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and recycling. Equipment costs for recycling are $1500/t ($750/t for the total category) or $74 million per lifetime. The CFC cost savings of $2250/t will be equaled by the additional costs associated with increased minor annual equipment upgrades and increased manpower efforts for maintenance and recycling.

3. Cleaning and Blowing Agents, Aerosols, Fluorocarbon Substitutes: Added equipment costs are assumed to be negligible. The cost of substitutes is assumed to be 2 times the cost of CFCs for an annual increase of $167 million in operating costs.

4. Refrigerants, Fluorocarbon Substitutes—Chillers: Each of the present 100,000 chillers now being used is assumed to cost $25,000 additional for retrofit or replacement for a total cost of $2.50 billion per life. Fluorocarbon alternatives are assumed to cost an average of 2.5 times the present cost of CFCs.

5. Refrigerants, Fluorocarbon Substitutes—Mobile Air Conditioning: 100 million automobile air conditioners are assumed to be used at present. Each is expected to cost $50 additional when replaced for a total cost of $5.0 billion per life. Fluorocarbon alternatives are assumed to cost 3 times the cost of CFCs.

6. Refrigerants, Fluorocarbon Substitutes—Other: Other refrigerant applications (supermarkets, transport, etc.) are estimated to represent $15 billion worth of equipment. Replacement is expected to add 10 percent to this equipment cost. Fluorocarbon alternatives are expected to cost 3 times as much as the current price of CFCs.

7. Refrigerants, Fluorocarbon Substitutes, Appliance Insulation, Fluorocarbon Substitutes: Domestic refrigerators are expected to cost $60 additional on replacement for a total cost of $4.8 billion per life for the present 80 million refrigerators. The equipment cost has been allocated to the two uses based on total CFC use. The cost of fluorocarbon substitutes is 3 times and 2 times that of CFCs for refrigerant and insulation, respectively. The high cost of these reductions is due to the small amount of CFCs (approximately 1.0 kg) used in each refrigerator.

Worldwide CFC Policy Options

1. Aerosols, Not-in-Kind Substitutes: Equipment costs will increase by $100,000 for each aerosol manufacturing line in order to handle flammable CFC replacements. For 250 lines worldwide, the cost will total $25 million. At a present cost of $2.25/kg, CFCs are replaced with hydrocarbons at $0.65/kg. Savings are reduced 10 percent due to lack of availability of suitable hydrocarbons for some aerosol needs. For those applications, substitute costs are assumed equal to CFCs. Savings are also reduced by $100/t for increased costs of handling flammable substitutes.



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