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FIGURE 14.1 Combined land air and sea surface temperature relative to 1951 to 1980
average temperatures. Land air temperatures are typically measured 1 to 2 m above
ground level. Sea surface temperatures are typically measured in the layer from the ocean's surface
to several meters below. Smoothed curves are 11-year bimodal filters with the first and
last 5 years drawn by projecting the endpoints of the series.

SOURCES: Land air temperatures are updated from Jones et al.(1986a,b), and sea surface
temperatures are from Farmer et al. (1989).

behavior of many glaciers is likely to be sensitive to large-scale temperature variations, and many mountain glaciers have retreated since the end of the nineteenth century, some of them markedly, and (3) estimates of sea level variations over the past century indicate a general rise in sea level that is qualitatively consistent with the global increase of surface temperature.

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