II
Course Modules



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs II Course Modules

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 1 Core Module INTRODUCTION The core module is recommended for all personnel involved both directly and peripherally with animals used in research, education, and testing. It has been designed as an introduction that will enable participants to follow through on subjects that relate to their interests. A lecture/seminar format is recommended for presenting most of the core material, as this format is well suited for communicating the institutional mandate, is appropriate for groups of any size, and makes the most efficient use of resources. If the number of people requiring training within an institution is very small, consideration might be given to participation in a program offered by a larger institution or to the pooling of resources by several small institutions. A session might include several speakers, each of whom is responsible for an assigned topic. Prepackaged video or slide materials can be used effectively for portions of the presentation, particularly when human resources are limited. Handouts are also useful adjuncts to the presentation. Two of the appendixes to this guide are recommended as handouts in the outline below. It is also recommended that written institutional policies applicable to the topics be distributed. Other handouts should be developed to fit the needs of the speakers and the participants. The topics contained in the outline below are those considered by the EPLAS committee to be essential elements of an introductory education program on the care and use of laboratory animals. The recommended presentation time is 3 to 4 hours. In this amount of time, it will not be possible to deal with the topics in depth; however, it is important to address the legal and ethical aspects of every topic. Although the committee has estimated a presentation time for each topic in the outline, the actual time will depend

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs on the emphasis to be placed on each topic and depth of coverage required to fulfill the needs of the institution and the participants. In addition, significant time should be allotted for participants to ask questions and discuss the issues. The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, Chapters 1–9, of this guide by the numbers in parentheses following each sentence. The number preceding the decimal point indicates the chapter, and the number(s) following the decimal point indicates the place within the chapter that the information appears. Thus, 1.1 indicates the first entry in chapter 1 of part III, and 1.2.1 indicates the first subentry under the second entry in chapter 1. OUTLINE FOR THE CORE MODULE Laws, Regulations, and Policies that Impact on the Care and Use of Animals Estimated Presentation Time: 10–15 minutes Recommended Handout: Written institutional policies related to the care and use of laboratory animals Briefly describe federal laws, regulations, and policies that have an impact on the care and use of animals (1.1). Describe the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Public Health Service (PHS) methods for ensuring and monitoring compliance, including the consequences of noncompliance to the institution and the individual (1.1). Present in detail the composition and functions of the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) (1.2.1). Describe the records that facilities are required to keep (1.2.3). Describe the reports required by animal welfare regulations and PHS policy (1.2.4). Describe state and local laws that have an impact on the care and use of animals, if applicable (1.3). Present the policies of your institution (1.4). Ethical and Scientific Issues Estimated Presentation Time: 10–15 minutes Recommended Handout: U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (Appendix I) Define ethics and applied ethics (2.1). Compare the utilitarian and deontological (relating to moral obligation) methods for making decisions (2.2). Compare the position of people who accept the use of animals in research, testing, and education with that of people who oppose such use (2.3–2.4). Discuss the role played by laws, regulations, and policies in ensuring humane care and use of animals (2.5). Present suggested ethical principles for the use of animals (2.6) and encourage participants to develop a personal code of ethics that emphasizes animal welfare.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Alternatives Estimated Presentation: 10–15 minutes Recommended Handouts: Reprint of The Animal Welfare Information Center, which can be found in Appendix II; list of names and telephone numbers for consulting veterinary staff, statisticians, and others Define the "3R's" and discuss their relevance (3.1). Present regulatory, ethical, humane, economic, and scientific reasons for considering alternatives (3.2). Provide examples of nonanimal research methods and models (3.3). Review statistical methods used to determine how many animals will be required for a valid experiment (3.3.8). Review factors that influence the selection of animal models (3.4). Familiarize participants with resources and services that provide information on alternatives (3.5). Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs Estimated Presentation Time: 25–30 minutes List and describe responsibilities of the institution (4.1). List and describe responsibilities of the IACUC (4.2). List and describe responsibilities of investigators (4.3). List and describe responsibilities of the attending veterinarian (4.4). Pain and Distress Estimated Presentation Time: 10–15 minutes Define comfort, discomfort, stress, distress, and pain (5.1). Discuss categories of pain (5.2). Discuss perception of pain and methods of assessing it in animals (5.3–5.4). Discuss sources of stress and the value of adaptation to the animal (5.5.1). Discuss sources of distress and describe signs of maladaptive behavior (5.5.2–5.6). Discuss the ethical and legal obligations of the scientific staff to prevent or minimize pain and distress, and describe the role of the IACUC (5.7–5.8). Discuss adequate veterinary care as it relates to this issue (5.9). Anesthetics, Analgesics, Tranquilizers, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Estimated Presentation Time: 20–25 minutes Briefly define and compare anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, sedatives, and neuromuscular blocking agents, including indicators for the use of each (6.1–6.4). Give examples of chemical agents commonly used to achieve general anesthesia, analgesia, sedation, and immobilization (6.1–6.4). Present factors that modify the response of an animal to these agents (6.1.5, 6.5).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Describe the stages of general anesthesia and present methods of determining when an animal is sufficiently anesthetized (6.1.6–6.1.7). Describe the indications of an anesthetic overdose and the steps necessary to overcome it (6.1.8). Discuss safety precautions for storing drugs and requirements for recordkeeping (6.6–6.7). Discuss the function of the attending veterinarian, with an emphasis on involving veterinary care staff in drug selection, administration, and monitoring (6.8). Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care Estimated Presentation Time: 10–15 minutes Define aseptic technique, survival surgery, major survival surgery, and minor surgical procedures (7.1). Discuss the legal requirements related to performing surgery on animals (7.2). Briefly describe how the surgical team should prepare for aseptic surgery, including preparation of the animal (7.3). Briefly discuss complications of surgery and ways to prevent them (7.5–7.6). Discuss the importance of postsurgical care and the equipment needed to monitor and support the patient (7.7–7.8). Describe the records that should be kept (7.9). Euthanasia Estimated Presentation Time: 20–25 minutes Define euthanasia (8.1). Present legal requirements (8.2). Present ethical and humane considerations (8.3). Discuss the need for sensitivity when euthanasia is performed, emphasizing the public's concerns, the importance of professional conduct, and the effect euthanasia may have on personnel (8.4). Give an overview of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options, and provide criteria for selecting a method (8.5–8.7). Discuss health and safety measures associated with handling animal carcasses, particularly those in which the animal is known to have carried a zoonotic agent or to have been exposed to a substance hazardous to personnel (8.8). Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment Estimated Presentation Time: 20–25 minutes Discuss legal requirements for husbandry and care (9.1). Discuss the importance of proper husbandry and a stable environment (9.2). Discuss environmental variables that can be controlled, giving examples of variables that can affect animal health and research outcomes (9.3).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Describe procedures for emergencies such as power failures (9.4). Resources Estimated Presentation Time: 10–15 minutes Recommended Handout: The Animal Welfare Information Center (Appendix I) Discuss the services of the Animal Welfare Information Center, National Agricultural Library (Appendix I), and other resources (Part IV, section 1). Discuss technical services, reference texts, and audiovisual material available from the laboratory animal resources unit. Provide or explain the mechanism for obtaining copies of pertinent literature.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 2 Species-Specific Module INTRODUCTION This module should be provided for all people who will be in direct contact with animals. Only one species or closely related species should be covered in a particular session. The emphasis on each topic will vary according to the needs of the participants and the species of animal considered. The cognitive aspects of the species-specific module can be presented in the form of independent-study materials; therefore, estimated presentation times are not included. Demonstrations and visual aids should not be substituted for the hands-on experience needed by participants to develop their skills, although they can be helpful in introducing a laboratory exercise. Associated skill-building sessions should be done in small groups or in individual laboratory settings. As in the core module, the recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III. The material will be found primarily in Chapter 10 (Species-Specific Overview), with additional material taken from Chapters 8 (Euthanasia) and 9 (Husbandry, Care, and Importance of the Environment). OUTLINE FOR THE SPECIES-SPECIFIC MODULE Selection and Procurement of Animals Discuss options in selecting appropriate animals for study (10.1).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Give sources of information on suppliers of animals (10.2.1). Discuss in detail any legal requirements and institutional policies that relate to procurement of animals (10.2.2). Husbandry and Care Review the importance of proper husbandry and a stable environment to research (9.2). Describe in detail laws, regulations, and policies pertaining to husbandry and care, including environmental enrichment (9.1). Review controllable environmental variables (9.3). Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of caging available in your institution (10.3.1.1). Present acceptable population densities for various types of caging and the effects of overcrowding (10.3.1.2). Discuss the use of special caging (10.3.2). Describe available methods of environmental enrichment (10.4). Describe food- and water-delivery methods and diets available in your institution, including information on administering experimental agents in food or water and carrying out approved studies involving food or water deprivation (10.5–10.6). Handling and Restraint Explain the importance of proper handling and demonstrate appropriate handling techniques (10.7.1–10.7.2). Compare various methods of restraining animals and give advantages and disadvantages of each (10.7.3). Discuss the following issues related to prolonged restraint, if applicable to the audience: Legal requirements and institutional policies (10.7.4.1). Selection of method, conditioning of animals, and prevention or correction of problems (10.7.4.2). Identification and Records Present the legal requirements for identifying animals and recordkeeping (10.8.1). Compare methods of identifying individual animals (10.8.2). Describe different methods of recordkeeping (10.8.3). Animal Health Provide normal physiologic and biochemical parameters for the given species (10.9.1).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Discuss the importance of health surveillance and the role of the research team (10.9.2). Describe gross, physiologic, and behavioral signs of distress and disease (10.9.3). List common naturally occurring and experimentally induced diseases (10.9.4–10.9.5). Discuss procedures for emergency or special care (10.9.6). Safety and Health Considerations (Zoonoses) Discuss naturally occurring and experimentally induced zoonotic diseases, including signs and symptoms in animals and in humans (10.10.1–10.10.2). Demonstrate the use of protective clothing and equipment and appropriate techniques for handling high-risk animals (10.10.3). Discuss the importance of and mechanisms for reporting incidents. Specific Techniques Describe in detail acceptable methods for performing common procedures such as measurement of vital signs, injections, specimen collection, and blood withdrawal, including type and care of instruments. Describe signs of accuracy and of error associated with each procedure and specify what would be done in case of error. Present humane and safety considerations associated with such procedures as restraint for the animal or protective clothing for the handler, need for anesthetics and/or analgesics, acceptable frequencies or amounts, signs of distress associated with the procedures, and remedies. Euthanasia Present legal and ethical indications for euthanasia (8.2–8.3). Present chemical and physical options, indicating preferred methods and unacceptable methods (8.5–8.7). Discuss the emotional effects of euthanasia on personnel (8.4). Describe in detail your institution's procedure for carcass disposal, with emphasis on potential hazards to people handling carcasses (8.8). Skill Building Allow sufficient time for every participant to: Demonstrate ability to handle and restrain an animal. Demonstrate ability to determine an animal's sex. Take vital signs and assess health.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Prepare a syringe for use (e.g., add a needle of appropriate gauge for the species and material to be injected). Locate structures or landmarks used to guide intraperitoneal, intramuscular, and intravenous injections. Prepare equipment and locate structures associated with blood withdrawal. Select a pharmacologic method of euthanasia and calculate the required dose. Perform specific procedures that will be used in the participant's research. Demonstrate the appropriate handling technique for sterile instruments and equipment. Demonstrate use of protective clothing, as applicable to the participant's needs.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 3 Pain-Management Module INTRODUCTION This module builds on information presented in the core and species-specific modules. It is intended as an in-depth study for scientists whose protocols involve surgery or other procedures that are associated with pain or distress. As stated in the species-specific module, demonstrations and visual aids can be helpful in introducing a laboratory exercise; however, these should not be substituted for the hands-on experience needed by the participants to develop their skills. The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, as explained in the core module. This module draws on the material in Chapters 5 (Pain and Distress), 6 (Anesthetics, Analgesics, Tranquilizers, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents), and 8 (Euthanasia). OUTLINE FOR THE PAIN-MANAGEMENT MODULE Definitions, Mechanisms, and Assessment Review definitions of discomfort, stress, distress, and pain, and discuss categories of pain (5.1–5.2). Explain mechanisms by which pain is perceived and present signs that are used to assess whether an animal is in pain (5.3–5.4). Review sources of stress and the value of adaptation to the animal (5.5.1).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Review sources of distress and signs of maladaptive behavior (5.5.2–5.6). Legal and Ethical Obligations Present in detail ethical and legal obligations for management of pain (5.7–5.8). Review the function of the attending veterinarian (5.9, 6.8). Alleviation of Pain or Distress Present nonpharmacologic interventions (5.9.3). Differentiate between functions of anesthetics, tranquilizers and sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blocking agents (paralytics) (6.1–6.4). Provide examples of one or more pharmacologic agents used for tranquilization, muscle relaxation, and immobilization (6.2–6.4). Provide guidelines for selecting and using each of these agents (6.2–6.4). List and discuss factors that modify responses of these agents (6.5). Review safety precautions and recordkeeping requirements (6.6–6.7). Anesthesia Provide examples of agents commonly used for general anesthesia and for pretreating the patient (6.1.3–6.1.4). Present in detail dosage principles (6.1.5). Describe the stages of anesthesia and how to assess the plane of anesthesia (6.1.6–6.1.7). Discuss signs of overdose and recommended actions in such cases (6.1.8–6.1.9). Euthanasia Review the definition of euthanasia (8.1). Present legal requirements and institutional policies in detail (8.2). Discuss ethical and humane considerations in performing euthanasia (8.3). Discuss the effects that euthanasia can have on personnel, and describe ways to cope with euthanasia-associated stress (8.4). Present the criteria for selecting a method of euthanasia (8.5). Review acceptable pharmacologic methods of euthanasia and list drugs that should never be used alone for euthanasia (8.6). Review acceptable physical methods of euthanasia (8.7). Discuss appropriate methods for disposing of carcasses (8.8).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Skill Building Every participant should have the opportunity to: Select appropriate pain-relieving agents for a specific animal in a specific case. Calculate and prepare the correct dose. Simulate administration. Simulate monitoring of effectiveness.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 4 Surgery Module INTRODUCTION This module builds on information presented in the core, species-specific, and pain-management modules. It is intended as an in-depth study for scientists whose protocols involve the performance of surgical procedures. This module should be species- and procedure-specific insofar as possible. The didactic portions can be covered with directed independent study, and portions of the application can be taught through case problems and simulation. Hands-on experience, however, is needed for skill-building. The recommended content of each topic below is cross-referenced to the expanded outlines contained in Part III, as explained in the core module. This module draws primarily on the material in Chapter 7 (Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care), with additional material taken from Chapter 8 (Euthanasia). OUTLINE FOR THE SURGERY MODULE Definitions Define terms necessary for understanding legal requirements for performing surgery on animals (7.1). Legal Requirements for Survival Surgery Cite the legal requirement for training of personnel performing surgery (7.2.1).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Discuss the legal requirement for administration of appropriate pain-relieving agents, conditions under which withholding of such agents is acceptable, and legal and institutional requirements for justification for withholding such agents (7.2.2). Discuss legal and institutional requirements for pre- and postsurgical care (7.2.3). Discuss approved areas for performing surgery and the surgical facilities available at your institution (7.2.4). Discuss legal limitations for performing multiple major survival surgeries (7.2.5). Aseptic Technique Demonstrate preparation of an animal for aseptic surgery (7.3.1). Demonstrate the preparations of a surgical team for aseptic surgery, including scrubbing, gloving, and gowning (7.3.2). Describe preparation of the surgical instruments (7.3.3). Selection and Administration of Anesthetic Review and discuss the types of anesthetics available (6.1.3) and considerations in selecting an anesthetic agent. Review the procedure for inducing anesthesia (6.1.4–6.1.6). Review the stages of anesthesia and criteria for assessing depth of anesthesia (6.1.7–6.1.8). Review the causes of and procedures for dealing with an anesthetic overdose (6.1.9–6.1.10, 7.5.4). Surgical Complications Discuss monitoring and control of body temperature and hydration during surgery (7.5.1–7.5.2). Discuss prevention of excess bleeding and how to control hemorrhage if it occurs (7.5.3). Surgical Techniques Review pertinent anatomy relevant to common procedures. Introduce surgical instruments and equipment appropriate to given procedures. Discuss important considerations in suturing (7.6). Postsurgical Care Describe in detail the care of animals following surgery (7.7). List equipment items that are useful during surgery and in providing postsurgical care (7.8).

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Medical Records Discuss the importance and contents of the surgical records (7.9). Terminal Surgeries Review euthanasia options and selected methods (8.5–8.7). Review carcass disposal (8.8). Skill Building Present case problems requiring participants to apply the above principles and procedures to normal situations and potential crises. Provide opportunities to observe and participate in surgical procedures pertinent to need. Provide opportunities for participants to gain experience in postsurgical care and monitoring.

OCR for page 9
Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs This page in the original is blank.