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$7 per hour used by the Federal Highway Administration and transportation researchers to value time spent in traffic delays (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1989; Wegmann, 1989). (Only the upper-bound and lower-bound cases are presented in Table F.7; the lower bound assumes a 20 percent increase in highway speed and values delays at $5 per hour, while the upper bound assumes a 5 percent increase in highway speed and values delays at $10 per hour.)

Thus the total cost of this parking management program is as follows:

Out-of-pocket costs (employers and employees)

($0.01 billion)

Avoided parking space construction

($5.07 billion)

Productivity gains/losses

$0.33 billion to $7.67 billion

The total cost thus ranges from -$4.75 billion to $2.59 billion.


1. Throughout this report, tons (t) are metric; 1 Mt = 1 megaton = 1 million tons.


Davis, S. C., D. B. Shonka, G. J. Anderson-Batiste, and P. S. Hu. 1989. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 10. Report ORNL-6565 (Edition 10 of ORNL-5198). Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Institute of Transportation Engineers. 1989. A Toolbox for Alleviating Traffic Congestion. Washington. D.C.: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

Pisarski, A. 1987. Commuting in America: A National Report on Commuting Patterns and Trends. Westport, Connecticut: Eno Foundation for Transportation.

Pucher, J. 1988. Urban travel behavior as the outcome of public policy: The example of modal split in Western Europe and North America. The Journal of American Planners Association 54(4):509–520.

Toruemke, D., and D. Roseman. 1989. Vanpools: Pricing and market penetration. Transportation Research Record. 122:83–87.

U.S. Department of Transportation. 1989. National Transportation Statistics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation.

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1989. Traffic Congestion: Trends, Measures and Effects. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office.

Wegmann, F. 1989. Cost-effectiveness of private employer ridesharing programs: An employer's assessment. Transportation Researh Record 1212:88–100.

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