TABLE F.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Commuting Mode (tons/year)
parking spaces are eliminated, it is assumed that none of the 9 million displaced solo commuters continue to drive alone, and all are divided among the four remaining modes. Where parking spaces are priced to reduce the solo driver mode share to 50 percent, the shares for the remaining modes are proportional to those calculated for elimination of parking spaces. (To account for the remaining solo drivers, the other mode shares add up to 50 percent, rather than 100 percent, of all commuters.) The mode splits for displaced drivers are presented in Table F.2.
These mode splits are then applied to the 9 million solo drivers affected by the parking elimination component and the 27 million solo drivers affected by the parking management component. As shown in Table F.3, the combination of these two measures would produce annual emission reductions of 49 Mt of CO2.
A parking demand management program of the type described in this appendix would involve several types of costs and savings:
• employees' out-of-pocket costs or savings from the use of alternative transportation modes (a figure that includes fuel savings);
• employers' out-of-pocket operational costs or savings from parking management and provision of transportation alternatives;