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THE RELEVANCE OF CAREER-LONG EDUCATION TO CREATING AND MAINTAINING AN ADAPTABLE WORK FORCE Pamela H. Atkinson University of California, Berkeley Introduction Those who are concerned about the nanon's ability to develop and maintain a competent and flexible engineering work force believe that continuing education is a major contributor to engineering adaptability. No actual research has been done to support this thesis, however, and anecdotal information, while impressive, provides few clues as to how, when, and to what degree new or continuous learning affects adaptability. Career-long or continuing engineering education and training! may be defined as knowledge or training in the use of new processes, systems, devices, and chemicals that will improve an engineer's ability to do his/her job. -Additionally, continuing education can relate to competency as well as to professional development. Career-long competency is the ability of an engineer to remain competitive, productive, and creative as a peer-respected member of the engineering profession through the acquisition and application of the new knowledge, skills, and experience that a changing profession demands. Continuous professional development is activity that upgrades, expands, and renews the competence of an engineer throughout a professional career, enabling him/her to adapt to changing times while remaining an active contnbut=. To be adaptable means to be wining to malce changes to adapt oneself to new situations and the changes In one's environment. For the purpose of discussion, ~ Ibe mans "education" and "trainings are used somewhat interchangeably by industry without the distinction of a value difference. Academe, on the other hand, Receives "training" as more functional Can h~owledge-based and less intellectual, therefore of lesser value and tends to not use it as a descnp~ve when discussing the subject. Pertinent to any discussion of this issue is the fact that engineers employed by the armed services are governed by a bureaucratic system that only allows Trainings to be reimbursable, not "education." For that reason, any discussion of career-long learning that affects the national cadre of engineers needs to include the word "training" as well as "education." 53

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"environment" should be understood to mean many things: one's personal environment in terms of work station and job responsibility; a broader interpretation, such as all the divisions of a company and how they interface; even a complex environment, such as the venous spheres of activity and influenc~of a multinational corporation. The ways In which a company adapts to change are based on decisions made within the company by its officers and its management personnel. Often the need to change inspires attitude shifts that are philosophic in nature, based on practical concerns, and influenced by reasoned judgment. Policy changes made at the highest level affect everyone in the company; therefore, the thought processes of decisionmakers should not be exempt from study, analysis, and interpretation. Systematic research needs to be conducted to identify the link between conunu~ng education and a~ptabiiity. And He subjects of that research should include not only Be engineering work force, traditionally line and bench engineers and technicians, but also project and group leaders, upper-level management, and CEOs. This paper provides a quick overview of the issues cent to Me subject of continuing education in engineenng. These issues are numerous, the problems they highlight are real, and there are no quick fixes that will provide long-term, across-the-board solutions; most of these issues have been discussed in workshops such as this one since the 19SOs. A~it~ionally, this paper presents a number of ideas and questions that may be useful to explore, if guidelines for idenuf~ng the link between continuing education and adaptability are to be designed, approved, and implemented. Continuing Engineering Education is a Human Resource Issue That Prompts Continual Studies A company's ability to adapt to the changing demands of the marketplace is related to its ability to manage money, projects, and people and to plan for and respond to the exigencies of business and the dynamics of technological opportunity In pursuit of long- tem1 goals. Of these tasks, the management of people may be the task most critical to a business's success and the one hardest to assess, evaluate, and plan for in a systematic way. In 1987 and 1988, the intensely volatile marketplace and the pressure on companies to turn out quality products ahead of their competitors and at a lower price to the consumer made the technical training and updating of engineering professionals He "hot topic" on the national engineering agenda, since the company dial employs the most 54

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up-to-date technical work force is the company that is able to use technology to improve its market advantage and its competitive position. A report by the National Academy of Engineering (1988) presented a series of recommendations to companies, universities, government agencies, and professional societies on ways to combat engineering obsolescence in the workplace and in academe. Many of these recommendations were similar to recommendations advanced in previous reports; for example, the 5-year study by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE, 1968); the report Lifelong Cooperative Education of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology IT, 1982); and the NRC comprehensive-volume study on engineering education and practice (1985). A similar report issued by ASEE in late 1987 addressed the total engineering education enterprise and the need to develop innovative plans throughout its sectors to strengthen all aspects of engineering education, including educational instruction for faculty to bring them up to date with new technologies. The Engineering Work Force: A Numbers Problem? Or a Utilization Problem? Because of the changing demographic face on the U.S. work force, companies can no longer expect to continue the custom of hiring significant number of new engineers every year. To a great degree, they will have to either lure talented professionals from their competitors or retrain and upgrade the professionals they have. Of these two strategies, retraining and upgrading have the greatest potential for the long term and positive Cons for achieving national economic goals (which cannot be said of He first strategy).3 Briefly, the demographic issues of concern to the eng~neenng community are these: The county is experiencing a "baby bust," a decline in the college-aged population; -~or a chronological review of engineering education reports since 1918, see Appendix A, compiled by Daryl Chubin for Higher Education for Science and Engineering: A Background Paper, Washington, D.C.: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, March 1989. 3Three-quarters of the current work force win be employed in the year 2,000; within engineering and engineenng-related activities alone, that number represents approximately 2,16S,000 people and a sizable economic investment in human resources. 55

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The number of undergraduates enrolled in engineering degree programs has been dropping since 1986, and Americans' apparent lack of interest in graduate engineering programs continues; The large number of foreign students in graduate programs is rising, and a great number of them will be hired as eng~neenng school faculty; and Foreign faculty's views on woman's appropriate place in society may create problems for women graduate students and adversely affect the ability of graduate engineering programs to retain women students at a time when their numbers are needed (Vetter, 19881. Although these demographic indicators cause some people to believe that a shortfall of engineers is a real possibility in the near future, history shows us that Were is a considerable amount of flexibility in the eng~neenng work force-a self-correc~ang mechanism, if you will-and shortages may apply only to specific sectors before the self- correcting mechanism springs into action. It is exactly this mechanism, and how it fine- tunes itself, Mat we need to learn more about. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA, 1985) noted, There is no national market for scientists and engineers as a group. Rawer, tilers are specific markets for graduates trained in particular disciplines, and these markets and disciplines can experience very different conditions at Me same time. For example, the National Science Foundation (NSI;) projected in 1982 that Me demand for electrical and aeronautical engineers and for computer specialists could exceed Me supply of graduates in Nose fields by as much as 30 percent over the next 5 years, while at the same time there would be significantly fewer openings for biologists, chemists, geologists, physicists, mathematicians, chemical, civil and mechanical engineers than there would be trained degree-holders.4 Thus, it is individual disciplines, especially Nose linked with high grown or defense-~ented ~ndusmes, Mat could experience personnel problems In Me future not "science and engineenng" as a whole. . . [Additionally], college students appear to be 4That has not been the case in industry; essentially supply and demand have worked in concert in the last few years. 56

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highly responsive to market signals and appear to shift their career choices dramatically toward fields that promise greater occupations rewards. OTA concludes that career choices and market forces have a greater impact on the supply of scientists and engineers than do demographic ~ends. . . [except In academe], however, where known demographic trends exert considerable influence. An Exploration of the Issues The following is a synthesis of many of the questions and issues raised by the engineering community over He last few years In respect to career-Ion" education for engineering professionals. Continuing Engineering Education in the Workplace What career-Ion" education and training would opt ze Be knowledge, experience, and proficiency of the engineering professional as weD as insure more technical flexibility? Ideally, it would be continuous exposure to and training in the use and management of the latest materials, chemicals, systems, devices, and processes as they are developed and improved. What does continuing eng~neenng education look like? It comes in a variety of shapes and sizes and a number of infinite designs (for large or small groups, even for individual self-study). It is delivered in venous ways, from the traditional classroom that instructs 30 to the national satellite broadcast that ~nfonns thousands. Some forms of career-Ion" education are in-house technical Paining; interactive vide~based Mung; self-paced computer-based Mining; in-house "expert" seminars and intensives; Correlated experience ("learning by doing"); 57

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. . reading technical reports and journal articles; university extension short-courses and seminars; national and international conferences and meetings; external professional programs leading to a certificate; external academic degree programs leading to Me Ph.D.; and external academic degree programs leading to the master's degree. Who Pays for Continuing Education and the issue of Part-Time versus Full-Time Education Corporate industry continues its long-established tradition of not only providing education and training for its employees, but paying for it as well.5 Some predict that the training and education of some 4~50 million workers will become the largest industry in the United States In We 1990s: the number of changes in the workplace, such as remedial training of employees in the use of new technologies and the shift in management cultures to quality methodologies, will lead to "explosive increases" in the demand for adult education, doubling or tripling the cost of employee training In tile next five years (Chappel, 1989). Industry now supports education in a number of ways, such as: tuition rennbursement for credit courses and degree programs (some companies also pay for audit courses); in-house training programs by outside experts as weD as off-site workshops, conferences, and seminars; tutorials and intensives offered by in-house experts; mentor and tutoring programs; travel expenses and per diem for employees to conferences; career-courlseling; and individual guides for self-study. SAlthough estimates of the cost of employee-funded education programs for technical staff vary, there is agreement Mat the cost is in excess of $30,000,000,000 a year and accelerating. Very few companies know EXACILY how much their education programs actually cost, because the cost of salary is rarely factored in. In addition, many long-term education programs are perceived philosophically as "not possible" by some companies, who budget for them not year-to-year, but quarter-to-quarter! 58

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While education and Gaining is considered by most companies to be as crucial to success as research and development, and many large companies allocate the same percent of operating money to it, education funds are historically the first cut and the last reinstated when times are tough; long-term objectives are hard to remember when stockholders have short-term expectations. And for the small company, the governing rule is that the individual is on hisser own; that is to say, it is the personal responsibility of every engineer to stay current in his/her field. Sometimes education is reimbursable, but more often it is not, because there is no money set aside to pay for it. In almost all discussions of continuing education programs financed by companies, the focus of discussion is the education of large numbers of engineers through in-house programs or off-site degree programs that accept working engineers part-time. On addition lo these programs, a number of companies-such as AT&T Bell Labs, General Electric, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM-send a limited number of people to school full time, at both the master's level and the doctoral level. During this time, the company normally pays 5~100 percent of their salary (in addition to tuition, books, and a cost-of-living stipend) and maintains their benefits as if they were actually employed. These programs are small, select, very competitive, and, by and large, outside the means of small and mid-sized compames. A number of prestigious institutions-such as Stanford, the University of minois at Urbana-Champaign, the University of Southern California, Purdue University, the University of Washington, and Carnegie-Mellon University-allow engineers employed in industry to enroll in regular on-campus master's programs on a part-time basis; some of these schools establish off-site degree programs as well. Similar programs are also offered by other 4-year institutions, public as well as private, but many universities have chosen to stay on the sidelines. Graduate School, One Aspect of Continuing Education Industry recruiters who compete for top engineering graduates emphasize tuition- reimbursed degree programs as a benefit of employment. The high cost of a graduate education and the lack of enough funding to support large numbers of graduate students in research associate positions makes these company-sponsored degree programs very attractive to B.S. graduates. As time becomes more precious, highways become more congested, the need for technical expertise becomes more acute, and graduate programs become more expensive for the individual to fund, more and more B.S. graduates will opt 59

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to defer graduate education until they are employed full time and let their employer pick up the tab.6 The number of students enrolled part-time in master's degree programs in the fall of 1988 totaled 29,975, or 37 percent of the total enrollment of 79,997 (ASEE, 1989). As the need for technical currency escalates, and if American students continue the trend of rejecting graduate education in engineering after attaining the B.S. degree, it is likely that this part-time segment win ~ncrease.7 Educational Entrepreneurs Abound Companies demand high-quality instruction geared to adult professionals, delivery in a timely fashion in a cost-efficient, cost-effective manner. A number of educational entrepreneurs are responding to this need, and if they continue to provide the high-quali~y service they are becoming known for, their programs win continue to be much in declare Those providers that utilize television satellite and microwave technologies to deliver on-site programs to industry are meeting a very real need, and industry has been generous in its support of their efforts. Although Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Purdue University, the University of Washington, Stanford University, and Chico State University are just a few schools out of dozens Mat use television to transmit Weir engineering degree programs to local industry, the provider Mat offers Me most promise for the funme is she National Technological University, a consortium of 29 universities offering a number of 6HR Section 127 is Me most recent proposal to challenge the value and effectiveness of company-fundod engineering education programs. This legislation, approved until the end of 1991, imposes a tax to the consumer the individual engineer-on company-paid-for education programs. As of August 1989, IS bill allows employers to pay up to $5,250 per person in education benefits without employees having to pay taxes on the funds. The flaw in this approval is that it only applies to undergraduate programs. lame is currently a major effort under way to restructure the wording in this bill so that graduate education is pan of the provision. 7The disaggregation numbers of degree-recipients each year does not separate full-iime from part-time grantees. Although these two cohorts are tracked separately as students, once they earn the degree the distinction that separates them vanishes. Because current stausiical research looks at the number of B.S. students that graduate every year and tracks how many of them go to graduate school, those that enroll at a later date through their company's education program fall through the cracks. Hey appear in the data 2-5 years later as part-time students, but that information is itself misleading, because it counts them as members of the current graduating cohort. Data specify the number of part-time students who attain graduate degrees would give valuable information about who Hops out of graduate programs the full-tune, younger student or the older, professional engineer. 60

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engineering, computer science and management degree programs to over 242 industry sites via a television satellite network. Yet Another Study on Education and Training in the Work Place The American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) is conducting its own 2-year study on personnel issues and education and training in the workplace. The report of that study is scheduled for distribution early in 1990 through Jossey-Bass publishers. Some within ASTD believe that it is the B.S. engineer who is becoming obsolete, that technicians will be assigned jobs once held by B.S. engineers, and that in the future those who want challenging jobs will have to hold master's degrees. (This is not a new idea: the master's degree was predicted to soon become the basic engineering degree in the 1968 ASEE "engineering goals" report, but this has not happened; the B.S. in engineering is still the recognized entry-level professional degree.) The question of B.S. degree versus M.S. degree and entry into the work force as an engineering professional raises the issue of the value of the Master of Engineering degree and the Doctor of Engineering degree, with their emphasis on engineering practice, and whether these degrees are more appropriately suited to engineers in industry than are the Master and Doctor of Science degrees, which may be more research-miented.8 Looking to the Future Even as rapid improvements are being made in tile design and application of new technologies, the depth of engineering disciplines in the universities is increasing, broadening the knowledge base that engineers of the future win have to have to practice their profession; this in turn win add to the number of knowledge elements they will need to keep current. The IEEE Society, concerned about a way to bridge the knowledge gap of 80ne side argues that a practice-oriented degree does not produce an engineer with vision, and therefore win never replace in value the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Another side maintains that a practice-oriented degree incorporates the elements of cost, reliability and timeliness, as well as theory, into engineering design in a comprehensive way and believes that those elements are not only important but essential to good practice. 61

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those currency in the workplace and prepare Them for the adjustments they will have to make as changing engineering practice requires new professional skills, is working with groups of experts to create self-administered tests/questionnaires that will show what field- specific knowledge elements one would need to move into certain new areas-for example, moving out of magnetics into fiber optics, or out of heat-transfer into thermodynamics.9 Once die value of such a test is determined, other tests can be designed for other disciplines and long-term plans can be made to revise the questionnaires as needed to keep them current. What is still to be discovered is how many engineers will make use of these self- administered tests and obtain the knowledge elements that a new field would require them to have; and how many will take the tests, find themselves severely limited by their lack of new knowledge, and choose instead to leave engineering and find other work rather than opt for additional education. The question of incentives and support systems to encourage new learning is crucial and has to be explored In depth. The Current Canon While current education and training needs of composes appear to be met by the variety of educational providers in the marketplace, many responsible leaders within the engineering community are concerned about dhe lack of leadership in dhis field. Some academics see current training programs nationwide as more reactive clan proactive, concerned more with fixing immediate problems Than preventing future ones. They decry the lack of structure, quality control, and program planning, yet paradoxically refuse to be directly involved in improving The status quo of that which they disdain. The industrial point of view is succinct and to-the-point: companies want high quality, need-specific, well-produced programs designed for adult learners. They want programs that can be delivered in a timely fashion and at a cost they can afford: They are concerned to get the best bang for Their buck and they shop around. A number of individuals within both groups believe that a concerted effort of all The players is needed to assess and plan for the future education and training needs of engineers in industry; dhey believe chat action, not This test (see Appendix By, still in a pilot stage, was inspired by the "Self-assessment Procedures for the Computer Professional," a self-administered test published by the Jownalfor the Association of Computing Machinery. 62

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further study, is what is needed. They also believe that this national effort is imperative if the United States is to hold its own against its competitors. Some Questions for Discussion . . Many major research institutions have equally prestigious schools of engineering. These engineering schools, while concerned about the need for continuing education of engineers in industry, choose not to be involved and say that it is industry's problem, not theirs. Are there any new persuasive arguments that might encourage these schools to contribute their talents to the national effort? Could better counseling of undergraduate engineering students help inculcate a sense of personal responsibility for continuous education and training after graduation? Could systematic on-thejob counseling, including annual performance reviews, encourage working professionals to participate in education and training on a regular basis? Mid-line and project managers are often cited as frequent obstacles to the professional development of technical staff. Some companies find that staff education and training programs succeed when managers enroll as participates and, additionally, when managers are rewarded by how well they develop their own people. Are hard data available to support this thesis? Are there new and improved ways that might link educators and practitioners and improve the professionalism of both? Are there opportunities that might naturally bring the engineering professional back to the campus for short periods of time and, conversely, the academic into the ndusmal environment? The model of teacher as trainer as well as the model of engineer as teacher have both been successful; why is it that these models are so underutilized? Does co-op experience make an engineering professional more adaptable? If it does, are their ways to expand the number of co-op opportunities available to students? Is any one year within a 4- or 5-year program better than any other year for a student to participate in coop? 63

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. . Is there a need for a carefuDy-designed and manufactunng-onented graduate degree program in the field of management of engineering resources? Or should this be exclusively each individual company's responsibility? (This would include more than just the management of technology, since for many practicing engineers, career-Ion" education at some point needs to prepare them as managers of product development, product cycles, and people.) Are there do-able modifications/additions/changes to current undergraduate engineering programs and tracks that might improve a young engineer's ability to adapt to the changing professional demands of the workplace plus increase his/her worth in a fast-chang~ng, technolog~caDy sophisticated marketplace? Might it be of mutual benefit for professional schools to establish a strong tie to their alumni by offering summer intensives, special courses, or even a newsletter that helps guide them as they prepare to move into new career paths? How might alumni be developed as a resource separate from that of fund-raising? Imaginary Profile: Tomorrow's Engineering Schools Prepare Engineers for Adaptability Tomorrow's engineering graduate will be even me technically competent than is now and will be skilled as a corrununicator of ideas, both in written and oral fern Heavy emphasis on laboratory courses In conjunction with a comprehensive background in calculus and physics have broadened the engineer's ability to put theoretical constructs into practice. Engineering schools emphasize the importance of quality control, design, adherence to project schedules, and concern for cost and reliability as basic to good engineering practice. Numerous oral presentations and written reports are required for all courses, and the accepted project approach is to work in teams. Interest in and support of engineering co-op programs has soared, and companies fund not only co-op appointments for students, but also specialized training and financial support for co-op directors and their staff, linking co-op to career-counseling and professional development at both ends of the spectrum. All schools require that their students have at least one co-op appointment. Fellowships to support undergraduate research projects are numerous. These undergraduate fellowships awaken student interest in Ph.D. programs and an academic 64

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career, and fully paid graduate scholarships (renewable based on merit and promise) attract many who might not otherwise be encouraged to enroll in graduate school. Can Engineers Learn to Adapt to Meet Changing Engineering Employment Needs? Today's engineers need to assume responsibility for their own professional development, if they are to be adequately prepared for the complex challenges of tomorrow's workplace. Technical proficiency kept sharp through education and training is a key to being responsive to and ready for the changes in engineering employment. The following professional development strategies directed to beginning engineers seem to encourage adaptability: As soon as you are able, find a mentor. When/if you change companies, implement this strategy first. Having a mentor is a crucial component of getting on and staying on a successful career path; it is probably the most important action as you begin professional practice. Once hired, locate the education and training department of your company as soon as possible and ask for literature describing the company's educational policies and programs. Identify the program, courses, and seminars that will benefit you the most AND increase your value to the company. Consistently throughout your employment, take advantage of as many education and training opportunities as possible. Keep informed about your company and know the role your particular deparunent/division plays as one part of a larger whole. Learn as much as you can about the company history, philosophy, and goals. Volunteer to be a mentor for a new employee, to sit on the education and planning committee, and to serve on corrununity projects. Be visible. Read as much as you can about the global economy and world affairs to gain a perspective of Be company's financial future. Keep abreast of the latest technologies in your own field. Learn to relate your educational needs to the company's long-term goals. 65

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. Join a professional society and play an active part in it. Keep up with the literature.l References American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). 1968. Goals of Engineering Eclucanon. Washington, D.C.: ASEE. -. 1987. A National Action Agenda for Engineering Education. Washington, D.C.: ASEE. -----. 1989. Engineering Education 79(March):72. Chappel, S. 1989. Stepped up training of U.S. workers: a costly necessity. Engineering Times ~ I(October3:~. Deparunent of Electrical Eng~neenng and Computer Science. 1982. Lifelong Cooperative Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. National Academy of Engineenng (NAE). 1988. Focus on the Future: A National Action Plan for Career-Long Education for Engineers. Washington, D.C.: NAE. National Research Council, Committee on Me Education and U~izanon of Engineers. 1985. Engineering Education and Practice in the United S=es: Foz~n~ions of Our Techno-Economic Future. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1985. Demographic Trends and the Sciennfic and Engineering Work Force: A Technical Memorandum. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress. Veuer, Betty M. 1988. Demographics of the Engineering Student Pipeline. Paper presented to the ASEE Eng~neenng Deans' Council, Washington, D.C., January 7. }awe prolife~on of reports, articles, and professional papers in some disciplines may be of such volume that the last recommendation is impossible. For example, the number of professional papers in chemical engineering journals today nearly doubles the number of papers published in journals in the l950s. Some chemical engineers estimate that discoveries in their field are moving so rapidly that it won't be long before the knowledge base of a chemical engineer begins to erode six months after graduation from college! 66

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APPENDIX A* 1918 Publication of the Mann report, A Study of Engineering Education, sponsored by the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education (SPEE) and funded by the Carnegie Foundation. It urged return to fundamentals and unify fragmenting curricula; merge theory and practice in coursework; introduce "real work," including "values and costs," into teaching engineering problem solving; retain shop experience, laboratory, industrial training, cooperative and summer work in curriculum; English mastery; link technology to its human and social setting; closer university-industry linkage, especially In research, to improve productivity and thereby national weD-being; develop discipline for work and "lifelong" study; and select faculty based on teaching ability and work experience, not just research excellence. 1930 Publication of volume 1 of the Wickenden Report, Report of the Invesi`gation of Engineering Education 1923-1929. 1934 Publication of volume 2 of the Wickenden Report. It urged a halt to fragmentation of curricula; graduate engineering education and continuing education for 5 years after graduation; fens of technical education over than engineering colleges; functional rather than professional engineering education; design project, including writing, for second- and third-year students; third-year project teaching, fourth-year honors option; stronger high school preparation; lifetime learning in cooperation with industry; professional certification by engineering societies independent of State licensing; higher faculty standards; teach engineering method; teach society and values so engineers can understand social impact of engineering. 1939 H. P. Hammond, report for SPEE, Aims and Scope of the Engineering Curnc~um, recommended diversification of curricula; parallel technical and humani~aes/social sciences "stems"; reconsideration of 4-year curriculum and move to 5- or even Year program. 19= 1955 H. P. Hammond, report for SPEE Committee on Eng~neenng Education after tile War, reaffirmed 1939 report; promoted expanding technician programs to fib industrial needs Hen being met, non-optimally, by engineers; and teaching the "art" of eng~neenng as distinct fiom scientific method. L. E. Grinter, Report on the Evaluation of Engineering Education for American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The final report included comments by 122 eng~neenng colleges. It recommended: five "stems"- humanities and social sciences, mathematics and basic science, generic engineering science, eng~neenng specialty subjects, and electives; a two-~ack undergraduate curriculum, one to immediate employment, He other to graduate study; twin goals for engineering education-technical (analysis and "creative design"; construction, production, operation) and social Relics, general education, leadership in technological action); unproved high school preparation * SOURCE: Steven L. Goldman, "The History of Engineering Education: Perennial Issues in the Supply and Training of Talent," OTA contractor report, 1987. 67

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and articulation with admission standards; the integration of graduate education and research-onented faculty into undergraduate curnculum; requirements for industnal experience and proven teaching ability for tenure; programs for gifted students; improved facilities; dropping shop and upgrading laboratones, retaining a 4-year curriculum but encouraging experimentation; a focus on design; a base curriculum of engineering science, not contemporary engineering practices; the inclusion of social and economic factors in solutions to technological problems; unif~canon of analytical methods In aD branches of engineenng; and lifelong reaming. 1956 1959 1968 1968 Publication of the E. S. Burdell report (complementary to the Grinter Report), General Education in Engineering~eport of the Commission for the Humanities: SociaIResearch Project Of the ASEE). Conclusions: more humanities and social sciences needed; rejected fears that this win either weaken engineering education or lead to superficial treatment of humanities and social sciences. Report to President Eisenhower by the President's Science Advisory Committee Wee DuBndge, chairman), Educaizonfor the Age of Science, urged enhance the unage of the teaching profession; improve high school education as preparation for science and engineering careers; reform curricula by unifying it along scientific principles common to engineering specializations, teach relation of engineering to social and governmental problems instead} of paraDel human~nes/social sciences stem; promote the Ph.D. for engineers; provide special programs for gifted students; expand technical institutes; and retain faculty. Engineers loins council response to interim ASEE Goals of Engineering Edwanon Report: integrate teaching of engineering practice into its social context; focus on fun~nentals, not current information; do not standardize curricula or accreditation; increase student-faculty interaction; promote lifetime learning; and expand the role of engineering professional societies in linking education to state-of-the-art practices. Publication of Final Report of the 5-year ASEE study, Goals of Er~gineenng Education. It endorsed the Grater Report on engineering science as Me basis of engineering education. Recommendations: add ~ year of graduate study to basic eng~neenng education; limit prerequisites and open the engineering major to transfers; expand cooperative and interdisciplinary programs; reduce credit hours for graduation; improve teaching of social and economic factors influencing, and influenced by, technology by integrating humanities and social sciences into the engineering curriculum; integrate research and undergraduate teaching; hire faculty with industrial expenence, regardless of degrees; expand technical programs; and expand industry funding of engineering research; promote advanced eng~neenng education (Ph.D.), continuing education, lifelong learning, professional registration by faculty. Predictions: M.S. will become the basic engineering degree; fewer programsh~nstitunons; and the increasing use of engineering to solve social problems. Ohnsted report for ASEE: integrate humanities and social sciences Into Year programs; improve general education; retain humanines and social science faculty; and reduce the number of electives while retaining breadth. 68

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The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Policy Alternatives Report (J. Herbert Holloman, chairman), Future Directions for Engineering Education: System Response to a Changing Worldt, provoked by a "precipitous decline" in eng~neenng enrollments and Amer~ca's global dominance. It noted that engineering education was too responsive to "transient" changes. Recommended: prepare for declining enrollments; restore art of engineering to curriculum by teaching design; require work experience or cooperative education integrate humanities and social sciences into engineering curriculum; raise consciousness of "culture" of the sciences as opposed to their techniques; teach social, economic, political and legal constraints on engineering; expand 2- and Year technology programs; promote continuing education In engineering rather than management; expand evaluation; promote the engineering major as generic preprofessional training; and use industry more as a resource and sponsor. 1982 1985 1985 1986 1986 The Quality of Engineering Education, National Association of State University and I~nd-Grant Colleges (J. D. Kemper, chairman), cited problems of overenrollrnent, faculty shortages, and serious inadequacies in equipment, space, and facilities and recommended increased faculty salaries and industry support and government funding to upgrade the infrastructure. The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) published a 9-volume study, Engineering Education ar~Pracace in the United States, chaired by I. A. Haddad. ~ NAE report to the National Science Foundation (NSI;), New Directions for Engineering in the NSF (Peter Likins, chairman). National Conference on Engineering Education, convened by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology. Consensus recommendations: update undergraduate engineering education with mathematics concentration In probability, statistics, and numerical analysis; Moe breadth in basic sciences expand humanities, social sciences, and communication skills; focus on design including socioeconomic factors; intensify use of computers; introduce interdisciplinary coursework in real-world problem contexts; set admission standards that obviate need for remediation; strengthen faculty, requiring industrial experience and teaching effectiveness for tenure; continuing education; advisory committee of practicing engineers for each engineering education unit; raise fellowship stipends to one-half industry starting salary to attract U.S. graduate students; tighten the link of en~neenng education to engineering practice; encourage longer than Year cumcula but do not mandate them; and increase role for engineers vis-a-vis executives, economists, and .. . .. . . .. po Cans In Improving competitiveness. _O ~ Final ASEE Report, Quality in Engineering Education Programs By. Edward Lear, project director) cited problems of overenrolknent, insufficient and obsolete laboratory equipment, and facilities shortage and deterioration. Recommended: re-emphasize production along with research; make industrial experience and effective teaching conditions of tenure; require test of spoken English for teaching assistants; institute shuck continuing faculty education; implement computers and other new educational technologies; expand 69

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1986 1986 1986 1987 production of technicians; and improve laboratory teaching, assigning senior faculty to it. The Quality of Engineering Education II, follow-up to 1982 report (James E. A. John, chairman) recommended: promote U.S. citizen graduate study by Using fellowship stipends to one-half industry starting salary; fund large scale facilities improvement and maintenance; retain Ph.D. faculty with a healthy campus research environment; and produce more technicians. National Research Council, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, The Impact of Defense Spending on Nonsense Engineering Labor Markets.: A Report to the National Academy of Engineering Engineering College Research and Graduate Study: A 20-Year Stausi`cal Analysis, W. I. Fabr~cky, I. E. Osbourne and R. C. Woods. ASEE Report, A National Action Agenda for Engineering Education (E. E. David, chairman). Its eight recommendations: scale back the 4-year, necessarily limited curriculum to prepare for continuing education; make graduate education more practice-onented; re-emphasize engineering design and manufacturing; improve undergraduate laboratories; attract more and better U.S. graduate students and faculty wid1 higher salaries and research funding; bolster faculty development; support career-Ion" education; and improve precollege mathematics and science education and in~oducuon to engineering careers. 70

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APPENDIX B I EKE Engineering Skills Assessment program The purpose of the Engineering Skills Assessment Program (KS AP) is to provide guidance for members seeking to evaluate their skills in an electrical engineering field. ESAP is the logical starting point for professional development to help engineers advance their career objectives. ESAP win address areas where: - there is a rapidly changing technology, new career opportunities appear frequently, there is interest expressed by many employers, Here is a readily identifiable knowledge base, and there are many recognized experts who can speak for the field. In electrotechnology, careers are affected by rapid technological change, requiring engineers to update constancy what they have learned in college. Recognizing the need for professional development, the National Academy of Engineenng, through its Committee on Career-Long Education for Engineers, stated in 1988 that professional growth and productivity are the responsibility of engineers. Accordingly, tile IEEE Board of Directors has placed a high priority on developing member services that fulfill career-Ion" education needs. To help members avoid technical obsolescence and to take advantage of new career opportunities, the IEEE Educational Activities Board has developed the Engineering Skills Assessment Program (ESAP) that win: relate directly to a member's job and/or career objectives, concentrate on fast-moving technologies, provide personal feedback based on test results, be highly personalized, inexpensive and convenient, provide linkage across the engineering spectrum from research to manufacturing including the academic community, be valuable to both industrial and academic members, be developed and distributed though Societies, and not duplicate what is available elsewhere. THREE COMPONENTS OF ESAP Field Specific Knowledge Inventory (FSKI) An inventory of knowledge elements which are deemed important by successful incumbents developed by volunteers. The FSKI is tested for validity against opinions of other successful practitioners. The final results are published in Society publications. 71

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Self Assessment Test (TEST) and Answers A multiple choice test is prepared and validated against Me FSK! by stanch statistical methods. The TEST and Answers are released in Sometr publications for members use at their discretion. Guidance Information References are given for each part of the FSKI and related TEST answers. IMPLEMENTATION OF ESAP ESAP, a new service to members, will yield a higher level of technical expertise Trough input from accomplished professionals. ESAP will have a teamwork approach between Educational Activities and Societies with responsibilities and costs assumed by each. The participating Society will: . identify appropriate technical fields for ESAP development identify successful incumbents for FSKI seminar panel and reviewer groups identify TEST writers identify TEST takers for test vali~.aon support volunteers in their preparation of ESAP components dethrone useful lifetime of the FSK] and TEST publish FSKI, TEST, GUIDANCE INFORMATION in Society publications promote programs to members. The ESAP Committee Will: . . . . . provide staff support for Society ESAP Committees, guide FSKI, TEST process support meeting costs for FSKI and TEST seminars, arrange for statistical consultations, provide evaluation of program, promote to Societies and Sections, support ESAP Committee expenses, and represent EAB/General Funds investment. The ESAP project is primarily intended to facilitate die professional growdl and development of IEEE members; however, Were are potential organizational benefits to IEEE entities as well. The publication In society literature of Be FSKI, TEST and GUIDANCE INFORMATION should attract new members. Member feedback should be useful to Societies and Sections in program planning and assessing future needs. FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: IEEE EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 445 HOES LANE P. O. Box 1331 PISCATAWAY, NJ 08855-1331 (201) 562-5489 72 August 1989