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Appendix A Pane! Activities Throughout the report we have referred to findings from our direct contacts with public school districts. To involve school district participation, the panel undertook three activities: a conference with personnel directors from large cite school districts, a set of mini case studies building on reports of research in school districts studied by other researchers, and on-site in- depth case studies of school districts. Since the reader may want to evaluate the scope of these activities, they are described below. CONFERENCE OF PERSONNEL DIRECTORS A conference of personnel directors from seven large city school dis- tricts was convened in May 1988. The subject of this conference, "Struc- turing Professional Personnel Information Systems for Analyses of Teacher Supply and Demand," focused on supply- and demand-related data that large school districts regularly collect. Personnel administrators represented the following school districts: Seattle Public Schools (Washington) Montgomery Counpr Public Schools (Maryland)* San Diego City Unified School District (California) Dade County Public Schools (Florida) Chicago Public Schools (Illinois) Los Angeles Unified School District (California) New York City Public Schools (New York) * Also included in the mini case studies. 211

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212 APPENDIX A During the evening session on the first day of the conference the participants developed the following list of topics, which were discussed the next day: 1. Elective recruiting strategies What recruiting strategies are effective in attracting good teachers to urban districts with limited salaries? 1b what extent is it necessary to go outside the district to recruit? Are salary supplements for M/S teachers effective in recruitment? What problems arise from general recruiting rather than recruiting to meet need for each subject? How can general recruiting be used effectively to provide an adequate supply of M/S teachers? How can more people be attracted for M/S openings so district has a choice? What long-range effects on supply can be anticipated by aggressive recruiting to obtain a panel of applicants for each M/S position? Can the panel make recommendations that would affect recruit- ment problems? 2. Experience with the reserve pool What proportion of M/S teachers come from reserve pool? 3. Recruitment during the school year Why is it happening? Is it widespread among large and small districts? What are the reasons for vacancies during the school year? Are there trends in these reasons? What are the reasons for vacancies during the school year? Are there trends in these reasons? What effect does such recruiting have on teacher quality? 4. Innovative approaches to address projected shortages of M/S teachers Alternative certification programs Models used by districts for projecting need for teachers What do districts actually do to project need for M/S teachers? Are projections limited by fact that available data were collected for administrative purposes such as hiring, paying, staffing, school buildings, and maintaining records for retirement? Is there a model for simulating staffing demands by subject that takes into account seniority rights to vacancies so that early hiring can be done in districts? Design of information systems that have the capability of identifying need for M/S teachers by subject Need for integrated system

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PANEL ACTIVITIES 213 What knowledge should the information system be able to pro- duce? Ideal information system If there were no constraints on the information system, what information would you like to have? 8. Teacher quality How do districts define quality? Certification versus teaching out-of-field What information is helpful in recruiting for quality? Are elementary science teachers required to have science training, e.g., a laboratory science course? What effect have the NSF training institutes had on the quality of M/S teachers? 9. Retraining Has your district retrained teachers in fields such as social sciences to teach M/S subjects? Have retrained teachers been successful? 10. Minonties and women How can M/S teaching staff be balanced to provide role models for minorities and women? Are there enough women and minority M/S teachers to achieve such balance? What is needed to attract, train, and retain such teachers? 11. Poor performance What are the underlying issues in the relatively poor attainment of U.S. students in international math and science assessments? What could the NSF do to study these issues? MINI CASE STUDIES Only a small amount of information was collected in the mini case studies since the panel could draw on information about those districts reported by researchers who had conducted studies of these districts. A total of 27 mini case studies were conducted through a combined telephone- and-mail survey project in the summer and fall of 1988. The mini case studies involved the following districts: . Houston Independent School District (Houston, Texas) Hillsborough County Public Schools (Tampa, Florida) Montgomery County Public Schools (Montgomery County, Mary- land) Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) Jefferson County School District (Louisville, Kentucly)

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214 APPENDIX A New Orleans Public Schools (New Orleans, Louisiana) Albuquerque Public Schools (Albuquerque, New Mexico) Charlotte-Mechlenburg Schools (Charlotte, North Carolina) Columbus Public Schools (Columbus, Ohio) Austin Independent School District (Austin, Texas) Mesa Unified School District (Mesa, Arizonan Rochester City School District (Rochester, New York) Richland School District No. 1 (Columbia, South Carolina) Salt Lake City School District (Salt Lake City, Utah) Guilford County Schools (Greensboro, North Carolina) Lake Washington School District (Kirkland, Washington) Durham County Schools (Durham, North Carolina) Greenwich Public Schools (Greenwich, Connecticut) Barrow County School District (Winder, Georgia) Martin County Public Schools (Williamston, North Carolina) Watauga County Schools (Boone, North Carolina) Northampton County Schools (Jackson, North Carolina) Jamestown Public Schools (Jamestown, North Dakota) Howard-Suamico School District (Green Bay, Wisconsin) MSAD NO. 15 (Gray-New Gloucester, Maine) East Williston Unified School District (East Williston, New York) Medicine Valley School District (Curtis, Nebraska) The telephone interview guide and the mail-questionnaire form that were used for the 27 mini case studies can be found at the end of this appendix. IN-DEPTH CASE STUDIES Six in-depth case studies were conducted on site, involving school districts in California, Maryland, and Utah. The school districts are not named because confidentiality was pledged. Jane L. David conducted case studies of two neighboring districts in California that were expected to draw on the same labor market. Marianne Amarel conducted case studies of a pair of adjacent districts in Maryland. Finally, two additional school districts were selected-one in Utah and one in California because they were experiencing substantial increases in enrollment. Special problems of supply and demand for science and mathematics teachers may exist in districts with increasing enrollment. And since secondary enrollments are projected to increase nationwide in the near future, we wanted to include in-depth studies of districts now experiencing increases. Jane L. David and Jennifer Pruyn conducted these case studies.

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PANEL ACTIVITIES DISTRICT: INTERVIEWEE: BACKGROUND: (Telephone Interview Guide for Mini Case Studies) During which months do you interview/hire? 2. Looking for m/s teachers with special qualifications? 3. Particular difficulty recruiting m/s teachers? 4. Does m/s recruiting differ from recruiting for other subjects? S. Catcgories of m/s teachers in your district records: 215 HS GRADE:

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216 District Content 1. APPENDIX A (Survey Questionnaire for Mini Case Studies) Supply and Demand for High School Mathematics and Science Teachers What is your district's total enrollment? District Name Person Completing Form Position Title Telephone N u mber a. What is the current approximate ethnic mix of your district's student body? ( % white, _ % black, _ % Spanish surname, % other) 3. Has your district experienced any reduetions-in-foree during the period 1985-1988? 4. During the period 1985-1988, was the high school student population growing, stable, or decreasing? 5. Number of high schools in your district: High School Mathematics and Science Teachers 6. How many high school mathematics and science (m/s) teachers are currently employed by your district? How many high school m/s teachers have 5 or more years of service in your district? 10 or more years? 8. 9. 0. What is the starting salary for a m/s teacher with a BA and no prior experience? What is the top salary for a m/s teacher with a master's degree? Where do most of your m/s applicants come from? (i.e., nearby universities or tcachcr training institutions, other districts, etc.) About how many fully qualified applicants per vacancy do you have in mathematics? In science? Is your district experiencing shortages of qualified applicants in mathematics or science subjects? If so. in what subicots?

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PANEL ACTIVITIES 12. How many vacancies were rifled for all high school subjects. and in particular for mathematics and scicncc? This school year (1987-1988) Last school year (1986-1987) The school year before (1985-1986) l3. 217 Total (all subjects) Mathcm~atics Science What was the principal reason for the m/s vacancies in these 3 years? To respond to enrollmcot growth To replace retirees To replace teachers leaving the system for reasons other than retirement ~ A ~ 14. Over the past 3 school years, how many Or your m/s vacancies were rifled by persons with the following kinds Or experience/certirication in teaching m/s? This school yea r ( I 987-88) Certified in m/s: o New graduates with no prior teaching experience o Earlier graduates but with no prior teaching experience o Experienced m/s teachers l~onccrti f iel i n m /s, but with emergency or temporary credentials Last school year ( 1 986-87) The school year before ( 1 985-86) 15. Does the district sponsor training programs for teachers who arc not certified in m/s, but who are filling m/s vacancies? _ Comment: