Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs

Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

Commission on Life Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991



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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This project was supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) through grants DAMD17-88-2-8016 and DAMD17-87-G-7021. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those of the committee and should not be construed as an official Department of Army position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other documentation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals : a guide for developing institutional programs / Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Laboratory animals. 2. Animal welfare. I. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.). Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science. SF406.E38 1990 636.088'5—dc20 90-49571 CIP ISBN 0-309-04382-4 Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, January 1991 Second Printing, December 1992 Third Printing, October 1998

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE Gale D. Taylor (Chairman), Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana Lynn C. Anderson, Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Sharp Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey David A. Blake, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Lynn Dahm, Health Sciences Center for Educational Resources, University of Washington, Seattle Thomas E. Darby, Lab Products, Inc., Maywood, New Jersey John E. Harkness, Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State James F. Harwell, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Staff Dorothy D. Greenhouse, Senior Program Officer The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Its mission is to provide expert counsel to the federal government, the biomedical research community, and the public on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of laboratory animals within the context of the interests and mission of the National Academy of Sciences. ILAR promotes the high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals; the appropriate use of laboratory animals; and the exploration of alternatives in research, testing, and teaching.

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs INSTITUTE OF LABORATORY ANIMAL RESOURCES COUNCIL Steven P. Pakes (Chairman), The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas June R. Aprille, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts Melvin W. Balk, Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Massachusetts Douglas M. Bowden, University of Washington, Seattle Lester M. Crawford, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Thomas J. Gill III, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Jon W. Gordon, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York Alan M. Goldberg, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Margaret Z. Jones, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michael D. Kastello, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey Robert H. Purcell, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland J. Wesley Robb, School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles John L. VandeBerg, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas Staff: Thomas L. Wolfle, Director COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES Bruce M. Alberts (Chairman), University of California, San Francisco Bruce N. Ames, University of California, Berkeley Francisco J. Ayala, University of California, Irvine J. Michael Bishop, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco Michael T. Clegg, University of California, Riverside Glenn A. Crosby, Washington State University, Pullman Freeman J. Dyson, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey Leroy E. Hood, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Donald F. Hornig, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Marian E. Koshland, University of California, Berkeley Richard E. Lenski, University of California, Irvine Steven P. Pakes, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas Emil A. Pfitzer, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc., Nutley, New Jersey Thomas D. Pollard, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Joseph E. Rall, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Richard D. Remington, University of Iowa, Iowa City Paul G. Risser, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., Armonk, New York Richard B. Setlow, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York Carla J. Shatz, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California Torsten N. Wiesel, Rockefeller University, New York, New York Staff: John E. Burris, Executive Director

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Preface The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science was appointed in 1988 to "prepare an annotated syllabus [guide] for a course in humane practices of animal care and use to assist institutions in complying with recently enacted federal laws, which mandate that educational programs be provided for personnel who use animals in research, testing, and teaching." The committee met four times between November 1988 and June 1990. During the first meeting, several decisions were made that determined the scope and content of this report. First, to assist the scientific community in meeting its demonstrated commitment to humanely care for and use research animals, it was determined that the report would include more information and in much more depth than is necessary to meet minimal requirements of existing regulations. Second, it was resolved that the intended audience should be anyone who can directly or indirectly influence the well-being of animals. These people include investigators, research technicians, teachers, teaching assistants, people in physical plant maintenance, and administrators and animal care staff, all of whom need an understanding of their responsibilities to make an institution's animal care and use program successful. It was also decided that the report would address primarily the principal species used in biomedical research, with limited inclusion of less commonly used species. The care and use of animals in agricultural research were considered beyond the scope of the committee's charge. The consensus was that the committee would develop a core syllabus appropriate for every institution where animal research is performed. In addition, a number of individual packages would be developed that would allow each institution to adapt this guide to its own unique needs. It was recognized that many of the research facilities that will use this guide are not academic institutions and that some basic guidance on development, presentation, and evaluation of an education and training program should be included.

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs The committee recognizes that this report reflects only an initial effort to fulfill both the scientific community's need for information and the mandated requirements for education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals. The dynamics of biomedical research and legislation, critical comments by those who use the guide, and the ongoing development of audiovisual programs will almost certainly require that the report be extensively revised within a few years. The committee hopes that this guide serves as the first building stone in the development of institutional education and training programs that assist scientists in the conduct of biomedical research, as well as meeting the spirit and intent of federal legislation. The committee extends its appreciation to Kevin P. Engler and Jean A. Larson of the National Agricultural Library's Animal Welfare Information Center, who prepared the appendix on how to use the center, and to the staff of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, especially Dorothy D. Greenhouse, whose support has made this document possible. Gale D. Taylor, Chairman Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs Contents I INTRODUCTION     1   Introduction   3 2   How to Use This Guide   6 II COURSE MODULES     1   Core Module   11     Introduction   11     Outline for the Core Module   12 2   Species-Specific Module   16     Introduction   16     Outline for the Species-Specific Module   16 3   Pain-Management Module   20     Introduction   20     Outline for the Pain-Management Module   20 4   Surgery Module   23     Introduction   23     Outline for the Surgery Module   23 III CONTENT OUTLINES         Introduction   28 1   Laws, Regulations, and Policies That Impact on the Care and Use of Animals   29     1.1 Federal Regulations and Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education   29     1.2 Selected Requirements of AWRs and PHS Policy   32

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs     1.3 State and Local Regulations Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education   34     1.4 Institutional Policies Affecting the Care and Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education   34     References   34 2   Ethical and Scientific Issues   36     2.1 Definitions   36     2.2 Conceptual Framework for Ethical Decisions   36     2.3 Arguments Used by Those Advocating the Humane Use of Animals for Human Purposes   37     2.4 Arguments Used by Animal-Rights Advocates   37     2.5 The Role of Laws, Regulations, and Policies   37     2.6 Suggested Ethical Principles   37     References   37 3   Alternatives   39     3.1 Definitions   39     3.2 Rationale for Considering Alternatives   39     3.3 Nonanimal Research Methods and Models   40     3.4 Factors Influencing Model Selection   41     3.5 Utilization of Services   42     References   42 4   Responsibilities of the Institution, the Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Research and Veterinary Staffs   43     4.1 Responsibilities of the Institution   43     4.2 Responsibilities of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee   44     4.3 Responsibilities of the Investigator   45     4.4 Responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian   47     References   47 5   Pain and Distress   48     5.1 Definitions   48     5.2 Categories of Pain   49     5.3 Pain Perception   49     5.4 Assessment of Pain   49     5.5 Stress   50     5.6 Distress   50     5.7 Ethical Obligations   51     5.8 Legal Obligations   51     5.9 Adequate Veterinary Care   51     References   52 6   Anesthetics, Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents   53     6.1 General Anesthetics   53

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs     6.2 Tranquilizers and Sedatives   55     6.3 Analgesics   57     6.4 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (Paralytics or Immobilizing Agents)   58     6.5 Factors Modifying the Effects of Tranquilizers, Analgesics, and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents   59     6.6 Safety Precautions   59     6.7 Recordkeeping Requirements   59     6.8 Functions of the Attending Veterinarian in Pain Management   59     References   59 7   Survival Surgery and Postsurgical Care   61     7.1 Definitions   61     7.2 Legal Requirements   61     7.3 Preparation for Surgery   62     7.4 Anesthesia   63     7.5 Surgical Complications   63     7.6 Incisions   64     7.7 Postsurgical Care   65     7.8 Equipment   65     7.9 Recordkeeping   66     References   66 8   Euthanasia   67     8.1 Definition   67     8.2 Legal Requirements   67     8.3 Ethical and Humane Considerations   68     8.4 Human Considerations   68     8.5 Criteria for Selection of Method of Euthanasia   69     8.6 Pharmacologic Methods   69     8.7 Physical Methods   72     8.8 Carcass Disposal   74     References   74 9   Husbandry, Care, and the Importance of the Environment   75     9.1 Legal Requirements for Husbandry and Care   75     9.2 Importance of Proper Husbandry and a Stable Environment   75     9.3 Environmental Variables That Can Be Controlled   76     9.4 Dealing with Emergencies   76     Reference   76 10   Species-Specific Overview   77     10.1 Factors Associated with Selection of Animals   77     10.2 Procurement of Animals   79     10.3 Caging   79     10.4 Environmental Enrichment   80

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs     10.5 Food   80     10.6 Water   80     10.7 Handling and Restraint   81     10.8 Identification and Records   81     10.9 Animal Health   81     10.10 Zoonoses   83     10.11 Specific Techniques   84     References   84 IV RESOURCES     1   Sources of Information   87 2   Selected Bibliography   89     Laws, Policies, and Guidelines   89     Ethics, Animal Welfare, and the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research, Education, and Testing   90     Alternatives   90     Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees   91     Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress   91     Surgery   93     Euthanasia   93     Biology, Husbandry, and Care   93     Genetics and Nomenclature   97     Nutrition   97     Occupational Hazards and Laboratory Safety   98     Pathology and Therapy   99     Design of Educational Course   102 3   Audiovisual Materials   103 V HOW TO DEVELOP, DELIVER, AND EVALUATE AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM     1   How to Approach the Task of Education   109     Educational Goals   109     Setting Objectives   110     Selecting Methods   110     Overcoming Resistance to Change   112     Conclusions   113 2   How to Plan and Implement a Training Course   114     Identifying the Target Audience   114     Allocating a Budget/Funding   114     Determining Goals and Objectives   115     Scheduling the Course   115     Reserving Facilities   115     Identifying and Contacting Lecturers   115

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs     Obtaining and Reviewing Audiovisual Materials   116     Assembling Reference Materials   116     Publicizing the Course   116     References   117 3   Evaluation   118     Evaluating the Institutional Program   118     Evaluating the Course   119     Reference   119 APPENDIXES     I   Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training   125 II   The Animal Welfare Information Center   127     Animal Welfare Information Center Established   127     Services and Information Resources Available Through AWIC   127     AWIC Reference Publications   129     Projects Supported by AWIC   129     Updates Regarding AWIC and NAL   131     Publications Available Through AWIC   131 III   Sample Objectives of Self-Assessment Statements   133     Introduction   133     Core Module   133     Species-Specific Module   136     Pain-Management Module   137     Surgery Module   138

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