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References This list includes documents referenced in the report as well as documents known to the panel that pertain to the supply and demand for precollege teachers. 1985 Akin, James N. 1983a Teacher supply/demand by field and region. Education Week Feb. 16:16-17. 1983b Teacher Supply/Demand 1983. Madison. Wisconsin: Association for School, College and University Staffing, Inc. 1984 Teacher Supply/De~rzand 1984 A Report Based Upon an Opinion Survey of Teacher Placement Officers. Madison, Wisconsin: Association for School, College and University Staffing, Inc. 1985 Teacher Supply/Demand 1985 A Report Based Upon An Opinion Survey of Teacher Placement Officers. Madison, Wisconsin: Association for School, College and University Staffing, Inc. 1986 Teacher Supply/Demand 1986 A Report Based Upon An Opinion Survey of Teacher Placement Officers. Madison, Wisconsin: Association for School, College and University Staffing, Inc. Alabama State Department of Education 1982 Compansons of Supply and Demand. Montgomery, Alabama: Author. Alexander, Lamar, and H. Thomas James 1987 The Nation's Report Card Improving the Assessment of Student Achievement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AA(~TE) 1984 Teacher Education Policy in the States: Restate Survey of Legislative and Administrative Actions. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1987a Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention: A Call for Action. Policy Statement, September. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. 1987b Teaching Teachers: Facts and Figures. Washington, D.C.: American Associa tion of Colleges for Teacher Education. 1989 Data in the form of printed figures and tables. July. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, D.C. 183

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184 REFERENCES Ameriean Council on Education 1988 Study cites growing shortage of minority teachers. Higher Education and National Affairs 37~19~0etober 31~:3,8. Ameriean Institute of Physics 1988 Physics in the High Schools. 198~87 Nationwide Survey of Secondary School Teachers of Physics. M. Neuehatz and M. Covalt, authors. Pub. No. R-340. November. New York: Ameriean Institute of Physics. Antos, J., and S. Rosen 1975 Discrimination in the market for public school teachers. Joumal of Econo- metncs 3~23:123-150. Arrow, Kenneth J., and William M. Capron 1959 Dynamic shortage and price rises: the engineer-scientist ease. Quarterly Journal of Economics. Ascher, William 1979 Problems of forecasting and technology assessment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 13:149-156. Association of Teacher Educators 1987 Teacher Induction A New Beginning. Reston, Virginia: Association of Teacher Educators. Atkin, J. Myron 1981 Who will teach in high school? Daedalus 110:91-103. Baratz, Joan C 1986 Black Participation in the Teacher Pool. January. Paper prepared for the Carnegie Forum's Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. Rochester, New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Barro, Stephen M. 1986 The State of the Art in Projecting Teacher Supply and Demand. Paper prepared for the Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: SMB Economic Research, Ine. Barro, Stephen M., and Stephen J. Carroll 1975 Budget Allocation by School Districts: An Analysis of Spending for Teachers and Other Resources. R-1797-NIE. Santa Monica, California.: The RAND Corporation. Baugh, William H., and Joe A. Stone 1982 Mobility and wage equilibrium in the educator labor market. Economics of Education Review 2~3):253-274. Benderson, Albert 1982 Teacher Competence. Focus (10~. Princeton, New Jersey: Edueational lasting Service. Berliner, David C 1986 In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Researcher August/September, Pp. 5-13. Berry, Barnett 1984 A Case Study of the Teacher Labor Market in the Southeast. Occasional Papers in Edueational Policy Analysis No. 413. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Southeastern Regional Council for Educational Improvement. 1985 Understanding Teacher Supply and Demand in the Southeast: A Synthesis of Qualitative Research to Aid Effective Policymaking. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Southeastern Regional Council for Edueational Improvement.

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REFERENCES 185 Berryman, Sue E. 1983 Gino Will Do Science? New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Bird, Ronald E. 1984 Report and Evaluation of Current Information Regarding Teacher Supply and Danand. Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis, No. 8. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Southeastern Regional Council for Educational Improvement. Bishop, A. J. 1982 Implications of research for mathematics teacher education. Joumal of Education for Teaching 8~2~:119-135. Blank, Rolf K 1986 Science and Mathematics Indicators: Conceptual Framework for a State-Based Network. Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officem. Blank, Rolf K, and Senta A. Raizen 1986 1985 Background Paper for a Planning Conference on a Study of Teacher Quality in Science and Mathematics Education. Committee on Research in Mathe matics, Science, and Technology Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Background Paper for a Planning Conference on a Study of Teacher Quality in Science and Mathematics Education. For February 7~, 1986, meeting of the Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Block, Erich 1989 Engineering and national interests. The Bridge 19~1~(spring):11-15. Wash ington, D.C: National Academy of Engineering. Bloland, P. A., and T. J. Selby 1980 Factors associated with career choice among secondary school teachem: a review of the literature. Educational Research Quarterly 5:1~23. Boozer, Robert F. 1985 Supply and Demand Educational Personnel in Delaware 198485. July. Dover: Delaware Department of Public Instruction. 1986 Teacher Supply and Demand Definitions, Data, Models and Instrumentation. Paper presented to the National Research Council Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, February 7. Dover, Delaware: Delaware Department of Public Instruction. Boyer, Ernest L 1983 High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. New York: Harper and Row. Brunner, Ronald D., J. Samuel Fitch, Janet Grassia, Lyn Kathlene, and Kenneth R. Hammond 1987 Improving data utilization: the case-wise alternative. Policy Sciences. 20:365- 394. Bureau of the Census 1978 Estunates of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex and Race. CPR, P-25, No. 721. April. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1980 Major Field of Study of College Students: October 1978. Current Population Reports. Series P-20, No. 351. May. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

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186 REFERENCES 1982 Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1982. Current Population Reports, Series P 60, No. 140. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1984a Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex and Race: 1983 to 2080. 1984b Mantal Status and Irving Arrangements. Series P-20, No. 399. March. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1986 Money Income and Poverty Stanus of Families and Persons in the United States: 1985. Series P-60, No. 154. August. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1987 Estimates of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex and Race: 1980 to 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 1000. February. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1988 The Hispanic Population in the United States. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 431. August. 1989 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1988 December. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Burke, Peter J. 1987 Inherited merry-go-rounds. In Teacher Development: Introduction, Renewal and Redirection. New York: Falmer. California Round Table on Educational Opportunity 1983 Improving the Attractiveness of the K-12 Teaching Profession in Califomia. Sacramento: California State Department of Education. California State Commission on Teacher Credentialing 1986 Minutes and Survey of Participating Agencies, Conference on Teacher Supply and Demand Memorandum from Richard K. Mastain. California State Commission on Teacher Credentialing, Sacramento. Cagampang, Helen, Walter I. Garms, Todd J. Greenspan, and James W. Guthrie 1986 Teacher Supply and Demand in Califomia: Is the Reserve Pool a Realis- tic Source of Supply? August. Berkeley: Policy Analysis for California Education, University of California. California State Department of Education 1967 Teacher Supply and Dad ~ Califomia, 1965-1975. Sacramento, California: Author. Characteristics of Professional Staff in Califomia Public Schools. Sacramento, California: Author. Supply and Demand for Bilingual Teachers in School Districts in Califomia, An Update Report: 1982-83. Sacramento, California: Author. The Teacher Shortage ~ California: A Preliminary Analysis. Prepared by James Fulton. Sacramento, California: Planning, Evaluation, and Research Division, Author. 1982 1983 1984 Capper, Joanne 1987 A Study of Certified Teacher Availability in the States. February. Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers. Carey, Neil B., Brian S. Mittman, and Linda Darling-Hammond 19~ Recruiting Mathematics and Science Teachers Through Nontraditional Programs: A Survey. May. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy 1986 A Nation Prepared: The Report of the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy.

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REFERENCES 187 Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession 1986 A Nation Prepared. Teachers for the 21st Century. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Carroll, C. Dennis 1985 High School and Beyond Tabulation: Background Characteristics of High School Teachers. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Carroll, Stephen J. 1973 Analysis of the Educational Personnel System: IIL The Demand for Educational Professionals. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Carroll, Stephen J., and Kenneth F. Ryder, Jr. 1974 Analysis of the Educational Personnel System: ~ Supply of Elementary and Secondary Teachers. R-1341-HEW. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Cavin, Edward S. 1986 A Review of Teacher Supply and Round Projections by the US. Department of Education, Ildnozs, and New York. Draft paper submitted to the Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathe matics Teachers, Committee on National Statistics. Princeton, New Jersey: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Cavin, E. S., R. J. Murnane, and R. S. Brown 1984 How Enrollment Declines Affect Per Pupil Expenditure Levels in Public School Districts. Anal report to the National Institute of Education, U.S. Depart ment of Education. Princeton, New Jersey.: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. School district responses to enrollment changes: the direction of change matters! Joumal of Education Finance 10~4~:426-440. Cawelti, G., and J. Adkisson 1985 AS CD study reveals elementary school time allocations for subject areas: other trends noted. Supplement to ASCD Update. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Center for Education Statistics 1987a The Condition of Education A Statistical Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. 1985 1987b Digest of Education Statistics, 1987. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. _ r~~_~ D~<'D'^~nr`' Ff11~7ti~" mtn.qv.~!em~Glossarv. Washington, D.C.: 1987c l range us 1 And .~, ~ U.S. Government Printing Office. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) Fifth Follow-Up (1986). Data File User's Manual. December. Washington, D.C.: Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. 1987e Teachers in Elementary and Secondary Education. Based on 1983-84 Survey of Teacher Demand and Shortage. Historical Report CS 87-324h. Washington, D.C.: Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Trends in Bachelors and Higher Degrees 1975-1985. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1988a Conference on Elementary and Secondary Education Statistics Program, January 25-26. Draft report by S. ~ Raizen, March 15. Washington, D.C.: Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. 1987d 1987f

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188 REFERENCES 1988b Racial/Ethnic Data for 1984 Fall Enrollment and Gamed Degree Recipients for Academic Year 1984-85. Tabulation CS ~-200. Washington, D.C.: Center for Edueation Statistics, U.S. Department of Edueation. 1988c Residence of First-Time Students in Pustsecondary Education Institutions, Fal1 1986. Tabulation CS 88-224. Washington, D.C: Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Edueation. 1988d Trends in Minority Enrollment in Higher Education, Fall 1g7~Fa111986. Survey Report CS 88-201. Washington, D.C.: Center for Edueation Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Center for Policy Research in Edueation (CPRE) 1989 The Implementation and Effects of High School Graduation Requirements: First Steps Toward Curricular Reloan. Research Report Series RR-011. February. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University. Center for Statistics 1985 Factors Associated with Decline of Test Scores of Him School Seniors, 1972 to 1980. CS 85-217. Washington, D.C: Center for Statistics, U.S. Department of Edueation. Digest of Education Statistics, 1985-86. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1986b Plan for the Redesign of the Elementary and Secondary Data Collection Program. Working Paper, March 18. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. 1986c Postsecond~ry Credits Earned by 1980 High School Seniors Who Received Bachelors' Degrees. Tabulation of High School and Beyond by J. A. Owings. LSB 86-3-3. Washington, D.C.: Center for Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. 1986d Public High School Graduation Requirements. Report No. CS 86-225b. September. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Center for the Study of the Teaching Profession 1987 Annual Report, October 1986 to September 1997. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Champagne, Audrey B., and Leslie E. Hornig, eds. 1986 This Year in School Science 1985-Science Teaching. The Report of the 1985 National Forum for School Science. Washington, I).C.: The American Association for the Advancement of Science. Charters, Vat W., Jr. 1976 Some obvious facts about the teaching career. Educational Administration Quarterly 3:182-193. 1970 Some factors affecting teacher survival in school districts. American Edaca- tional Research Joumal 7:1-27. Chelimsly, Eleanor 1988 Production and Quality of Education Infonnanon. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Select Education Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, U.S. Congress. April. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. 1986a Cohen, Michael 1988 Designing state assessment systems. Phi Delta Kappan. April:583-588. College Placement Council 1988 CPC Salary Survey. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: College Placement Council.

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REFERENCES 189 Colorado State Department of Education 1986 Teacher Supply and Gerund for K-12 Public School Programs in Colorado: 1985 and Beyond. Prepared by Roger E. Neppl and Jerry Scezney. Denver, Colorado: Author. Congressional Budget Office 1983a Initiatives ~ Science and Mathematics Education: Issues and Options. Daniel Koretz, author. Draft paper. April 11. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office. 1983b Science and Mathematics Education: Issues in Shaping a Federal Initiative. March 11. Daniel Koretz, author. Washington, D.C: Congressional Budget Office. 1985 Reducing Poverty Among Children. May. Robertson C. Williams and Gina C. Adams, authors. Washington, D.C: Congressional Budget Office. 1986 Trends ~ Educational Achievement. April. Daniel Koretz, author. Washing ton, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office. 1987 Educational Achievement: Explanations and Implications of Recent Trends. August. Daniel Koretz, author. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Budget Office. Congressional Research Service 1988 Education: the challenges. Major Issue Forum (includes a section on math-science literacy and productivity). October. Washington, D.C.: Con- gressional Research Service. Connecticut Board of Education 1988 Teacher Supply and Demand us Connecticut: A Second Look. November. Hartford: Connecticut Board of Education. Connecticut State Department of Education 1984 Public School Enrollment Projections Through 2000. Hanford, Connecticut: Author. 1985a School Staff Report. Hartford, Connecticut: Author. 1985b Teacher Supply and Oernand in Connecticut. Hartford, Connecticut: Author. 1987 A Second Look at Connecticut Teacher Supply and Demand. Part I: A Study of Connecticut's 1985 Teacher Attrition Rates. Unpublished report. 1988 Fall Hiring Report: Certified Professional Staff Vacancies as of September 1, 1987. Hartford: State of Connecticut Department of Education. Connecticut State Department of Higher Education 1983 Student Migration Into and Out of Connecticut: An Update. Hartford, Connecticut: Author. 1985 Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Insertions of Higher Education 1982-83. Research Report R-1-85. Hartford, Connecticut: Author. Contra, John A., and David A. Potter. 1980 School and teacher effect: An interrelational model. Review of Educational Research. Summer.287. Council of Chief State School Officers 1984 Staking the Nation's Schools: A National Emergency. Author. Washington, D.C.: Crane, Jane 1982 Teacher Inured. A Socio-Demographic Phenomenon. National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. Darling-Hammond, Linda 1984 Beyond Me Commission Reports: Lee Coming Crisis in Teaching. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation.

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190 REFERENCES 1986 Teacher Supply and Demand. A Structural Perspective. April. Paper for presentation at 1986 American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. 1988a The futures of teaching. Educational Leadership. November:4-10. 1988b On teaching as a profession: a conversation with Linda Darling-Hammond. (by Anne Meek) Educational Leadership. November 11-17. Darling-Hammond, Linda, Gus Haggstrom, Lisa Hudson, and Jennie Oakes 1986 A Conceptual Framework for Examining Staffing and Schooling. Draft report prepared for the Center for Education Statistics. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Darling-Hammond, Linda, and Lisa Hudson 1986 Indicators of Teacher and Teaching Quality. Draft report prepared for the National Science Foundation. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. 1987a Indicators of Teacher Quality for a Comprehensive Monitoring System of Mathematics and Science Education. September. Paper prepared for the National Science Foundation project "Monitoring National Progress in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education." Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. 1987b Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers: Supply, Demand and Quality. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Darling-Hammond, Linda, Lisa Hudson, and Sheila Nataraj Kirby 1989 Redesigning Teacher Education: Opening the Door for New Recnuits to Science and Mathematics Teaching. March. R-3661-FF/CSTP. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. David, Jane L" 1988 The use of indicators by school districts: aid or threat to improvement? Phi Delta Kappan March:499-502. Dean, B. V., A. Reisman, and E. Rattner 1971 Supply and Demand of Teachers and Supply and Demand of PhD's 1971-1980. Revised draft, June. Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western Reserve University. Delaware State Department of Public Instruction 1985a Educational Personnel in Delaware Public Schools, 198485. Prepared by Robert F. Boozer. Dover, Delaware: Author. 1985b Supph,' and Demand Educational Personnel in Delaware, 198485. Prepared by Robert F. Boozer. Dover, Delaware: Author. Dossey, J. A., Ina V. S. Mullis, Mary M. Lindquist, and Donald L" Chambers 1988 The Mathematics Report Card. Are We Measuring Up? Trends and Achievement Based on the 1986 National Assessment. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. Douglas, Stratford, and Ronald E. Bird 1985 Personal Labor Supply; An Estimation of a Probabilistic Teacher Labor Supply Function. Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis No. 416. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Southeastern Regional Council for Educational Improvement. Druva, Cynthia A., and Ronald J. Anderson 1983 Science teacher characteristics by teacher behavior and by student out- come: a meta-analysis of research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 20(5~467-479.

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REFERENCES 191 Duggan, Paula 1988 Labor Market Infonnation: Book I A State Pol~'cymaker's Guide. Washington, D.C.: Northeast-Midwest Institute: The Center for Regional Policy. Dworkin, Anthony G. 1987 Teacher Bumout zn the Public Schools: Structural Causes and Consequences for Children. Albany: State University of New York Press. Eberts, R., and J. Stone 1984 Unions and Public Schools. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. Eccles, J., and Lois W. Hoffman 1985 Sex roles, socialization, and occupational behavior. In H. W. Stevenson and A. E. Siegel, eds., Research ~ Child Development and Social Policy. Vol. I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Education Commission of the States 1984 A Restate Survey of Initiatives for Attracting Science and Mathematics Teachers. Denver, Colorado: Author. New Directions for State Teacher Policies. Working Paper No. TR-85-1. Prepared by Judith L. Bray, Patricia Flakus-Mosqueda, Robert M. Palaich, and JoAnne S. Wilkins. Denver, Colorado: Author. Minimum High School Graduation Requirements zn 1980, 1985 and 1987: Standard Diplomas. No. CN28. Denver, Colorado: Author. State Institutional Initiatives for Minority Teacher Recruitment. By Joy Miller. Working Paper No. TE-88-C1. Denver, Colorado: Author. Education Week 1985 Changing course: a 50-state survey of reform measures. Education Week February 6:11-30. Educational Testing Service 1984 Recapturing the Lead in Math and Science. Focus (14~. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. 1986 National Report: College-Bound Seniors, 1986 An ATP Summary Report. Princeton, New Jersey: College Entrance Examination Board. 1987 1987 Profile of SAT and Achievement Test Takers. A National Report on College-Bound Seniors. Princeton, New Jersey: College Entrance Examina tion Board. 1989 What Americans Study. APolicyInfonnation Report. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. Eissenberg, Thomas E., and L. M. Rudner 1988 State testing of teachers: a summary. Joumal of Teacher Education. July- August:21-22. Elliott, E. J., and C. D. Cowan 1987 Redesigning the Collection of National Education Statistics. Paper. Washing- ton, D.C.: Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Elsworth, Gerald R., and Frank Coulter 1978 Relationships between professional self-perception and commitment to teach- ing. Australian Joumal of Education 22(March):25-37. Executive Service Corps of New England, Inc. 1989 High School MathlScience Project Final Report of Interviews on Using Retirees to Teach Math and Science. March 8. Boston, Massachusetts: Executive Service Corps of New England, Inc. Falk, W. W., C. Falkowski, and T. A. Lyson 1981 Some plan to be teachers: further elaboration and specification. Sociology of Education 54:64-69. 1985 1987 1988

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192 Feistritzer, C Emily 1983a 1983b 1984 REFERENCES The American Teacher. Washington, D.C.: Feistritzer Publications. The Condition of Teaching A State by State Analysis. Princeton, New Jersey: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The Making of a Teacher: A Report on Teacher EdzAcatzon and Certification. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Edueation Information. 1985 The Condition of Teaching A State by State Anah,~szs, 1985. Princeton, New Jersey: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 1988a Profile of School Administrators in the US. Washington, D.C: National Center for Edueation Information. 1988b Teacher Supply and Demand Surveys 1988. Washington, D.C: National Center for Edueation Information. Fielstra, C 1955 An analysis of factors influencing the decision to become a teacher. Journal of Educational Research 48:659-667. Flakus-Mosqueda, Patricia 1983 Survey of States' Teacher Policies. Working Paper No. ~ Denver, Colorado: Edueation Commission of the States. Flanders, J. 1986 How Much of the Content in Mathematics Textbooks is New? Unpublished paper, University of Chicago. Flonda State Department of Edueation 1980 Trends in Teacher Supply and Demand. Prepared by Al Fresin. Tallahassee, Florida: Author. 1982 Areas of Critical Teacher Need in Flonda: 198~81. Tallahassee, Florida: Author. Teacher Supply and Demand in Flonda: Second Annual Report. Tallahassee, Florida: Author. 1984 Teacher Supply and Demand in Florida: Third Annual Report. Tallahassee, Flonda: Author. 1985 Teacher Supply and Demand in Florida Fourth Annual Report. Tallahassee, Florida: Author. 1986 Teacher Supply and Demand in Florida: Fifth Annual Report. October. Tallahassee, Flonda: Florida Department of Edueation. Methodology for the Identification of Teacher Shortage Areas, 198~87. Talla hassee, Florida: Author. Flonda State Edueation Standards Commission 1985 Teaching as a Career: High School Students' Perceptions of Teachers and Teaching. Tallahassee, Florida: Author. 1986 Teachers for Florida's Classrooms: Meeting the Challenge. Tallahassee, Flonda: Author. 1983 n.d. 1975 Frankel, Martin, and Debra Gerald 1984 Projections of Edueation Statistics: An Analysis of Projection Errors. National Center for Edueation Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. Freeman, Richard B. 1971 The Market for College-Trained Manpower. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Har- vard University Press. Legal cobwebs: a recursive model of the market for new lawyers. Review of Economics and Statistics 57~2~:171-179.

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REFERENCES 193 Futrell, Mary H. 1987 Statement Before the 125th Annual NED Convention Opening News Conference. July 1. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association. Galambos, Eva C 1980 The Changing Labor Market for Teachers in the South. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board. 1985 Teacher Preparation: The Anatomy of a College Degree. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board. Teachers in the United States. Report for the U.S. Department of Education. March 28 draft. Atlanta, Georgia: Author. Garden, Robert A" ~ 1987 Second IDA Mathematics Study: Sampling Report. March. Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. Gilford, Dorothy M. 1987 Data Resources to Describe U.S. Precollege Science and Mathematics Curricula. In ~ B. Champagne and L. E. Hornig, eds, The Science Curriculum: The Report of the 1986 National Forum for School Science. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Gilford, Dorothy M., and Ellen Tenenbaum 1985 Report of the Planning Conference for a Study of Statistics on Supply of and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.~: National Research Council. Ginsberg, R., and R. K. W~mpelberg 1987 Educational change by commission: attempting "trickle down" reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 9~4~(winter):344-360. Ginsberg, Rick, Elchanan Cohn, C Glyn Williams, S. Travis Pritchett, and Tom Smith 1989 - Teaching in South Carolina: A Retirement Initiative. South Carolina Educa- tional Policy Center, College of Education. Columbia: University of South Carolina. Glass, G. V., L. S. Cahen, M. L. Smith, and N. N. Filby 1984 School Class Size: Research and Policy. Publications. 1986 Beverly Hills, California: Sage Goertz, Margaret E. 1985 State Educational Standards: A Restate Surrey. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. 1989 Course-Taking Patterns in the 1980~. Princeton, New Jersey Educational Testing Service. Goertz, Margaret E., Ruth B. Ekstrom, and Richard J. Caley 1984 The Impact of State Policy on Enhance into the Teaching Profession. Report to National Institute of Education. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. Goodlad, John I. 1984 A Place Called School. New York: McGraw-Hill. Garden, Robert ~ 1987 Second lEA Mathematics Study: Sampling Report. March. Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.~: U.S. Department of Education. Graham, Patricia A. 1987 Black teachers: a drastically scarce resource. Phi [Delta Kappan April:598- 605.

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200 REFERENCES Grilles K-12. Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Math- ematics Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. Murnane, Richard J., and Michael Schwinden 1989 Race, gender, and opportunity: supply and demand for new teachers in 1975~5. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Summer 11~2~:93-108. Mundane, Richard J., Judith D. Singer, and John B. Willett 1988 The career paths of teachers: implications for teacher supply and method ological lessons for research. Educational Researcher August-September:22 30. , 1989 The influences of salaries and "opportunity costs" on teachers' career choices: evidence from North Carolina. Harvard Educational Review. August:59~3~:325-346. National Academy of Engineering 1989 Technology and Competitiveness: A Statement of the Council of the Na- tianal Academy of Engineering. Supplement to The Bridge. 19~1~(spnng). Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. National Academy of Sciences 1987 Nurtunng Science and Engineering Talent: A Discussion Paper. July. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering 1982 - Science and Mathematics in the Schools: Report of a Convocation. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1985 The Reading Report Card. Trends in Reading over Four National Assessments, 1971-1984. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. 1986 1987 1988a The Whiting Report Card. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. Implementing the New Design: The PREP 1983-84 Technical Report. Report No. 15-TR-20. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. The Mathematics Report Card Are We Measuring Up? Trends and Achievement Based on the 1986 National Assessment. Report No. 17-M-01. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. 1988b Science Leaming Matters: An Overview of the Science Report Card. September. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. 1988c The Science Report Card Trends and Achievement Based on the 1986 National Assessment. Report No. 17-S~1. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service. National Association of Secondary School Principals 1985 An Agenda for Excellence at the Eddy Level. September. Reston, Virginia: National Association of Secondary School Principals. National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification 1988 Manual on Certification. Sacramento, California: National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 1982a Projections of Educator Staiishcs to 199~91. Volume 2: Methodological Report. By M. Frankel and D. Gerald. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1982b Teachers Employed It Public Schools 1979-80. A report on the 1979-80 Survey of Teacher Demand and Shortage. Prepared by S. A. Metz and J. P. Sietsma. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education.

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REFERENCES 1983 201 New Teachers in the Job Market: 1981 Update. Prepared by Jane L. Crane. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1984a The Condition of Education. 1984 edition. Washington, D.C: U.S. Depart ment of Education. 1984b Projections of Education Statistics: An Analysis of Projection Errors. Prepared by M. Frankel and D. Gerald. September. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. 1984c Science and mathematics education in American high schools: results from the High School and Beyond Study. ACES Bulletin. May. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. 1985a The Condition of Education. 1985 edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart ment of Education. 1985b Projections of Education Statistics to 1992-93: Methodological Report with Detailed Projection Tables. Prepared by Debra E. Gerald. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. 1988a Background and Prurience Characteristics of Public and Private School Teachers: 1984-85 and 1985-86, Respectively. October. Survey Report CS 881103. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics. 1988b Digest of Education Statistics 1988. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. 198& CD.TABS: Postsecondary Fall Enrollment, 1986. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). July. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education Research and Improvement. 1988d Report of the Conference on El~rnentary and Secondary Education Statistics Program. January 25-26. Report by S. A. Raizen. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Education. 1988e Trends in Minority Enrollment zn Hider Education, Fad 1976-Fall 1986. Survey Report CS 88-201. April. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Education. Education Indicators- 1988. Report CS88424. 1988f 1988g 1989a Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office Projections of Education Statistics to 1997-98. CS 8~607. Washington, I;).C.: U.S. Department of Education. CD.TABS: Schools and Staffing Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education Research and Improvement. 1989b Minority Student Issues: Racial/Ethnic Data Collected by the National Center Jar Education Statistics Since 1969. March. CS 89-267. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. 1989c State Protections to 1993 for Public Elementary and Secondary Enrollment, Graduates, and Teachers. Report No. CS 89-638. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983 A Nation at Risk The Imperative for Educational Refonn. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Education Association (NEA) 1957 Status of American School Teachers. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1972 Status of the American Public School Teacher, 197~1971. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1982 Status of the American Public School Teacher, 198~1981. Washington, D.C.: Author.

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202 REFERENCES 1987a NEA Poll Says Teachers Better Educated, Have More Experience and Work Longer Hours. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C. 1987b Nearly Half of Teachers Report Overcrowded Classrooms. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C 1987c Number of Misassigned Teachers Rising, New NEA Survey Discloses. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C. 1987d Percentage of Minority Teachers Declines as Minority Enrollment Increases. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C 1987e Status of the American Public School Teacher: 1985-86. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association. 1987f Teacher Supply and Demand Guidebook. Washington, D.C.: National Edu cation Association. 1987g Teachers Forced to Moonlight to Supplement Family Income. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C 1987h Teachem Spend Average of 11 Hours Weekly on School-Related Activities Without Pay. Press release. July 1. National Education Association, Washington, D.C. NEA Statement on Teacher Shortage. Press release. September 16. National Education Association, Washington, D.C. National Governors' Association 1986 Time for Results: The Govemors' 1991 Report on Education. August. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1987 Results in Education: 1987. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1988 Pension Portability for Educators: A Plan for the Future. By Jean G. McDonald. Washington, D.C.: Author. National Research Council 1977 Fundamental Research and the Process of Education. Committee on Funda mental Research Relevant to Education, Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. The State of School Science. June. Panel on School Science, Commission in Human Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. Indicators of Precollege Education in Science and Mathematics: A Preliminary Review. Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. Creating a Center for Education Statistics: A Time for Action. Panel to Evaluate the National Center for Education Statistics, Committee on National Statistics, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.~: National Academy Press. 1987a Annual Report of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. June. Papers on curriculum reform included in folder. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1987b Conference on the Teaching Profession. Papers include a discussion of NCTM's Cumcu~m and Evaluation Standards by Thomas Cooney and the 1987 Annual Report of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board (1987J is also included. Washington, D.C: National Research Council. 1987c Toward Understanding Teacher Supply and Demand. Priorities for Research and Development. Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, Committee on National Statistics and Committee on Indicatom of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education, 1988 1979 1985 1986

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REFERENCES 203 Commission on Behavioral and Social Seienees and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1987d Interdisciplinary Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education. Committee on Research in Mathematies, Seience, and Teehnology Edueation, Commission on Behavioral and Social Seienees and Edueation. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1987e Minorities: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering- Proceedings of a Workshop. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1987f The Teacher of Mathematics: Issues for Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of a Conference. October 1987. Cosponsored ~ the Mathematieal Sciences Edueation Board and the Center for Academic Interinstitutional Programs. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1989a Everybody Counts: A Report lo the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education. Committee on the Mathematieal Seienees in the Year 2000, Board on Mathematieal Seienees, Mathematieal Sciences Education Board. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1989b US. School Mathematics from an International Perspective: A Guide for Speakers. Mathematieal Seienees Edueation Board. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. 1983 National Scienee Board 1982 Today's Problems, Tomorrow's Cnses. A Report of the National Science Board Commission on Precollege Edueation in Mathematics, Science and Teehnology. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Educating A'nencans for the 21st Century. Commission on Precollege Educa tion in Mathematies, Scienee and Teehnology. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1987 Science and Engineering Indicators 1987. Report No. NSB 87-1. Washing ton, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Scienee Foundation 1983 Educating Amencca2s for the 21st Century. National Science Board Com mission on Precollege Education in Mathematies, Scienee and Technology. Washington, D.C.: Author. 1985 Science Indicators The 1985 Report. National Scienee Board Committee on Seience Indicators. Washington, D.C: Author. 1987 Directory of NSF-Supported Teacher Enhancement Projects. Pamphlet NSF 87-21. Washington, D.C.: National Seience Foundation. National Seience Resources Center 1988 Science for Children: Resources for Teachers. Washington, D.C.: National Aeademy Press. National Science Teachers Association 1981 What Research Says to the Science Teacher. NSTA No. 471-14776. Washing 1982 1983a ton, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Course offerings in science and mathematics. Table in A Comparison of Public and Private Schools, 1982-1983. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Recommended standards for the preparation and certification of teachers of science at the elementary and middle/junior high school levels: science preparation for preservice elementary teachers. Journal of College Science Teaching November.122-127.

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204 REFERENCES 1983b Science Preparation for Preservice Elementary Teachers. Recommended Stan dards for the Preparation and Certification of Teachers of Science at the El~nentary and Mid~e/Junior High School Labels. Washington, D.C.: Na tional Science Teachem Association. 1984 Recommended standards for the preparation and certification of secondary school teachers of science: high school science teacher preparation. The Science Teacher December 57~2. 1988a Essential Changes in Secondary School Science: Scope, Sequence and Coordi nation. By Bill G. Aldridge. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. 1988b NSTA Certification Requirements for Elementary and High School Science Teachers. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. New Jersey State Department of Higher Education and Department of Education 1983 Report of the Advisory Council on Math/Science Teacher Supply and Demand. Trenton, New Jersey: Author. New York City Board of Education 1987 Partners in Teaching NYC Mentor Teacher Internship Program: The First Year, 198~1987. New York: New York City Board of Education, and United Federation of Teachers. Mentor Teacher Internship Program, 198~87. Prepared by the Office of Educational Assessment. January. New York: Author. 1988 Science Relicensing Program. New York: Author. New York State Education Department 1981 Report of a Validation Study of Information Contained in New York State's Basic Educational Data System. Albany, New York: Author. The Supply and Recruitment of Persons Certified for Public School Service. Albany, New York: Lee State Education Department. 1983a Age and Retention of Teachers 1967-68 through 1981-82. Albany, New York: Lee State Education Department. 1983b Teachers ~ New York State- 1968 to 1982. Albany, New York: The State Education [Department. 1988 1982 1984 Comparison of Projected and Actual FTE Classroom Teachers. Albany, New York: Author. 1985a Projected Age Disaibution and Manual Need for Classroom Teachers. Files of the Information Center on Education. Albany, New York: The State Education Department. 1985b Projections of Public and Nonpublic School EnrolLnent and High: School Graduates to 199495, New York State. Albany, New York: The State Education [Department. 1985c Teachers in New York State, 1968 to 1984. Albany, New York: Author. 1986a Historical and Projected Pupil/Teacher Ratios for Public Schools. Albany, New York: Author. 1986b Teacher Compensation in New York State, 1974-75 and 198485 School Years. Albany, New York: Author. 1987 First Year Teachers as a Percent of New Teacher Hires by Type of Distnct and Subject Area. Unpublished report. 1988 Files of the Information Center on Education, compiled by J. Stiglmeier. 1989 Files of the Information Center on Education, compiled by J. Stiglmeier. n.d.a Methodology for Projections of Public School Classroom leacher Needs for Major Subject Areas. Appendix A.

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REFERENCES 205 n.d.b Projections of Public School Classroom Teachers, New York State, 1987-88 to 1991-92. Albany: State University of New York. North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 1980 Teaeher Supply and Ed in North Carolina. Prepared by H. M. Eldridge. Raleigh, North Carolina: Author. Norm Carolina Seienee Teaeher Profile. Prepared by William E. Spooner. Raleigh, North Carolina: Author. 1982 Northeast-Midwest Institute 1988 Mapping the Labor Market Information Field. A chart. Washington, D.C.: Northeast-Midwest Institute. Office of Technology Assessment 1988 Elementary and Secondary Education for Seienee and Engineering. December. Number OTA-TM-SET~1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989 Higher Education for Science and Engineering. March. OTA-BP-SET-52. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Oklahoma State Department of Education 1982 Teaeher Supply and Demand in Oklahoma Public Schools, 1981-82. Prepared by Sandra Mayfield. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Author. Oregon State System of Higher Education 1985 Profile of 1983-84 Graduates of Oregon Schools and Colleges of Education One Year Afier Graduation. Eugene, Oregon: Author. Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission n.d. Averting a Teaeher Crisis in Oregon. Prepared by David V. Myton. Salons, Oregon: Author. Pelavin, Sol, Elizabeth R. Reisner, and Gerry Hendrickson n.d. Analysis of the National Availability of Mathematics and Science Teachers. Submitted to the Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation, U.S. De- partment of Education. Washington, D.C.: Pelavin Associates, Inc.; Policy Studies Associates, Inc. Pennsylvania State Department of Education 1979 Methodology }for Projecting Enrollments. By John Senier. Harrisburg, Penn sylvania: Author. Investigating Mathematics and Science Teaeher Supply and Demand in Penn sylvania- A Synthesis of PDE Data. By Grace E. Laverty. Hamsburg, Pennsylvania: Author. 1983b Seienee and Mathematics Teaeher Supply and Demand and Educational Needs Analysis: A Pennsylvania Report. By James P. Dogcart. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Author. 1985 Projections-Selected Edr~eation Staiistms for Pennsylvania to 1989-90. Harris burg, Pennsylvania: Author. 1983a Peterson, Paul 1985 Economic and Policy [lends Affecting Teacher Effectiveness in Mathemat ics and Science. Paper prepared for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Popkin, Joel, and B. K Atrostic 1986 Evaluation of Models of the Supply and Demand for Teachers. Paper prepared for the Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, Committee on National Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Joel Popkin and Company.

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206 REFERENCES Prowda, Peter M., and Barbara Q. Beaudin 1988 New Flow Into Connecticut's Teacher Reserve Pool: A Study of the State's Non-Teaching New 1985 86 Certificants. April. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Prowda, Peter M., and David W. Gnssmer 1986 A State's Perspective on Teacher Supply and Demand: There is No General Shortage. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Raizen, Senta A. 1986 Estimates of Teacher Demand and Supply and Related Policy Issues. Pa- per presented to the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco. Rattner, Edward, Burton V. Dean, and Arnold Reisman 1971 Supply and Demand of Teachers and Supply and Demand of Ph.D.'s. Revised draft. Case Western Reserve University. The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands 1987a Proceedings: Teacher Supply and Demand Issues for the Northeast Symposium with the Chief State School Officers. September 11. Andover, Massachusetts: Author. 1987b Teacher Quality: An Issue Brief. By Anne E. Newton. March. Andover, Massachusetts: Author. Richards, R. 1960 Prospective students' attitudes towards teaching. Joumal of Teacher Education 11:375-380. Richardson-Koehler, Virginia, sr. ed. 1987 Educators' Handbook: A Research Perspective. White Plains, New York: Longman, Inn Roberson, S. D., T. Z. Keith, and E. R. Page 1983 Now who aspires to teach? Educational Researcher 12:13-21. Robinson, Virginia 1985 Out-of-field teaching: barrier to professionalism. Winter 18-23. American Educator Rock, Donald, Ruth Ekstrom, Margaret Goertz, Thomas Hilton, and Judith Pollack 1985 Factors Associated with Decline of Test Scores of Him School Seniors, 1972- 1980. Report No. CS 85-217, Washington, D.C.: Center for Statistics. Roth, Robert A. 1981 Comparison of methods and results of major teacher supply and demand studies. Joumal of Teacher Education 32(Nov.-Dec.~: 43-46. Rumberger, Russell 1985 The shortage of mathematics and science teachers: a review of the evidence. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 7~4~:355-369. Sanchez, Rene 1989 D.C. poll cites stress on teachers. The Washington Post, June 16, p. C1. Schlechty, Phillip C., and Victor S. Vance 1981 Do academically able teachers leave education? the North Carolina case. Phi Delta Kappan. 63:106-112. 1983 Recruitment, selection, and retention: the shape of the teaching force. The Elementary School Journal 83(4~:469~87. Schmid, Rex 1980 Final Report: Model Manpower Infonnation System for Educational Personnel. Gainesville: University of Florida.

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208 REFERENCES Thomas, R. B. 1975 The-supply of graduates to school training. British Journal of Industrial Relations 13(March):107-114. Travers, K J. 1986 Second Study of Mathematics, Detailed National Report United States. Cham paign, Illinois: Stipes Publishing Company. U.S. Department of Education 1989 Statistics reported by telephone, August 8. Office of the Mathematics and Science Education Program, U.S. Department of Education. U.S. General Accounting Office 1984 New Directions for Federal Programs to Aid Mathematics and Science Teaching. Washington, D.C.: Author. Vance, Victor S., and Phillip C. Schlechty 1982a The distribution of academic ability in the teaching force: policy implications. Phi Delta Kappan 64:22-27. 1982b The Structure of the Teaching Occupation and the Characteristics of Teach ers: A Sociological Interpretation. Paper presented at the National Institute of Education Conference, Airlie House, Virginia. Washington State 1984 Professional Education: Annual Report. Special Theme: Teacher Supply arid Demand 1983-84. Olympia, Washington: Author. Weaver, W.T. 1978 Educators in supply and demand: effects on quality. School Review 86:552 593. 1983 Amenca's Teacher Quality Problem: Alternatives for Reform. New York: Praeger. Weiss, Iris R. 1978 Report of the 1977 National Survey of Science, Mathematics, and Social Studies Education. Prepared for the National Science Foundation. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Research Triangle Institute. 1987 Report of He 1985-86 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. November. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Research Triangle Institute. Westat, Inc. 1989 NSF Teacher Transcnpt Study. Prepared for the National Science Foundation. February. Rockville, Maryland: Westat, Inc. Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) 1988 Him School Graduates: Projections by State, 1986 to 2004. March. In cooperation with Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and the College Board. Boulder, Colorado: Author. Whitaker, Charles 1989 The disappearing black teacher. Ebony January. W~mpelberg, R.K., and J. ~ King 1984 Rethinking teacher recruitment. Journal of Teacher Education 34:5-8. ~se, Arthur E., Linda Darting-Hammond, and Barnett Berry 1987 Effective Teacher Selection: From Recruitment to Retention. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation. Wood, K E. 1978 What motivates students to teach? Joumal of Teacher Education 29:48-50.

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