chemical environment, 127-139 Chemical sensitivity provocative challenge, 136 skin test, 137 syndrome, 128-139 agent table, 129 classification, 128-130 recommendations, 138-139, 148 Chlorobenzene, 75 Chloroform, 75 Chromium, 75 Clinical testing regimen, 4, 99 Cocaine, 70 Cohort study, epidemiology, 113, 114 Common variable immunodeficiency, 65 Complement deficiency, 65 Complement-mediated injury, 27-29 Contact dermatitis, 38-39 Contact urticaria, 39-40 Contraceptive, 18 Cosmetic, hypersensitivity, 10 Crohn's disease, 54-55 Cross-sectional study, epidemiology, 113-114, 119 Cyclophosphamide, 3, 58 immunosuppression, 17 Cyclosporin, 3, 11, 147 immunosuppression, 66-67 species comparison, immune response, 67 D Depression air pollution, 130 multiple chemical sensitivity, 133-134 Dermal hypersensitivity, 38-40 contact dermatitis, 38-39 contact urticaria, 39-40 photocontact dermatitis, 39 Detergent, asthma, 35 Diabetes, 12, 27 Dichloroethane, 75 Dichloroethylene, 75 Diesel exhaust, 41 Diethylhexyl phthalate, 75 DiGeorge syndrome, 65 Diisocynate, 11 Dimethylbenzanthracene, 147 Dioxin, 11 Diphenhydramine, 39 Diphenylhydantoin, 70 Dodecylgallate, 37 Draise test, 45, 48 Drug, 18, 24, 30 hypersensitivity, 10 immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity, 27 immunosuppression, 70 Dye, 37 Dysphagia, Spanish toxic oil syndrome, 57 E Education, recommendations, 147-148 Effect marker, overview, 13-14 Electric shock, 24 Emotional disfunction, 24 Endorphin, 17 Enkephalin, 17 Environmental control unit, inhalation challenge, 43, 139 Environmental exposure, recommendations, 148 Environmental health, controversial areas, 127-139 Environmental illness, 127, 135 Environmental Protection Agency, 146 Epidemiology biologic markers, 4, 113-125 case studies, 121-125 cohort study, 113, 114 cross-sectional study, 113-114, 119 event status authentication, 117, 119 hexamethylene diisocyanate, 121-122 National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey, 121 predictive value, 115-117, 118 prospective study, 113, 120

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology recommendations, 125 reference population, 115, 120-121 retrospective studies, 113, 114 sensitivity, 115-117, 118 sick building syndrome, 124-125 specificity, 115-117, 118 study classification, 113 study design, 119-120 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 122-123 tobacco, 114 well water, 123-124 Epinephrine, 17 Erythema multiforme, autoimmunity, 57 Erythrosin, 37 Ethanol, 70 Ethics, biological markers, 21 Ethylbenzene, 75 Exposure marker, overview, 13 F Fetus, immune function, 15 Food hypersensitivity, 37-38 food intolerance, distinguished, 37 Food intolerance, food hypersensitivity, distinguished, 37 Formaldehyde, 136 T cell, 137 Formaldehyde-human serum albumin, multiple chemical sensitivity, 137 Freund's complete adjuvant test, 45, 48 G Genetic code antigen recognition, 15 autoimmunity, 55-56, 59-60 Glomerulonephritis, 54 Glucocorticoid interleukin-1, 17 stress, 16 Glucocorticosteroid, 18 Gold, 54 Granulomatous disease, 65 Groundwater, immunosuppression, 1, 74-75 Guinea pig immunotoxic study, 10 maximization test, 45, 48 H Haloperidol, stress, 17 Halothane, 54 Hapten, 13 immunoglobulin E, 52 respiratory tract, 35 Hereditary syndrome, 24 Hexachlorobenzene, 70 Hexamethylene diisocyanate, epidemiology, 121-122 Histocompatibility complex, autoimmunity, 59 Host resistance, animal model, 89 Human immune system, biologic marker, 99-111 Human immunodeficiency virus, 63-64 Human leukocyte antigen, 59 cell-mediated cytotoxicity, 108 pregnancy, 16 Humoral immunity animal model, 87 defined, 9 response, 105-106 testing, 100-102 Hydrazine, 54 Hydrocarbon, immunosuppression, 70, 71-72 Hypersensitivity, 2, 26-30, 33-52 animal model, 43-49 antigen-antibody complex, 46 contact, 46-49 cytotoxic reaction, 46 immunoglobulin E, 45-46 immunoglobulin G, 45-46 technique, 44-45 antibody, 42 asthma, 14 beryllium lung disease, 14 biologic marker, 41-43 bronchoalveolar lavage, 43 cellular immunity, 42 chemical detection schema, 48 clinical signs, 41 cosmetic, 10 dermal, 38-40 generally, 10 history, 41 immunoglobulin E, 2, 27, 42, 50-52 immunosuppression, distinguished, 34 ingestion, 37-38

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, distinguished, 2 pneumonia, 36-37, 41 provocation challenge, 42-43 pulmonary, 34-37 response schematic, 47 skin tests, 41 test methods chart, 45 I Ibuprofen, 18 IL-1, glucocorticoid, 17 Immune-complex-mediated injury, 27-29 Immune suppression, 3 cyclophosphamide, 3 cyclosporin A, 3 Immune system. component asthma, 26 structure, 24-26 xenobiotic, overview, 30-31 see also Immunotoxicity Immunity assessment testing, 99-100 Immunoglobulin age, 16 autoimmunity, 59 concentration testing, 100-101 isotype reference standards, 20 smoking, 18 Immunoglobulin A deficiency, 65 Immunoglobulin E, 13 contact urticaria, 39-40 hapten, 52 hypersensitivity, 2, 27, 42, 50-52 Immunoglobulin G, 13, 136 pregnancy, 15 Immunologic adjuvant, 40 Immunopotentiation, defined, 10 Immunosuppression, 14, 63-82 acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 63 age, 78-79 benzene, 72 consequences, 64-68 cyclophosphamide, 17 cyclosporin A, 66-67 defined, 10 environmental contaminant, 68-74 groundwater, 1, 74-75 human immunodeficiency virus, 63-64 hydrocarbon, 71-72 hypersensitivity, distinguished, 34 inhalation, 74-77 mechanistic study importance, 80 metabolism, 79-80 metal, 70, 73 myelotoxicity, 77-78 organ transplant, 64-65 recommendations, 81-82, 144-145 route of administration, 79 skin, 77 susceptibility, 78-80 syndrome chart, 65 tobacco, 79 Immunotoxicity animal model, 83-98 autoimmune disease, 53-62 complement-mediated injury, 27-29 environmental health, 127-139 epidemiology, 113-125 human marker, 99-111 hypersensitivity, 27 immune-complex-mediated injury, 27-29 immune-mediated disease marker, 33-52 immunosuppressive toxic agents, 63-82 mechanism, 26-30 recommendations, 141-148 T cell reaction, 29-30 Immunotoxicology defined, 23 growth of field, 23, 141 Infant-mother separation, 24 Ingestion, hypersensitivity, 37-38 Inhalation alveolar macrophage, 76 bronchoalveolar-lavage, 76 immunosuppression, 74-77 Inhalation challenge environmental control unit, 43 hypersensitivity, 43 Interleukin-1, adrenal cortical trophic hormone, 17 Iron, 19 Isobutyl nitrite, 74-75 Isocyanate, case study, 121-122 K Kidney, 12

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology L Langerhans cell, ultraviolet, 19 Lead, 23, 70, 75 Lecithin, 37 Legionnaires' disease, 124 Leukemia, 17 trichloroethylene, 11 well water, 123-124 Light immune function, 17 photoallergy, 39 solar uticaria, 19 ultraviolet, 19, 147 Lithium, 54, 70 Liver, 12 Lupus, pregnancy, 15 Lymphocyte antigen activation, 106-107 assay, 103-104 defined, 9 function, 24-26 Lymphokine function, 24-26 lymphocyte activation secretion, 107 Lymphoma, 17 M Malnourishment, 18-19 Marker, terminology, 12 Mast cell, immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity, 27 Mechanistic study, animal model, 89-90 Mental dysfunction, 24 α-Mercaptopropionylglycine, 54 Mercury, 54, 75 Metabolism, immunosuppression, 79-80 Metal, immunosuppression, 70, 73 Methyl mercury, 70 α-Methyldopa, 54 Methylene chloride, 75 Mouse-ear-swelling test, 45, 48 Mucosal response, 147 Mucous membrane, sick building syndrome, 5 Multiple chemical sensitivity, 127 anxiety, 134 arthritis, 135 case definitions, 132-134 characterization Cullen, 132-134 Randolph, 132-133 defined, 133 depression, 133-134 formaldehyde-human serum albumin, 137 immune-system dysfunction, 134-136 sick building syndrome, relationship, 132 terminology, 136 vascular dysfunction, 134-135 Multiple personality disorder, immune function, 16 Myasthenia gravis, 27, 54 Myeloma, 17 Myelotoxicity, immunosupression, 77-78 N National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey, 121 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, reference population, 120 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 9, 11 National Research Council, 9, 11 National Toxicology Program, 10, 146 Natural killer cell, smoking, 18 Nervous-endocrine-immune axis, 2 Nervous system, immune system interaction, 16-17 Neurogenic factor, immune function, 16 Neuropsychology, 21 Nezelof's syndrome, 65 Nickel, 38, 75 asthma, 35 Nitrogen dioxide, 40, 70 asthma, 1 autoimmunity, 145 Nitrosamine, 70 Noise, 24 Nonspecific immune enhancement, 40-41 Nonspecific immunity, animal model, 88-89 Norepinephrine, 17 O Occupational dermatitis, 11 Open epicutaneous test, 45, 48 Opioid, 70 Optimization test, 45, 48 Organ transplant, 11 immunosuppression, 64-65 Organophosphate pesticide, 23

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology psychosis, 130 Organotin, immunosuppression, 70 Overcrowding, 24 Oxyphenisatin, 54 Ozone, 40, 70, 74 asthma, 1 autoimmunity, 145 P Palladium, asthma, 35 Parasite, 24 Pemphigus, 54 Penicillamine, 54 Penicillin, 54 Pentachlorophenol, 23 Perchloroethylene trichloroacetic acid, 20 trichloroethanol, 20 Pesticide, immunosuppression, 70 Pharmaceutical worker, autoimmunity, 3, 62 Parmacokinetics (toxicokinetics), 67, 79-80, 84, 97 Phenol, 75 Phenothiazine, 39 Phenylcyclohexene, 132 Phenylketonuria, 12 Phosgene, 74 Photoallergy see Light Placenta, antigen, 15 Platinum, asthma, 35 Platinum salt, 40 Pneumonia, hypersensitivity, diagnosis, 41 Pollen, 41 Polybrominated biphenyl, 54, 70 Polychlorinated biphenyl, 23, 54, 70 Polychlorinated dibenzofuran, 70 Polyunsaturated fatty acid, 19 Polyurethane, autoimmunity, 145 Predictive value, epidemiology, 115-117, 118 Pregnancy human leukocyte antigen, 16 immune function, 15-16 immunoglobulin G, 15 lupus, 15 Preservative, 37 Procainamide, 15 Propyloctyl, 37 Prospective study, epidemiology, 113, 120 Protozoa, 24 Provocation challenge, hypersensitivity, 42-43 Psychiatric disorder, air pollution, 130 Psychoneuroimmunology, 16 Psychosis, organophosphate pesticide, 130 Pulmonary hypersensitivity, 34-37 asthma, 34-36 lymph node, 35 pneumonitis, 36-37 rhinitis, 34-36 Pulmonary hypertension, Spanish toxic oil syndrome, 57 Pulmonary immunocompetence, animal model, 90-91 Pyrithioxine, 54 R Radiation, 11, 24 Ragweed pollen, 11 Rapeseed oil, 54 Raynaud's phenomenon, Spanish toxic oil syndrome, 57 Reactive airways-dysfunction syndrome, 127, 130 Reference population Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 120 epidemiology, 120-121 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 120 Respiratory tract, 34-37 Responsiveness decay, 13 Reticular dysgenesis, 65 Retrospective studies, epidemiology, 113, 114 Rhinitis, 34-36 Risk assessment, animal model, 94-97 Route of administration, immunosuppression, 79 S Salicylanilide, 39 Sarcoidosis, beryllium disease, diagnosis, 41 Sclerosis, 54 Serotonin, 17 Serum, antigen activation, 106-107 Serum protein, 27-29 Severe combined immunodeficiency disease, 65 Sick building syndrome, 127 epidemiology, 124-125

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Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology mucous membrane, 5 multiple chemical sensitivity, relationship, 132 Silica, 54, 70 Silicone, 57 Sjögren's syndrome, Spanish toxic oil syndrome, 57 Skin immunosuppression, 77 response, 147 testing, 41, 103 see also Dermal hypersensitivity Sodium benzoate, 37 Sodium glutamate, 38 Sodium metabisulfite, 37 Sodium nitrite, 37 Solar urticaria see Light Spanish toxic oil syndrome, 11, 57 Specificity biologic marker validation, 19-20 epidemiology, 115-117, 118 Split adjuvant technique, 45, 48 Staphylococcus enterotoxin, 107 Stress, 21, 24, 130 glucocorticoid, 16 haloperidol, 17 Study design, epidemiology, 119-120 Sulfanilamide, 39 Sulfite sensitivity, asthma, 38 Sulfur dioxide, 40 Super antigen, 107 Susceptibility marker, overview, 14-19 Systemic lupus erythematosus, 54 T T cell age, 16 defined, 9 formaldehyde, 137 function, 24-26, 99 reaction, 29-30 Tartrazine, 37, 54 Testing regimen, human immune system, 108-110 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 70 epidemiology, 122-123 Tetrachloroethylene, 75 Thymus gland, involution, 16 Thyroid disease, 54 Tobacco asthma, 130 epidemiology, 114 immunoglobulin, 18 immunosuppression, 79 natural killer cell, 18 Tocopherol, 37 Toluene, 70, 75 Toluene diisocyanate, 11, 79 asthma, 35 Total Exposure Assessment Methodology, 128 Toxaphene, 23 Training, recommendations, 147-148 Trichloroacetic acid, perchloroethylene, 20 Trichloroethane, 75 Trichloroethanol, perchloroethylene, 20 Trichloroethylene, 11, 57, 75 Trimellitic anhydride, asthma, 35-36 Triphenylmethane, 37 Tryptophan, 57 U Ultraviolet see Light U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1, 9 V Vaccine, immunoglobulin E hypersensitivity, 27 Variability of markers, 15-19, 26, 35, 56, 78-80, 82, 115 Vascular dysfunction, multiple chemical sensitivity, 134-135 Vinyl chloride, 54 Virus, 24 Vitamin, 18, 19 Volatile organic compound, 128, 132, 137-138 W Well water, epidemiology, 123-124 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, 65 X Xenobiotic defined, 10 immune system, overview, 30-31 Xylene, 75