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ocean current changes, 47, 507, 521, 589, 676, 686

plants, 37, 46, 503, 564, 577, 581, 676, 686

policy options, 30, 32, 34-35, 43-44, 69-70, 77-79, 550, 574, 674, 690

population migration, 628, 631-632

recommendations, 47, 77-79, 508-514, 690

research, 77-78, 80-81, 508-509, 690

sea level change, 537, 590-591, 611-613, 635

sensitivities, 44-47, 504-507, 541, 653, 675-676, 677

technology and, 37-38, 509, 514, 516, 530-534

temperature increases, 47, 503, 613-614, 653, 655

tourism and recreation, 45, 46, 505, 506, 607-608, 677, 686

uncertainty in, 43, 534-537, 541, 561

water resources, 40-41, 45, 78, 505, 506, 529, 537, 599, 634-635, 636, 677, 690

weather forecasting and, 80, 510, 534, 691

Aerosols

chlorofluorocarbon substitution, 392, 393, 792, 793, 794

cloud stimulation, 435-436

defined, 840

halocarbon propellants, 95

hydrocarbon propellants, 392, 393, 793

sulfate, 22, 59, 121, 451, 472

Africa

agriculture, 631, 798, 799

deforestation, 11

fertility rates, 417

population growth, 415

refugee migration, 622, 626, 628

water resources, 592

work animals, 395, 804

Agriculture. See also Livestock;Rice production

adaptability to climate change, 39, 45, 502, 505-506, 509, 516-517, 561-566, 634, 635, 677, 685

adaptation costs, 505, 506, 543, 550, 675, 678, 686

adaptation policies, 77-78, 509

biomass fuel sources, 348, 393, 805

capital stock replacement, 38, 531

carbon dioxide fertilization, 38-39, 78, 558, 566

carbon sequestration (sinks), 404, 798, 799

cloud seeding, 827

deforestation, 424

energy consumption, 281, 393, 805

greenhouse gas emission, 5, 376, 393-394, 799-800

greenhouse gas emission reduction, 58, 394, 395-398, 402-403, 471, 799, 800

impacts of climate change on, 44-45, 505, 522, 550, 556-562, 599-601, 602, 603, 604, 635

land, reforestation of, 441, 700

land use, 393, 404, 798-799

mechanization, 804-805

methane emission, 376, 393, 394-395, 799-800, 805

methane emission reduction, 394, 395-401, 404, 799, 800-805

mitigation costs, 60, 400, 401, 403-404, 484, 489, 684, 802-803, 806

mitigation intervention effects, 497

mitigation policy options, 58, 157, 396-397, 399-401, 403-405, 471, 480, 800-806

nitrous oxide emission, 8, 162, 376, 393, 398, 682

nitrous oxide emission reduction, 402-404, 805, 806

precipitation changes and, 34, 39, 44-45, 557, 654

radiative forcing, 161

research, 39, 77-78, 398-399, 404, 509, 557, 690, 799

soil moisture in, 136

technological improvement, 405, 509, 799

temperature changes and, 39, 558, 559, 561

water resources and, 503, 528, 559, 560, 562-563, 602, 654

Agung, Mount, volcanic eruption, 451

Air conditioning

adaptation technology, 37, 531



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