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electricity use to GNP and shows that, like primary energy, electricity and economic production grew at the same rate during the 1960 to 1973 period. However, from 1973 to 1989 the growth in electricity did not keep pace with GNP. In 1989, GNP projected electricity use was 4300 BkWh, but only 2634 BkWh was actually consumed, representing a savings of 1666 BkWh, or 63 percent of the actual amount consumed. U.S. electricity revenues on sales of this 2634 BkWh were $175 billion in 1989, representing annual gross savings (i.e., avoided cost) of $100 billion and an electrical savings equivalent to the annual output of 320 base load power plants (Rosenfeld et al., 1991).

Because electricity has consistently accounted for two-thirds of all primary energy consumed in buildings and three-quarters of building energy


FIGURE 21.1 U.S. primary electricity and fuel use by economic sectors (1989).

SOURCES: Energy data—U.S. Department of Energy (1989c).Residential and commercial buildings data, estimated
based on shares of 1987 end use—U.S.Departmen of Energy (1989a). Price data—extrapolated from
U.S. Department of Energy (1989d).

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