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Page 542

TABLE 34.1 Illustrative Costs of Impacts and Adaptations in Current Dollars. An impact may help, as when a warmer climate reduces snow removal, or harm, as when a drier climate makes droughts more frequent. Adaptations may temper the harm or exploit the benefit of a new climate, as when a new and adapted wheat variety is created or forest planted. Some entries, like the U.S. gross national product (GNP) or the changing GNP per capita in the world, give a scale for judging the costs of impacts and adaptations. The numbers included for scale are in italics.

Class

Description

Dollars

Per

GNP

1985 total U.S.a

4,015 billion

 
 

1985 average U.S.a

17 thousand

capita

 

1985 global averageb

3 thousand

capita

 

2100 global average projectedb

7–36 thousand

capita

 

2100 average U.S.c

150 thousand

capita

Climate hazardsd

1980 U.S. heat wavee

20 billion

 
 

1988 U.S. droughtf

39 billion

 
 

1983 Utah heavy snow, floods, and landslideg

300 million

 
 

1985 Ohio and Pennsylvania tornadosh

500 million

 
 

1985 West Virginia floodsi

700 million

 
 

1989 Hurricane Hugoj

5 billion

 

Recent annual average U.S. lossesk

Hurricanesl

800–1,800 million

 
 

Floodsm

3 billion

 
 

Tornados and thunderstormsn

300–2,000 million

 
 

Winter storms and snowso

3 billion

 
 

Droughtp

800–1,000 million

 
 

1988 budget U.S. Weather Serviceq

323 million

 

(continued on page 543)



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